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Full text of "American journal of pharmacy"

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THE 



AMERICAN 

Journal of Pharmacy 



PUBLISHED BY AUTHORITY OF THE 



PHILADELPHIA CQLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 



EDITED BY 



HENRY 1 KRAEMER . 



PUBLISHING COMMITTEE FOR I902. 



HENRY N. RITTE NHOUSE, JOSEPH W. ENGLAND, 

SAMUEL P. SADTLER, RICHARD V. MATTISON, 

WALLACE PROCTER, JOSEPH P. REMINGTON, 

AND THE EDITOR. 



VOLUME 74 

PHILADELPHIA : 
1902. 



S1727 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



JANUARY, 1902. 



ON THE PHARMACOLOGICAL ASSAY OF DRUGS. 

By Arthur R. Cushny, 
Professor of Materia Medica in the University of Michigan. 

It has long been a commonplace observation that the galenical 
preparations of drugs vary in their therapeutic efficiency, and 
increasing familiarity with the chemistry of plants has shown this 
to be due to variations in the amount of the active principles. This 
variation is often of little importance from the point of view of the 
practitioner, while in other cases its gravity can scarcely be exag- 
gerated. The pharmacopoeias have accordingly attempted in recent 
years to exclude preparations which depart markedly from the 
standard strength ; for example the last edition of the United States 
Pharmacopoeia gave directions for the assay of opium, r ux vomica 
and cinchona and of some of their preparations. This is undoubt- 
edly a step in the right direction, for no one can fail to recognize 
the necessity of standardizing within reasonable limits the strength 
of a preparation so widely used as laudanum. The necessity for 
the assay of cinchona and mix vomica is not quite so apparent, it is 
true, for the galenical preparations of these drugs are comparatively 
seldom used except to elicit their local " bitter " action, the pure 
alkaloids being usually prescribed when the effects in the blood 
and central nervous system are desired ; that is, when there is even 
a remote probability of poisonous symptoms being induced. Still, 
any tendency toward a uniformity in strength is to be greeted as 
an important advance from the estimation of the strength by the 
amount of the crude drug employed. So far the chemical assays 
directed by the pharmacopoeia have embraced in the vegetable 

(1) 



2 Pharmacological Assay of Drugs. { A Tanua?yfi902 m * 

materia medica only these three drugs, all of which owe their 
activity to the presence of alkaloids in some quantity; and if the 
method be extended in the forthcoming edition, it is probable that 
only drugs containing alkaloids, such as the belladonna group, will 
be embraced by it. Those plants which owe their activity to the 
presence of glucosides will undoubtedly be omitted. Yet the prepa- 
rations of some of these are in constant use in therapeutics and 
have to be given in quantities which approach the therapeutic 
maximum and stand on the threshold ot the poisonous dose. I 
need refer only to digitalis, squill and strophanthus to illustrate 
this point. It is obviously of the first importance that the prepa- 
rations of these drugs should be of uniform strength, and yet it is 
notorious that they vary within wide limits. For example, Jacquet 
found the strength of some tinctures of digitalis four times that of 
another, prepared by a different manufacturer, although all were 
presumably formed according to the same directions. I have not 
observed such marked divergence in strength, but have found a 
difference of 50 per cent, in different tinctures. I think there can 
be no doubt that, if a patient treated with efficient doses of the 
weakest ot Jacquet's tinctures were subsequently treated with the 
same amount of the strongest (as might very well happen), the 
effects would almost certainly be alarming and might be disastrous. 
One result of this variation in the strength of the preparations of 
these drugs has been the use of the so called principles, such as the 
various digitalins and strophanthins ; I have examined a large 
number of these and have found them vary even more than the 
galenical preparations. Some of them, notably the more attractive 
crystalline forms, were entirely inert, while others were extremely 
poisonous. In short, they require to be standardized as much as 
the galenical preparations. But if there can be no question as to 
the desirability of assaying the glucosidal preparations, there is 
unfortunately no less doubt of its unpracticability by ordinary 
chemical methods. If proof of this were lacking, it has been sup- 
plied by the painstaking investigations on which Kiliani has been 
engaged for so many years. A continuous series of publications 
has issued from his laboratory since 1892, yet only in 1899 he 
recognized a glucoside already described by Schmiedeberg, but 
overlooked by Kiliani in all his previous work. It is obviously 
impossible to assay the tincture of digitalis by isolating each gluco- 



A ja^aryfim" 1 } Pharmacological Assay of Drugs. 3. 

side and estimating its amount ; and the total amount of glucosides 
is of no value as an indication of its strength, for they vary in 
activity from the practically innocuous digitonin to the very poison- 
ous digitoxin. An attempt has been made to assay the drug by 
the content of digitoxin, but apart from the difficulty of the pro- 
cess, there are other glucosides present which are equally important 
from the practitioner's standpoint, and these may vary equally with 
digitoxin. The chemical assay of digitalis may therefore be dis- 
missed as impracticable at present, and in all probability for many 
years to come. 

A new method of assay has, however, been introduced in the 
last few years and has been adapted to practical pharmacy in this 
country. 1 I refer to the pharmacological assay or the estimation of 
the therapeutic activity of a drug by its effects on the lower animals, 
A certain prejudice, which seems to exist in some minds against this 
method, may perhaps be ascribed to the innate conservatism of the 
medical and pharmaceutical professions, and to the belief that 
results on animals cannot be used as a basis for application in 
therapeutics. As to the latter point it need only be mentioned that 
almost all the advance of recent years in medicine is based upon 
experiments made on our humbler relatives, and that by therapeutic 
assay the absolute dose is not estimated from animals to man but 
merely the relative activity. To illustrate this by an example :: 
if a tincture (A) of digitalis is found to induce symptoms in a dog 
of 30 pounds in the dose of 1 c.c, we cannot infer that 5 c.c. will; 
be equally effective in a man of 150 pounds. But if we find that 
the dose in man is 2 c.c. by actual clinical experience and now 
investigate a second tincture (B) on the dog and find that 2 c.c. are 
required to induce the same symptoms as 1 c.c of A, we cao 
assume with some probability that the therapeutic dose of B in 
man will be 4 c.c. Without the preliminary examination on the 
dog the strength of the remedy could be ascertained only by 
clinical examinations on patients, and this involves much time and 
in some cases would not be devoid of danger. Before examining the 
limitations of this new method of assay it may be necessary to 
examine its relation to the chemical method. And when the latter 



1 It is of interest to find Professor Gottlieb, of Heidelberg, advocating the 
pharmacological assay of digitalis at the meeting of the Congress of Physi- 
cians at Wiesbaden in April, 1901. 



4 Pharmacological Assay of Drugs. { A "January f 1902 m " 

is practicable, I think it will be used in preference to the pharma- 
cological method, not I believe because it is more reliable or in most 
cases more accurate, but as on the whole giving more assurance to 
the operator. There is a sense of finality in weighing an alkaloid 
obtained after long and complicated methods of isolation which 
may be absent from the breast of the experimental pharmacologist 
on viewing the systolic standstill of the frog's heart. The newer 
method is not a rival of the older but a substitute for it in cases 
where it cannot be applied. From a theoretical standpoint of 
course the symptoms elicited in animals is merely an " indicator 
reaction " of an exceedingly complicated kind but based on chemi- 
cal processes just as the indicator reactions in titration. For 
example, the arrest of the frog's heart under digitalis is evidence of 
the completion of a chemical reaction between the heart muscle 
and the glucosides just as the alteration in the color of litmus is the 
indication of a chemical change in titrating an acid. And this 
arrest does not indicate the presence of any one glucoside but the 
total strength of the glucosides with this cardiac action, just as the 
litmus test indicates the total acid in a mixture of several acids. 

The questions which arise at once are how sensitive is the test 
and how constant does it remain ? If the frog's heart reacts only 
to large quantities of digitalis glucosides, the test is obviously of 
little value ; and on the other hand, if the frog requires twice as 
much digitalis at one time as at another, the method is equally 
valueless. These questions may best be answered by the narration 
of a test which I carried out on a series of frogs with a fluid extract 
of digitalis. I diluted it fifty times and selected eight frogs, four of 
which received I c.c. of the diluted extract, the other four receiving 
5 c.c. The first four all gave the characteristic reaction, while 
the second set failed to do so, although they showed symptoms. 
The quantity required for the test reaction thus lay between 1 c.c. 
and 0-5 c.c. of the diluted extract, that is between 0-02 and 01 of 
the original. Four fresh frogs then received 075 c.c. of the diluted 
fluid and three of them reacted, one of them failing to do so though 
severely poisoned. Another set which received o-6 c.c. all re- 
covered. Finally two frogs poisoned with 07 c.c. reacted typically. 
The limits were thus between 07 and 0-6 c.c. of the diluted extract, 
i. e. y 0-014 and 0-012 c.c. of the original, the test indicating a differ 
ence of 0-002 c.c. The dose of" this preparation ordinarily employed 



A ";nu°aV r y, P i5o2 rm -} Pharmacological Assay of Drugs. 5 

is 0-05 — 01 c.c. ; the reaction would therefore indicate any differ- 
ence amounting to 4 per cent, of the minimal dose, or 2 per cent, of 
the maximal, which is sufficiently accurate for all practical purposes, 
An assay made a month later by my assistant, who was in ignorance 
of my results, indicated 0-013 c.c. as the smallest quantity of the 
original extract which gave the reaction. 

One of the chief difficulties in this method of assay is the sensi- 
tiveness of the reagent — the animal — to external conditions. This 
is especially true in the case of frogs, which vary considerably at 
different seasons in their reactions unless special precautions be 
taken. My experience has been, however, that if enough care be 
taken in the selection of the animals, the results are sufficiently 
constant. Of course, the size of the animal must be as close to the 
standard as possible ; all abnormal conditions, such as occur in the 
spawning season, must lead to the elimination of individual speci- 
mens, and there are many practical details which can be learned 
only by actual experience. 

When it is possible, it is desirable to assay a specimen in several 
species of animals in order to eliminate as far as possible such vari- 
ations ; for example, digitalis and its allies may be assayed on the 
frog, and contral experiments may then be performed on the rabbit 
or some other mammal. In many cases, however, the reaction is 
much more sharply defined in one species than in others ; thus 
ergot can be standardized practically only on fowls, and cannabis 
indica is best assayed in dogs in my experience. The* actual mode 
of procedure in making a pharmacological assay can be taught only 
practically, and a correct use of the method requires a fair knowl- 
edge of physiology and experimental pharmacology. The drugs 
which I have tested with this method are those comprised in the 
digitalis series which are in common use (digitalis, squill and stro- 
phantus), cannabis indica and ergot. The variations in the strength 
of the preparations of the digitalis series were considerable, amount- 
ing to 50 per cent., but were positively trifling compared with those 
exhibited by the fluid extracts of cannabis indica and of ergot. I 
have repeatedly found that those preparations bearing the labels of 
reputable houses were practically inert in quantities considerably 
larger than those advised in therapeutics. The method is of course 
available for other preparations whether they contain alkaloids 
(gelsemium) or such indifferent substances as are found in male 



6 Pharmacological Assay of Drugs. { A januaryfim 03 ' 

fern. Some experiments made to determine the strength of pur- 
gatives^gave no satisfactory results, the minimal dose required to 
cause evacuation of the bowels varying very considerably in the 
same animal and with the same preparation. 

My conclusions in regard to the pharmacological assay are that it 
is a useful*substitute for the chemical assay in the case of many 
remedies in which the latter is not applicable, and that it permits 
of a standard being formed for these preparations which is suffi- 
ciently constant and sufficiently exact for therapeutic purposes. It 
is desirable that such an assay should be made in preparations 
which fail to] effect the desired therapeutic result unless given in 
quantities which act on important organs, and which are liable to 
give rise to poisoning if unusually powerful preparations are un- 
knowingly dispensed. 

In conclusion it may be mentioned that the pharmacopoeias 
-already give the authority of their imprint to the use of pharmaco- 
logical qualitative tests. For in the British pharmacopoeia one of 
the tests of atropin suggested is the dilation of the pupil induced 
by its application, and although no such test is contained in the 
U.S. P., yet the descriptions of drugs as bitter or sweet in taste 
involve a pharmacological experiment being performed upon the 
pharmacist himself. It seems more difficult to take the next step — 
the quantitative assay — in the case of the older and more estab- 
lished remedies than in that of newer discoveries, for while few of 
the galenical preparations on the market are thus assayed at present, 
no one would care to handle an antidiphtheritic serum whose 
strength had not been determined in this way. The methods and 
difficulties are the same in each, or rather, the assay of the galenical 
preparations may be performed with less likelihood of error and 
with much greater precision. It may be objected that animal ex- 
periment is absolutely necessary in case of the serum, for unless this 
is done there is no method of showing that an utterly worthless 
preparation of normal serum has not been substituted. But the 
same is true in the case of galenical preparations ; for there is no 
question that much of the ordinary fluid extract of ergot is utterly 
worthless and inert, and this can be ascertained only by pharmaco- 
logical assay at present. If animal assay is necessary in the case of 
serum it is equally essential in the case of ergot and other vegetable 
drugs. The idea of animal experiments in assay is much less foreign 



^^uaofis™'} $ tate Pharmaceutical Associations. 7 

to the medical than to the pharmaceutical profession, for the whole 
advance in medicine in modern times stands on this basis, and the 
use of serum has familiarized every one with the results of the 
method. It is to be regretted, in the opinion of the writer, that 
the pharmacopceial convention did not consider the question of 
pharmacological tests more fully, for in excluding them from the next 
edition it not only rejected the only method of assay in many cases, 
but also excluded antidiphtheritic serum, which is certainly the most 
important acquisition to therapeutics in the last quarter of a century. 
Serumtherapy will scarcely be retarded, but the authority of the 
pharmacopoeia, which continues to include such obsolete remedies 
as poison ivy and fails to take cognizance of this most important 
advance in medicine, can scarcely be augmented by the decision. 
May not such ultra-conservatism be the explanation of the apathy 
manifested by the medical profession toward the official record of 
the labors of the convention and its committees ? 



THE ORIGIN, HISTORY AND INFLUENCE OF STATE 
PHARMACEUTICAL ASSOCIATIONS. 
By Joseph Iy. Lemberger, Ph.M. 

In presenting this paper on the " Origin, History and Influence 
of State Pharmaceutical Associations," I must apologize for appear- 
ing before you and asking of you to listen to what may be offered, 
for the reason that whatever the writer may be able to perform in 
his daily routine of busy life, he makes no pretension as an orator 
or essayist, and it is not his ambition either to so pretend ; the 
worthy and honored secretary of these pharmaceutical gatherings 
does not agree with me on this question. Submitting therefore as 
gracefully as possible to the powers that be, we proceed to the con- 
sideration of the duty assigned. 

State Pharmaceutical Associations have a common origin, the 
primal motive or aim being to " unite the educated and reputable 
of their profession, as pharmacists and druggists, for their mutual 
advancement professionally and commercially." 

The American Pharmaceutical Association, for many years prior 
to the organization of the first State association had, among other 
objects, a similar aim, and doubtless all State associations caught 
inspiration for organization from this parent body which could not 



8 State Pharmaceutical Associations. {^l^/X™' 

adapt its laws to accommodate such wants as the several States 
might require, for there is such an element as State rights which 
national laws could hardly be expected to protect, but which the 
States severally can rightfully hope for as within their own terri- 
torial domain. It is a fact that however valuable a membership in 
the American Association is to the individual, it is also a fact that 
it is not within the easy province of every pharmacist to attach 
himself or herself to this national body. Reasons for this conclu- 
sion could be readily named. To satisfy their national besetting 
proclivity for organization when once the thought took on a definite 
purpose, we find one after another of the States assumed for them- 
selves this right and privilege until nearly every Stateun the Union 
has its pharmaceutical association, and to the extent that these 
organizations keep in mind their province they are prosperous and 
the mutual benefit, embodied in organization for a common purpose, 
is advanced. 

Good or better pharmacy, high emulation for efficiency of the 
individual pharmacist, sound legislation for the profession, economic 
and useful safeguards for matters of trade interests, honorable and 
fair relations among the craft, and a higher value upon the indi- 
vidual responsibility among that branch of toiling servants for the 
public, are all among the motives that have led up to the origin of 
this important organization. Many of the suggestions thus out- 
lined will help us more carefully to enter into the details of the 
history and influence made and exerted by this federation of the 
profession, and the fact that all members in the organization may 
not be strictly skilled pharmacists does not detract in the slightest 
from such organization under the general name pharmaceutical, 
as among the most valued allies are found the simple dealer 
in drugs or their able representatives visiting the trade looking 
after the commercial side, and others standing for allied interests at 
this time so numerous and consequent upon the ever-changing con- 
ditions in a rapidly expanding commercial country such as we have 
become. 

The history of these associations is as varied as history usually is. 
Some devote much of their time to the purely commercial side, 
others largely to the social and others again to the scientific, but 
we believe the level of activity will ere long be reached when the 
educational or scientific development will be the possible standard, 



A j;mm?y, P i902 m '} State Pharmaceutical Associations. 9 

with care of course for trade interests and the social side thrown in, 
as is justly proper for the recreation that a relaxing from business 
cares so freely welcomes. There is no doubt that organization has 
tended to unite pharmacists of the several States into closer fellow- 
ship, and we find some of the most intelligent, influential and dis- 
tinguished members of the profession in all the States actively 
identified, whose influence has largely stimulated earnest study and 
research, resulting in numerous contributions of valuable informa- 
tion that will take permanent place in pharmaceutical literature, and 
the records of some of the annual deliberations are akin to veritable 
pharmacopoeias of information. 

State associations have by their delegates added to the pharma- 
copoeia revision commissions, they have sent strong appeals to 
National and State Legislatures, they have framed and caused to be 
enacted pharmacy laws ; in fact, such associations are known to con- 
stitute a body, when thoroughly united, making a potent factor in 
the advancement of the very best interests for our common good, 
and can be made a still more formidable influence if wisely 
managed. 

We may be pardoned if in the concluding section of this paper— 
" The Influence of State Associations" — we allow ourselves to asso- 
ciate as our ideal the organization with which some of the audience 
stand closely connected ; the application can well be made general ; 
other State organizations may be as efficient — we doubt whether in 
personnel or influence they are superior. Early in its history the 
ambition was to be in touch with all phases of the druggist's occu- 
pation, and at one of the earliest meetings it contemplated the for- 
mation of a committee on trade interests. The thought was also 
promulgated that the State Association in its corporate capacity 
mi^ht take a part in the American Pharmaceutical affairs and, as a 
natural consequence, it and some, if not all our sister organizations, 
always send delegates to the national bodies. Some of them, and 
notably the Pennsylvania, are in friendly communication with the 
Medical Society of the State. The delegates are always welcomed 
and influences exerted that bring those kindred bodies into closer 
union, a condition of affairs as we all remember which did not 
exist to the same extent until recent years. How can we estimate 
the far-reaching work of such men as Squibb, Rice, Maisch, Trimble 
and others that could be named, whose memory we delight to 



IO State Pharmaceutical Associations. { A januaryfii™' 

honor ; as their volunteer papers were presented to the various 
bodies in the earlier history, how eagerly we welcomed such well- 
prepared contributions, and how we remember the pleasure and 
satisfaction we enjoyed listening to them, or at leisure reading their 
papers in the annual reports. For some of the State associations 
we can safely say that their successful organization and existence 
is due to the care bestowed upon this educational feature. We 
know that no better prepared scientific papers are presented any 
where than appear in some of the reports of State associations. It 
has also been observed that many young graduates of the colleges 
of pharmacy are attracted and become useful and influential mem- 
bers. We can note with satisfaction how helpful the State associa- 
tions were in formulating and extending a knowledge of the National 
Formulary — it was indeed mainly through the State Association 
that the medical fraternity were made iamiliar with this departure, 
and some of us remember what faithful service was rendered to the 
National Formulary Commission. 

Can we doubt the usefulness of a free circulation of knowledge 
as found in many of the reports of the annual meetings ? Our 
mind runs to one of the meetings when elaborate papers embodied 
laboratory notes by several of the members; a valuable paper 
on " Commercial Training Courses in Colleges of Pharmacy," by 
one of the professors. On another occasion we find 6 J pages devoted 
to the report of a Committee on Botany of said State association. 

The annual addresses of the presiding officers are usually pre- 
pared with scrupulous care, and very few there are which are not 
most valuable reviews of the past, with up to-date observations and 
suggestions that do not only entertain but contribute valued infor- 
mation, and not infrequently contain important seed-thoughts for 
future research. 

To one of the State associations is attributed " the great and 
good work of uniting the pharmacists when all was chaos and con- 
fusion " — when each looked upon the other with a feeling anything 
but gracious, and by the bond created the pharmacists were organ- 
ized, the Illinois Pharmacy law was passed, and they recognized the 
fact that pharmacy is not a mere trade but an honorable profession 
as well. 

Among the happiest influences exerted is the cultivation of inter- 
state fellowship ; greetings are borne from one to the other by dele- 



A janwy, P i902 m "} State Pharmaceutical Associations. II 

gates, and sometimes points near the boundary line can be found 
where meetings are held simultaneously and very pleasant joint ses- 
sions of the neighboring States have been held. We remember a 
very pleasant occasion of the kind held by the Pennsylvania and 
Maryland Associations, with the prospect of a similar meeting in 
the near future, and the writer has no doubt but that soon other 
States will follow. Such meetings, when judiciously managed, can 
be made influential means for the general welfare. 

The skilled pharmacist does not require the influence of the State 
Pharmaceutical Association to encourage either his practical work 
or desire for knowledge, as this class finds an ample field in the shop 
laboratory. The association is, however, honored by their mem- 
bership, and when thus affiliated the contributions, either by volun- 
teer papers or speeches, are sometimes far-reaching. 

Some persons hold the opinion that the influence of State Asso- 
ciations is practically realized in the commercial feature. As an 
illustration, take any of the numerous plans proposed for 6 correct- 
ing some of the latter-day perplexing evils that beset the financial 
side of the drug business ; they are generally well discussed and 
the result of such consideration usually carries weight to the 
national bodies that may have final disposition. 

There may be danger in making State associations too scientific, 
of carrying too much commercialism, or of having too much of the 
social frolic feature; but when we recall that side by side there is a 
commingling of the grave college professor, the chemist, pharma- 
cist, jobbing druggist or his jolly salesman, the soda-water appara- 
tus, suppository machine or other mechanical appliance representa- 
tive, all meeting together for the best or most fruitful good time, 
really having a communion of interests, an equilibrium can be had, 
and there may not be any necessity for many safeguards. 

Let me say in conclusion, that what has been presented in this 
paper, whilst strictly hormonizing with fact, the State Pharmaceu- 
tical Association is nevertheless environed with certain conditions 
upon which depends the possibility of becoming permanently use- 
ful. Their ideal must be kept up to the highest possible standard. 
Excellent pharmacy and commercial integrity must be the leading 
aim, so that the unaffiliated of the craft may be attracted, the 
broken ranks filled, and the hitherto excellent work of State asso- 
ciations perpetuated. 



1 2 A dulteration of Drugs. { ^£™'/^ m • 

THE ADULTERATION OF DRUGS. 
By Lyman F. Kebi,er. 
Many of the reports bearing upon the adulteration of food-pro- 
ducts and medicinal preparations, which come to hand from time to 
time, are of such a character, that at the time of reading we are 
almost overawed by the number of sophisticated or adulterated 
articles reported. Tables are presented which would indicate that 
from 50 to 75 per cent, of the articles examined are adulterated or 
spurious. If this is really a correct representation of the facts as 
they exist we would be compelled to admit that this country must 
be a veritable happy hunting ground for the manipulator. But 
upon closer examination it will be found that these reports are " re- 
ports of adulterations " in the full sense of the word, and that, when 
a man starts out to find adulterations, he is usually successful. 
Taking the whole field into consideration, the author does not be- 
lieve that these reports present the actual existing condition of 
affairs. 

In the course of some of the writer's notes to the Pharmaceutical 
Era, it was stated, in substance, that while the number of adulterated 
articles reported is found to be comparatively lar^e, the proportion 
of intentional adulterations actually met with do not exceed 5 per 
cent. Indeed, extended experience in examining the vast number 
of articles that come up for investigation in the actual course of 
business shows that the adulterations practiced are actually very 
much less than this. Such a statement may seem somewhat radical, 
but it is based upon the results obtained in the chemical laboratory 
of Smith, Kline & French Co., wholesale druggists, manufacturing 
chemists and pharmacists, Philadelphia, Pa., which firm submits to 
a strict examination nearly all the products they handle. 

The subject of the adulteration of foods and drugs is a well-worn 
theme. Many able reports have been presented time and again, 
and the writer believes that such reports have had much to do by 
way of educating both the druggist and the public, and that adul- 
teration has become minimized more largely as the result of these 
educational efforts than through legislation. The object of this 
report is precisely along the former line. It is intended to be 
educational. 

The articles referred to are shown in the exhibit given in connec- 
tion with this meeting. Specimens are here for the careful exami- 



Am. Jour. Pharin.) 
January, 1902. J 



Adulteration of Drugs. 



i-3 



nation of all the members, and full information concerning them will 
be cheerfully given. It is hoped that all who have the opportunity 
of doing so will examine them, and that they will in this way, and 
through what may be said herewith, be better equipped to detect 
adulteration of articles that may come to them in the regular course 
of business. 

The adulterations herewith described are typical in character of 
what may be expected to be met with, and more than that it is not 
deemed necessary to give. 

For convenience of reference, the articles described are divided 
into chemicals, oils, simple drugs and allied products. 

CHEMICALS. 

The first subject to be considered is chemicals. 

Ammonium acetate is quite a difficult chemical to make, espe- 
cially in warm weather, being very prone to liquefy and even to 
dissociate. This probably accounts tor the fact that an article is 
frequently supplied which is freely soluble in water and alcohol, 
having a mousy odor, a melting point of 82 C. and a boiling point 
of 222° C. These are the physical properties of acetamide, and 
acetamide it was. It seems to be the custom of certain manufac- 
turers to deliver this article when ammonium acetate is asked for. 
No manufacturer is justified at any time, either for convenience or 
otherwise, to deliver one article for another, even though they re- 
semble each other very closely, both chemically and physically. 
But in view of the fact that the physiological uses of ammonium 
acetate are well known, and those of acetamide are as yet obscure 
such a substitution must be considered high-handed. 

Calcium Phosphate, Precipitated. — An article of fine physical ap- 
pearance proved upon examination to contain 30 per cent, of cal- 
cium carbonate. The presence of this impurity is not incidental to 
the manufacture of calcium phosphate, as some one has intimated. 
Any one using such a phosphate of calcium, for the purpose of 
diluting powdered opium in manufacturing laudanum, would have 
no end of trouble before the product is finished. 

" Chromic Acid!' — Quite a number of grades of " chromic acid " 
are regularly supplied by manufacturers, and unless great care is 
exercised the purchaser will find himself in possession of an article 
containing about 40 per cent, of chromic acid and 60 per cent, of 



14 



Adulteration of Drugs. 



f Am. Jonr. Pharm. 
\ January. Ib02. 



sodium acid sulphate. This product is manufactured by mixing the 
molecular portions of sodium bichromate, dissolved in a suitable 
quantity of water, with sulphuric acid, according to the following 
equation : 

Na 2 Cr 2 7 2H 2 + 2H 2 S0 4 = 2CrO s + 2NaHS0 4 + 3H 2 

The mixture is then simply dried and the product resulting 
placed on the market as chromic acid. There is considerable varia- 
tion in the physical appearance in the best grades of chromic acid, 
and it is easy to be deceived. The only safe plan is to estimate the 
actual content of chromic acid. A short, rapid method has been 
worked out by the writer, and will be found in the Am. Jour. Pharm., 
1 90 i, page 395. The presence of sodium is readily established by 
the sodium-flame test, and the sulphate by means of barium 
chloride. 

Soluble Blue. — Ultramarine blue has been supplied when soluble 
blue was called for, and a great contention was raised when an 
unfavorable report was submitted. This product is insoluble in 
water, but care must be taken not to be deceived, inasmuch as the 
ultramarine blue is a very fine powder and remains suspended in 
the water for some time. It is best to make up the solution or mix- 
ture and let it stand for twenty-four hours, and if the product is 
ultramarine, the blue will subside and leave the upper aqueous layer 
perfectly colorless, while a soluble blue under the same conditions 
will leave a permanent blue solution. 

Podophyllin, Powdered. — When a request was made that a sample 
of this material be submitted, it was found upon examination to 
consist of powdered mandrake root. This fraud is easily established 
by its insolubility in alcohol and microscopic appearance. 

Tannic Acid, Commercial — For this article, powdered Chinese nut- 
galls have been supplied. Any one familiar with the odor of these 
galls can readily detect this substitution. Commercial tannic acid, 
furthermore, is nearly soluble in water; whereas, powdered Chinese 
nutgalls leave considerable insoluble matter. The microscope can 
be used to advantage with such a product. 

Coumarin. — A sample of this article was submitted for examina- 
tion and proved to be of very good quality. Accordingly, a good- 
sized order was placed, and when the goods arrived another exam- 
ination showed the material to possess a melting point from S4}^° 



^SS^SST'} Adulteration of Drugs. 15 

C. to 57 C, while the melting point of pure coumarin is 67 C. 
On heating with a 5 per cent, solution of potassium hydrate at a 
temperature of about 6o° C. for an hour the odor of aniline was 
developed and the addition of a solution of calcium hypochlorite to 
this mixture gave the blue color reaction characteristic of aniline. 
On applying Hoffmann's reaction for primary amines the character- 
istic and disagreeable odor of phenylcarbylamine was obtained, in- 
dicating the presence of a primary amine. The percentage of nitro- 
gen was estimated, and on calculating the nitrogen back as acetanilid 
it was found to amount to 26 per cent. 

Vanillin. — With this article the same difficulty was experienced, as 
mentioned above, in connection with coumarin ; namely, the sample 
submitted was of excellent quality, while the consignment of goods 
ordered from this sample proved to be a substitution. This con- 
tract involved several thousand dollars, and at first considerable 
difficulty was anticipated in getting rid of this substance, which 
proved upon examination to consist of broken crystals of acetyl iso- 
eugenol, the direct antecedent of vanillin in the manufacture of the 
synthetic product. The manufacturer, however, took back the 
goods without a murmur and paid all expenses involved, including 
the cost of analysis. The interesting point in this connection is, that 
the melting point of acetyl iso-eugenol is 78 C., while pure vanillin 
melts at from 8o° to 82 C. From this it can be readily seen that, 
had only a superficial examination been made of the goods con- 
signed, they would readily have passed as vanillin, inasmuch as the 
acetyl iso-eugenol had been mixed with a certain proportion of 
vanillin to give it a distinct vanillin odor. The following methods 
were employed to establish this impurity : microscopically the crys- 
tals were abnormal; with concentrated sulphuric acid a beautiful 
red color was developed, whereas vanillin gives a lemon-yellow with 
this reagent; by estimating the per cent, of vanillin; according to 
the method of Prescott and Hess ; modified by the writer and found 
in the American Druggist, March 10, 1899. The solubility was 
also abnormal, and the presence of acetic acid was established by 
the conventional methods. 

Another sample of vanillin submitted contained 90 per cent, of 
specially prepared benzoic acid and 10 per cent, of vanillin. This 
fraudulent product was easily detected by its odor, solubilities and 
melting point. Acetanilid is frequently met with as an adulterant of 



i6 



Adulteration of Drugs. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ January, 1902. 



vanillin to the extent of 50 per cent., and is usually identified by 
the same test as those described above, under coumarin, for detect- 
ing this substance. 

Oil of Bergamot. — On examining a large consignment of this oil, 
conditionally purchased, it was found to contain an abnormally 
high, -j- 28 , optical rotation, in a 100 m.m. tube. The genuine oil is 
recorded as never having a higher rotation than -f- 20°. In every 
other respect the oil tested up well, except that the per cent, of 
linalyl acetate was somewhat low, namely, 28 per cent. A number 
of adulterants might be added to bring about this abnormality, such 
as oils of lemon, orange and turpentine; but after taking everything 
into consideration, the writer came to the conclusion that oil of 
lemon to the extent of about 20 per cent, had probably been added- 

Oil of Cassia. — It seems to be a periodical disease with the China, 
men to adulterate this oil with kerosene, and it is not uncommon to 
find it adulterated to the extent of 20 per cent. The manipulator, 
unfortunately, however, sometimes makes the mistake of adding 
more kerosene oil than the oil of cassia will readily mix with ; con- 
sequently, it has been the writer's misfortune to find oil of cassia to 
contain a considerable quantity of kerosene floating on top of the 
cassia oil in an original package. This adulteration has not been 
met with within the past year, and it is believed that this is chiefly 
due to the fact that oil of cassia is now largely bought and sold on 
the basis of percentage-content of cinnamic aldehyde. It is hoped 
that this practice will be extended more and more in the trade for 
the purpose of gradually rooting out the adulterations of oils. It 
may not be possible to eliminate adulterations entirely by such a 
procedure, but it is certain that it will minimize it, and that is the 
best we can probably hope to do in a great many cases at present. 

Oil of Copaiba. — It is not a new thing to tell the members of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association that balsam copaiba is adul- 
terated with and even substituted entirely by gurjun balsam, but it 
is doubtful if many of them have met with an oil adulterated with 
the corresponding oil of gurjun balsam. There are a number of 
tests given for detecting the presence of this adulterant, and some of 
them are of service ; but the writer, so far as his experience goes 
has the utmost confidence only in the following : Into the bottom 
of a test-tube place 1 c.c. of glacial acetic acid (99 5 per cent.), add 
four drops of pure concentrated nitric acid and mix well, then add 



Am. Jour. Pharm.\ 
January, 1902. / 



Adulteration of Drugs. 



17 



four drops of the oil to this mixture, allowing the oil to float on 
top; if oil of gurjun balsam is present, a reddish or purplish zone 
will be developed between the layer of oil and the acid mixture in a 
few minutes. No reaction occurs if the oil is pure. 

Oil of Peppermint is probably one of the most liberally adulterated 
oils that is met with, and especially is this true in mixing a high- 
grade oil with an oil of poor quality. Several years ago an oil was 
met with that showed upon examination to contain at least 25 per 
cent, of added oil of turpentine. It must be remembered that oil 
of peppermint is liable to contain a small percentage of terpenes, 
but no such quantity is admissible, and it also should be said, is quite 
unnatural. Notwithstanding the fact that this oil contains such a 
considerable amount of added turpentine, the specific gravity did 
not fall materially below the recognized lower limit. On reporting 
this condition of affairs to the vendor he immediately requested the 
oil to be returned, and he gladly paid all cartage, freight, etc., in 
addition to £25 for analysis, without making a protest. This in 
itself was ample evidence that the article was known to be of a 
spurious character. 

The presence of the turpentine was established by a fractional 
distillation : the first fraction began to come over at 150 C, and 40 
per cent, distilled before the temperature reached 180 C. The 
specific gravity of this fraction corresponded to that of turpentine, 
and other physical and chemical properties unmistakably proved 
this fraction to be turpentine. By allowing 15 per cent, for the 
possible presence of a natural terpene having a boiling point lying 
between the above limits, which is quite improbable, we still have 
left 25 per cent, of added turpentine. Genuine oil of peppermint 
contains very little material having a boiling point below 200° C. 
The per cent, of menthol, both combined and free, was also esti- 
mated and found to be very low. 

It is hoped that the present Committee on Revision will see its 
way clear to introduce a lower limit of boiling point and a method 
for estimating menthol. For the benefit of some, the following 
references to the methods for menthol determinations are given : 
Schimmel's " Semi-annual Report," October, 1894, page 438 ; "The 
Volatile Oils," by E. Gildemeister and Fr. Hoffmann, translated by 
E. Kremers, page 651, and the Am. Jour. Pharm., 1897, page 189. 

Oil of Thyme ( White). — It is well known that white oil of thyme 



i8 



Adulteration of Drugs. 



f Am. Jour. Phartu. 
1 January, 1902. 



contains very little genuine oil of thyme, but consists for the greater 
part of oil of turpentine, distilled over some herbs of thyme. For 
this the consumer is in a measure responsible, in that he demands a 
colorless article, which the producer is unable to supply in pure 
quality, because pure oil of thyme will always be more or less dark- 
ened in process of time. It is sometimes stated that pure oil of 
thyme is not available. This is a mistake. All samples, however, 
should be carefully tested as to the specific gravity and the percent- 
age-content of phenol bodies. 

Oil of Walnuts. — Some time ago, while in quest of pure oil of 
walnuts, several parties purporting to deal in this commodity were 
requested to send samples and prices for the same. One of the 
samples was marked (concentrated, white), had a sweetish taste, and 
was soluble in water. This proved, upon further examination, to be 
nothing but diluted glycerin, flavored with a menthol-like body. 
Another sample proved to consist of about one volume of oil of 
mirbane and four volumes of ethyl alcohol. The nature of this 
mixture was easily revealed by fractionation: three-fourths came over 
near 8o° C, then the temperature rose rapidly to 205 ° C, which is 
the boiling point of oil of mirbane, and then the temperature 
remained stationary until distillation ceased. When it is remem- 
bered that oil of walnuts is used chiefly by artists in painting, be- 
cause it dries with a better film than even linseed oil, the reprehen- 
sibleness of such an action can very readily be seen. 

Oil of Wine {Heavy and Light). — Up to the present time we are 
in doubt as to the probability of the composition of heavy and light 
oils of wine. The various books describe them as consisting of 
such and such constituents, but no two of them agree on the same. 
Merck's Index, 1896, describes them quite specifically as to boiling 
points and to specific gravities. Every effort has been made 
through all available sources to obtain what might be considered a 
good quality of these two oils, and invariably the samples would 
turn out about the same. One light oil of wine submitted proved 
to be fusel oil. The lighter oil usually had a lower boiling point 
and a lower specific gravity than the heavy oil of wine, but farther 
than this it was impossible to establish a difference, although there 
must have been some. The conclusion ultimately arrived at is, that 
the light and heavy oils of wine are undoubtedly obtained in dis- 
tilling the residue left in the manufacture of ether, the lighter oil 



Am. Jour. Pharm. » 
January, 1902 / 



Adulteration of Drugs. 



19 



being the first portion of the distillate, while the heavier oil is an 
intermediate or higher boiling-point product. It would seem that 
this theme could be taken up to advantage by some one with 
ample time, whose careful researches might be of extreme value. 
The present Pharmacopoeia does not prescribe any requirements of 
any value for ethereal oil, excepting specific gravity. The probable 
reason for this is that no two manufacturers can produce identically 
the same quality of heavy oil of wine, and the same manufacturer 
frequently encounters difficulties in his efforts to turn out products 
of uniform quality. It does seem that a standard for heavy oil of 
wine should be fixed, especially when it is remembered that it is 
one of the most important constituents of Hoffmann's anodyne. 

SIMPLE DRUGS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS. 

Beeswax.— This is one of the most frequently adulterated com- 
modities met with. In former years adulterations were of a very- 
gross nature, but within recent years it has been manipulated in a 
very skillful manner. With ceresin having a color and a melting 
point practically the same as beeswax, it is very easy to manipu- 
late beeswax with this article ; but the difficulty does not end here, 
for the up-to-date adulterator knows that beeswax is at present ex- 
amined in other ways than simply physical appearance and the 
application of a few crude tests, consequently he has endeavored to 
so adulterate the wax that it will comply with nearly all the tests 
to which this article is usually subjected. By adding a little stearic 
acid he is enabled to bring up the acid number, which has been 
lowered by the addition of ceresin, and a little tallow or japan wax 
will adjust the disturbed saponification number. From this it can 
readily be seen that he is practically in position to make an artifi- 
cial beeswax which will comply with the specific-gravity test, acid 
number and ether number. The melting point can be adjusted 
by properly selecting the adulterants. There is only one test left us 
now, and that is the detection of stearic acid by Fehling's method. 
It should be noted in this connection that we frequently find stearic 
acid in beeswax, which we have every reason to believe comes from 
a good source. The reason for the presence of this stearic acid is 
best explained by remembering that it is not a very unusual thing 
for beeswax and tallow to be handled together, and accidentally a 
sample of the latter may find its way into the former. On subse- 



20 



Adulteration of Drugs. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 January, 1902. 



quently purifying the beeswax with dilute sulphuric acid, the tallow 
is saponified with the production of stearic acid and glycerin, the 
stearic acid finding its way into the beeswax, while the glycerin 
remains in the liquid portion. Beeswax is also occasionally found 
adulterated with paraffin and added coloring matter. 

Japan Wax is an Asiatic product, and several years ago a large 
importation was made. On arrival of the consignment it was found 
that the goods were liberally adulterated with corn-starch. It was 
not evident where the Chinaman was enabled to secure his corn- 
starch, and, upon investigation, all evidence pointed to the fact that 
the wax had been manipulated in this country. The added starch 
amounted to 20 per cent. After the exposure of this fraud very 
few cases of similarly adulterated material came to hand, and it is 
quite probable that this fraudulent material had been entirely with- 
drawn from the market. The starch was readily discovered with 
the microscope. A ready method for detecting the presence of 
starch is by applying a few drops of tincture of iodine directly to 
the wax by means of a pipette, and if starch is present the starch, 
iodine reaction will manifest itself immediately. 

Aconite Root Adulterated with Tormentilla. — It would seem on first 
thought that such a clumsy adulteration as the above would be too 
apparent for any one to practice. This point we will not gainsay, 
but an inspection of the samples will convince any one that a hasty 
examination would not reveal this adulterant, inasmuch as many of 
the tormentilla roots grow in form similar to aconite root. 

Capsicum vs. Paprika. — The U. S. and the British Pharmacopoeias 
recognize C. fastigiatum, Blume, while the German Pharmacopoeia 
recognizes C. annuum, L. The latter is generally considered the 
source of paprika. The U. S. Bulletin, No. 13, on " Spices and Con- 
diments," classes paprika as cayenne. It is, therefore, not surpris- 
ing that many of us are of the opinion that these two articles are 
one and the same ; but a comparison of samples will show that 
there is a vast difference. The color of paprika varies from scarlet 
to yellow. As a matter of fact, there are a number of species of 
capsicum and a host of varieties, all varying more or less in degree 
of pungency. The degree of pungency and certain particular flavors 
are said not to be due only to the species but also to the method 
of cultivation and locality. About a year ago the writer's attention 
was called to what was considered to be red pepper. An investiga- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
January, 1902. j 



Adulteration of Drugs. 



21 



tion showed, however, there was a decided difference in physical 
appearance to begin with between this powdered article and that of 
the genuine product; the color was considerably brighter, and only 
about one-sixth as pungent as genuine red pepper. A tincture pre- 
pared from it also presented an abnormal reddish cast. On sub- 
mitting the paprika to a quantitative examination it was found that 
there is practically little difference between the data obtained for 
this article and the usually accepted constants for capsicum. A mi- 
croscopic examination did not offer any assistance. 

It can thus readily be seen that with such an article as this the 
adulterator has in his hands a most efficient diluent of red pepper. 
That paprika (C. annuum L.) should be substituted for Capsicum 
fastigiatum, Blume, is really not new, for Fluckiger and Hanbury, 
Pharmacographia, 2d ed., page 452, says : " It furnishes the largest 
kind of pod pepper and, as we believe, much of the cayenne pepper 
which is imported in the powdered form." In the " American Dis- 
pensatory," 1898, page 434, we find: " It (C. annuum) undoubtedly 
forms a large part of ground red pepper." 

Cochineal {silver and black). — Pure (black) cochineal is of a pur. 
plish-gray or purplish-black color, and it is surprising how few 
druggists know or have even seen the pure article. It is the general 
custom to add some white material to the pure cochineal in order 
to bring out the silvery appearance (sic !) which is so characteristic 
of the commercial cochineal. The kind and amount of added 
material varies quite considerable, being, as the writer has found, 
sometimes barium sulphate to the extent of 30 per cent., talcum, 
calcium sulphate, calcium carbonate, and magnesium carbonate. 

Elm Bark y Powdered. — It is a common occurrence to find this 
article adulterated with wheat flour. As much as 30 per cent, has 
been met. The microscope will reveal this diluent. 

Jaborandi Leaves mixed with Twigs, Stems and Sticks ', to the ex- 
tent of 20 per cent. While this probably does not come directly 
under the heading of adulteration, as it is usually understood, yet 
there can be no doubt in any one's mind present, that an undue 
amount of such substances must have been added with a purpose, 
for it is well known that the addition of such products must neces- 
sarily impair the medicinal efficiency of the drug to which they have 
been added. In the liberal sense of the word, they must be con- 
sidered adulterants. This is simply an example of many drugs that 



22 



Adulteration of Drugs. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 January, 1902. 



are found containing such added foreign material. Frequently as 
high as from 10 to 30 per cent, of such matter is found in crude 
drugs. If crude drugs free from such diluents and other impurities 
and debris cannot be purchased in the open market, garbling must 
necessarily be resorted to before use. In powdered form it is diffi- 
cult to detect such impurities. It might also be stated in this 
connection that roots sometimes contain as high as 20 per cent, of 
earthy matter. Such drugs are not fit for medicinal use. 

Lactucarium. — There is no doubt as to what the nature of this 
article should be. The Pharmacopoeia distinctly specifies what is 
wanted. During the past year when lactucarium was materially 
advanced in price there was received extract of lettuce when lactu- 
carium was wanted. It seems that anything of this character should 
be repudiated in the most vigorous terms, because the two articles 
are so entirely different and distinct that there is no possibility of 
confusing the one with the other, except for pecuniary gain. 

Rock-Candy Syrup is probably an article which is used as freely 
by many druggists as any other commodity they deal in, and it is 
well known that it generally contains a small percentage of invert 
sugar, which finds its way into the syrup in the course of its manu- 
facture by atmospheric influences. Certain dealers having knowledge 
of this thought that a little more reducing sugar would not do any 
harm, and consequently, when rock-candy syrup was ordered, they 
supplied glucose of the same specific gravity as the rock-candy 
syrup usually furnished. A superficial examination might not have 
revealed the nature of this fraud, but it is easily detected by the 
application of Fehling's solution, or placing a suitable quantity of 
the syrup into a porcelain capsule, then evaporating on a steam or 
water bath. A glucose syrup will simply assume a heavier body, 
while pure rock-candy syrup will dry completely, with either distinct 
crystals or crystalline crusts, or both. 

Venice Turpentine. — There are at present at least three articles on 
the market which pass under this name. One is the genuine Larch 
Venice turpentine ; another is an imported artificial product, and the 
third is a domestic artificial product. The genuine article brings 
quite a good price, and being of such a composition that it is very 
difficult to get at the actual component constituents, the adulterator 
has worked along the lines of substitution so skilfully as to be able 
at present to imitate the genuine article very closely at a very much 



Am. J our. Pbarui. \ 
January, 1902. J 



Adulteration of Drugs. 



23 



lower cost. Certain data have, however, been worked up in con- 
nection with pure Venice turpentine, which up to the present time 
the sophisticator has not been fully able to comply with. The 
writer is at present collecting certain data upon this question and 
hopes to make them public in the near future. Some useful infor- 
mation will be found in the Amer. Jour. Pharm., vol. 73, page 198, 
1901. The artificial product consists for the most part of specially 
selected rosin dissolved in oil of turpentine. Another article has 
also been met with which had a decided fluorescence, and proved 
upon investigation to consist of rosin or allied bodies dissolved in a 
fluorescent rosin oil, mixed with a little turpentine. 

Gum Acacia. — On looking over the various price-lists we find 
that there are at least five distinct varieties of this gum, varying 
very materially in price. There are only the following conclusions 
to arrive at, namely : The lower grades of acacia are spurious pro- 
ducts or they are gums of an inferior quality. The latter is prob- 
ably the correct explanation, inasmuch as we find upon examining 
the various grades that there are very few which will stand the 
Fehling test. This test indicates that there are associated with 
these poor gums certain substances which ought not to be present 
in a first-class article. The point naturally presenting itself in this 
connection is, How are we to decide whether a sample of a gum of 
acacia submitted is of an A No. 1 quality, or whether it contains 
more or less of the selected portions of the inferior grades or other 
gums? Chemical tests practically fail us. To be sure, we have the 
ash test, the optical rotatory power, the ferric chloride-solution test, 
the relative viscosity, etc., but after applying all these tests and ask- 
ing ourselves this question, is the sample submitted genuine gum 
arabic ? we are compelled to say we do not know. The writer is 
inclined to believe, from the fact that there is very little gum acacia 
which will not reduce Fehling's test solution, at even a slightly 
prolonged elevated temperature, that very little A No. 1 gum 
acacia is found in the market. The various grades are probably 
differently selected gums from the same or similar sources. 

Gum Tragacanth shares the common fate of gum acacia, inasmuch 
as the best quality is about twice as expensive as the lower grades, 
and with this article we are practically unable to do anything rela- 
tive to deciding between the inferior and the superior product. 
There do not seem to be any marked differences except physical 



2 4 



Adulteration of Drugs. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ January, 1902. 



appearance and the viscocity test between the expensive and the 
cheaper articles. It can readily be seen, therefore, that the one is 
liable to be substituted for the other, especially in powdered form, 
in cases where the greatest care is not exercised by the purchaser. 

Gum Kino. — During the past few years the official product ap- 
pears to have been in the hands of a monopoly, and an article has 
been supplied occasionally which represented the genuine very 
closely. In fact, there appeared to be so very little difference be- 
tween the genuine article and that supplied that it was necessary 
to resort to chemical analysis in order to differentiate between 
them. One sample, nevertheless, complied with the usual tests so 
closely that it was impossible to find a point of distinction, except 
that the fresh official product possessed a slight aromatic odor 
which the sample supplied did not have, but this cannot be con- 
sidered a distinguishing feature, inasmuch as all gum kinos will 
lose their peculiar aroma in process of time. This sample contained 
even more tannin and was more readily soluble in alcohol and in 
water than the pharmacopceial article, as the following results clearly 
show : 

Kind. Ash, Per Insoluble in 95 Per Insoluble in Per Cent. 

Cent. Cent. Alcohol. Water. of Tannin. 

True 1*48 8 - 20 31*04 51 "07 

" 0*84 10*54 26*88 43'9* 

Unknown 1*14 7*08 i'i6 57"26 

The sample marked "unknown " is the one referred to above. 

Aloes. — It is well known that the various kinds of aloes are sub- 
stituted one for the other, and it is quite unnecessary to make much 
comment in this connection. Very little Barbadoes finds its way 
into commerce. That which is labeled as such and put up in the 
usual Barbadoes package is conceded to be for the most part pure 
Curacoa. There are reasons for believing that Curacoa is also sold 
for the other kinds of aloes. We may be in a position in course 
of time to be able to apply tests which will distinguish between 
these several varieties, inasmuch as very extensive chemical inves- 
tigations are at present being made on the composition of these 
gums. 

Gum Asafoetida. — The poor quality of asafcetida has during the 
past few years been brought up on a number of occasions. It is 
referred to here simply to give additional testimony to the inferior 
quality of the article as usually supplied to the trade in this 



Am. Jour. Pharni. \ 
January, 1902. J 



Cinchona Bark, 



25 



country. The adulterants are chiefly calcareous rocks and other 
earthy matter. 

The reader has undoubtedly noticed, in going over the above re- 
sults, that gross adulterations are very little practiced at present. 
In closing this paper the writer wishes to leave impressed upon 
every mind one last thought, viz., adulterations at present are 
generally carried on in such a way that they are not, in most cases, 
perceptible to the naked eye, and it is necessary to resort to the 
test tube, the analytical balance, the microscope and the polar- 
iscope, before positive conclusions can be arrived at. It therefore 
behooves every druggist, who is not in a position to carefully 
examine his own goods, to secure them from such dealers or man- 
ufacturers as are known to carefully and conscientiously investigate 
the commodities they handle. 



VAN KETEL'S RESEARCHES ON ALKALOIDAL 
CONTENTS OF CINCHONA BARK. 

By J. B. Nagei,voort. 

Ever since the preparation of galenicals passed from the realms 
of the medical kitchen to the pharmaco-chemical laboratory, and 
stringent requirements of establishing an opinion in accordance 
with the results of the analytical balance came in use, cinchona- 
bark assays have been improved upon. One has only to look at 
the financial value and pharmaceutical importance of the sales of 
the bark at Amsterdam and the regular tri-monthly Reports of the 
Director of the Cinchona plantations published in the Ned. Tijdschr. 
Voor Pharm. Chem. en Toxic, ('s Gravenhage, Geb's Van Cleef) to 
be convinced. 

At the request of this author it affords me much pleasure to call 
the attention of the American readers to the important contribu- 
tion on this subject from his pen, whereby I take the liberty to 
simplify some directions and, to a certain extent, compare 1 results 
with my own. Analytical chemists are, as a rule, not over- 
burdened with much leisure time, neither can they often command 
the mental quiet, which is necessary for original work, to conduct 



1 " Alkaloid-gehalte in Kinabast," door B. A. Van Ketel. Overgedrukt uit 
De Indische Mercuur, Van 2 Juli, 1901. Amsterdam : J. H. De Bussy, 1901. 



26 



Cinchona Bark. 



( Am. Jour. Pharrru 
I January, 1902. 



such tedious experiments as Van Ketel offers us here. 1 We are to 
the contrary, however, usually in more favorable conditions to 
verify processes on industrial conditions than the apothecary. 

H. M. Gordin published, recently, on page 224 of the Archiv d, 
Pharmacie, Band 2 39-3-1 901 , also a method of estimation of the total 
amount of alkaloids in cinchona bark, based upon an exhaustion of the 
finely pulverized bark (fineness not given) with alcohol, acidulated 
with HC1, comparing this process with the well-known Prollius 
method, see Lyons' Manual "page 1 20, No. 21 3, employing ro (ten) 
gram drug and titrating; both latter peculiarities (10 gram drug 
and titration) seeming objectionable to me (J. B. N.) where a rich 
bark of an unknown percentage of quinine, cinchonine, cinchonidine 
and amorphous alkaloid is under examination. 2 The author would 
oblige a good many readers of the Archiv d. Pharmacie if he 
had quoted where one could verify " nach meiner allgemeine 
Methode." 3 

Van Ketel criticizes at length the known methods of determin- 
ing the amount of alkaloids in cortex cinchonse, of different varie- 
ties and species, for which the reader is referred to the original 
article. 

Improving upon all of them he proceeds as follows : 

(1) 4 (four) gramme airdry No. 80 powder (the original quotes, 
of course, Dutch requirements of fineness ; e. g., B., 40) is triturated 
with 2 (two) gramme slacked lime to a homogeneous mixture. To 
this is added, in small quantities at the time, 4-5 (four to five) c.c. 
Ammonia water of 96 S. G. and the whole mixture is brought 
to a moist but still non-adherent powder. 

(2) Transfer this to a flask of about 300 (three hundred) c.c. 
capacity; add 150 (one hundred and fifty) c.c. ethylic aether and 
boil the mixture of bark, lime and ammonia during half (j4) an 
hour on a safety water-bath, using hereto an upright bulb con- 
denser or a Soxhlet cooler. Shake from time to time, if the mixture 
is not stirred enough by the boiling process itself. 



1 Linde's " Ueber das Ausziehen von drogen zum Zwecke der Alkaloidbestim- 
mung " must not be forgotten. 

2 See also, " Die Pfianzen-Alkaloide " von J. W. Bruhl Braunschweig: Vieweg, 
1900, page 162. 

3 1 have before me samples of Cort. cinchonse S. containing respectively 3*2 
per cent, and 1*9 per cent. Quinine S. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.") 
January, 1902. ) 



Cinchona Bark. 



27 



(3) Cool and filter into a separatory funnel of the required size, 
through a small plug of cotton, previously arranged as to its filter, 
ing capacity, into the stem of the funnel. Wash funnel and cotton- 
plug with " aether," as long as a control proof with an alkaloid 
group reagent (Mayers or Wagner's) shows the necessity for it. It 
is economical to have a small-sized " Erlenmeyer " arranged as 
washbottle. 

(4) Shake the ethereal fluid once with 10 (ten) c.c. of 10 (ten) 
per cent. HC1. Separate this into another separatory funnel and 
repeat this operation, gradually taking smaller quantities and less 
strong acid, as long as is necessary to exhaust the aethereal fluid. 
Verify this as usual. 

(5) Save the ethylic aether, to be recovered by distillation. 

(6) Add about 50 (fifty) c.c. fresh ethylic aether to the aqueous 
acid solution of the alkaloids contained in the second sep- 
aratory funnel. (This quantity will, in nine cases out of ten, 
redissolve all the alkaloids eventually to be set free. But it is 
well to bear in mind that cinchonine is not very soluble in ethyl- 
aether.) 

Make alkaline with the required amount of a 10 (ten) per cent. 
NaOH solution. Verify alkalinity by a (small) piece of red or 
neutral litmus paper. Keep this small piece of litmus paper in the 
fluid. Rotate until the ethyl-aether is clear. Don't shake. Allow 
the different fluids to separate. Tap off the aqueous layer into 
another separatory funnel and wash the aether with small quanti- 
ties (2-5 c.c.) distilled water, as long as this is alkaline to (red) 
litmus (paper). Repeat the shaking out of the alkaline fluid, with 
25 c.c. fresh aether; add this to the previously collected. 

This second exhaustion yielded me an increase of 0-022 gramme 
on 0-152 gramme obtained by the first agitation — over 12-5 per 
cent, of the total amount alkaloid. 

Tap off now the ethereal fluids into a tared Erlenmeyer (of Jena 
glass and of such size as will be necessary for the amount of ether 
used in S 6, previously fitted with a good cork and distilling tube) 
distil the aether from a safety waterbath, of which the temperature 
must not exceed 50 C. (the author lays stress upon the fact that 
the aether will " bump " sometimes, for which there is no necessity) 
or on an iron plate, warmed by an electric current, or submerge 
the tared Erlenmeyer into water previously heated to about 40 to 



28 



Cinchona Bark. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ January, 1902. 



50° C, distil and dry residue in a water-oven to constant zveight^ 
weigh and calculate to percentage. 

Experiments conducted by Van Ketel proved that cinchona bark 
was exhausted of its alkaloids in half (j^) an hour. 

One hour is therefore a sufficient time to finish an assay of a cin- 
chona bark by this method, which recommends itself, too, for its 
economy in the use (recovery) of ethyl-sether. 

Fineness of Powder No. 60. Fineness of Powder No. 80. 

Time of Boiling. Per Cent, of Time of Boiling. Per Cent, of 

Total Alkaloid. Total Alkaloid. 



10 minutes 
15 " 



6-o6 
6'i 
6 22 
6*24 



20 " {e'ts 2omirmtes \ 6 



30 



6'47 „ r a J 6*5 

16-54 

6'54 
6-48 



Results of an experiment carried on with a richer bark (9-3 per 
cent.). 

Time of Boiling. Per Cent, of 

Total Alkaloid. 



5 minutes 



8-48 
8-40 
j 876 

10 • . { 8 . 76 

9'°5 



J 5 • • • • lg .„ 

*> " - {S3 



One hour 



9-30 
9-32 



Experiments have proven that the addition of ammonia water to 
the bark-lime mixture makes a material difference in the results. 

The bark previously assayed on 6-5 per cent, total alkaloid, in 
No. 60 powder, mixed with the slacked lime only, yielded to boil- 
ing aether, 575 and 579 per cent. 

1 1 recommend Gordin's suggestion, which he renewed in Archiv d. Phar- 
macie, 239, 3, 1901, page 217, to submit the marc to a new assay, as best evi- 
dence for the exhaustion of a drug ; have followed this method with the best 
satisfaction already for sometime. Duplicate analyses may have an error in 
common, and do have one sometimes. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 1902. J 



Cifichona Bark. 



29 



Contact with lime for an hour makes no difference in the quan- 
titative results. 

Neither does more water added to the slack lime (more than the 
mixture becomes through the use of ammonia water) make a 
difference. 

But the quantitative results were alike to the previously obtained^ 
when No. 80 powder was used. 

In other words, the fineness of the powder is of the utmost 
importance for success with the lime-aether method. Results, 65 
and 6:48 per cent. Strange to notice, this failed by the richer bark. 
Lime and aether extracted only : 

In 30 minutes .... 

In one hour 

In an hour and a half 

The well known process of shaking out in the cold in an auto- 
matic shaker (as was recommended in the Pharm. Journal for 
March, 1892) yielded from the bark containing 9-3 per cent, total 
alkaloid, after three hours' shaking; 9-22, 9-24 and 9-19 per cent., 
and from a bark found to contain 8-24 total alkaloid after an hour 
boiling 8 31 per cent. 

Where the care for safety in boiling with aether requires too many 
precautions, this shaking method has a right of existence. (Com- 
pare Lyons' " Manual," 1899, page 114, No. 203.) Referent 
obtained very good results from the shaking, automatically, in the 
cold, from a mixture of chloroform, petroleum-aether and ammonia, 
but it takes longer time and requires " machinery " of some kind. 
In a shaking apparatus one can have, however, half a dozen or 
more samples at the same time in operation. Each method has 
therefore its own merits; Van Ketel's is certainly the cheapest, 
using only common apparatus. 

But the unusual large quantities of ethylic aether (unusual and 
not needed in our assay work) stand, in my opinion, in the way for a 
general adoption of Mr. Van Ketel's process. The author employs 
about 300 (three hundred) c.c. Filtering aether and washing 
with aether are also not recommendable features. Referent did not 
find it necessary to filter. The heavy mixture of bark and lime 



Per Cent. 

774 
778 
/8-2 5 

18-22 

J 8'2 5 
18-26 



3Q 



Cinchona Bark. 



/ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I January. 1902. 



leaves a clear top fluid, which can be decanted, without a floating 
particle going with it, while I had no difficulty neither to deprive 
the marc of some alkaloid remaining. 

No more than three quantities of 15 c.c. aether were needed. 
After this washing, no alkaloid could be detected, when the residue 
was transferred to a funnel, whose stem was previously plugged up 
with a small quantity of cotton. Pressure with a cork and evapor- 
ating of the aether obtained thereby did not give any evidence to 
Mayer's reagent. But since as stated satisfactory quantitative 
results were obtained by substituting petroleum-aether, fractioned 
at 40°.,forethylic aether, Van Ketel's process might advantageously 
be modified in this direction ; let us keep this in mind. 

Cort. cinchon. succ. in No. 60 powder. 

Modified "Prollius" according to A mixture of 2 (two) vol. petrol, ae. 
Xyons. (B. pt. 40 ) and 1 (one) vol. chloro- 

form + 10 c.c. ammonia water of 
0-96 s.g. 

Yield 5 per cent. tot. alks. Yield 5 per cent. tot. alks. 

3 (three) vol. petrol, ae. to 1 (one) 
chloroform yield lower results. 

Very peculiar and unexpected results were obtained when boiling 
with " aether " was continued longer than previous experiments 
called for. The 6 5 per cent, bark yielded after an exposure of one 
hour and a half, 3-38 per cent. 

The 8-31 per cent, bark yielded already after half an hour only 
6 1 5 per cent. Van Ketel offers as an explanation for this the 
theory that the variable proportions of cinchotannine in the bark 
are the cause of it, and that a strong base as lime must be 
present, in excess, to prevent the alkaloids forming in aether insoluble 
compounds with cinchotannine. This not-to-be ignored fact will 
be a continually recurring source of errors and disappointments, 
and a very unpleasing feature of the process, I am bound to state. 
But the situation has to be accepted, however much we would like 
to make chemistry a science of mathematical accuracy. 

The author finally offers a series of figures to prove the value of 
a true representative sample, e. g. t that the whole of the sample 
must be reduced to a uniform fineness and not a part of it left 
unpowdered. And offers evidence that careless pulverizing and sift- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
January, 1902. J 



Cinchona Bark. 



31 



ing, whereby fine dust is lost, will yield higher results than the con- 
ditions actually are. Since this is exemplified by an article with 
which the average American pharmaceutical chemist comes very 
seldom, if ever, in contact, namely, Ledgeriana root bark, Van 
Ketel's figures might follow (De Vrij proved years ago that some 
root bark is even richer in alkaloid than stem bark). I have before 
me a root bark containing 10 (ten) per cent, total alkaloids. 

Gort. cinchona succ. ledgeriana root bark, containing 7-67 per 
cent, total alkaloid, yielded from 

Per Cent. 



First sifting 5*66 

Second " 6*94 

Third " 7-43 

Fourth " 7-9 

Fifth * . ... ........ ... ............ 8-53 

Sixth " 8-8 

Seventh " 8*9 



Referent had a few good opportunities to test it if the new 
method would obliviate the tried older ones. 

A cinchona bark was offered for sale warranted to contain 11 
(eleven) per cent, total alkaloid. 

Repeated assays yielded only a little over 6 (six) per cent., by 
shaking out, as well as by maceration with " Prollius." Boiling 
with ether, according to Van Ketel, continually chequing throughout 
the whole process, yielded 4 (four) per cent. Duplicate analysis of 
another to No. 60 powder reduced bark, said bark offered for sale 
as containing 8 (eight) per cent, total alkaloids, had given me, by 
the shaking method in the cold, with " Prollius " respectfully, 5 6 
and 5 7 per cent. According to Van Ketel's method — -rotating the 
flask containing the boiling mixture every five minutes; proving 
the exhaustion of the dregs from adhering alkaloid ; washing the 
alkaline fluid (6) twice with aether, I obtained 4-35 per cent. 

This is of course a very limited experience, but not an encourag- 
ing one, after all the labor and the care. I hope sincerely that 
some one may fare better than I. The author will certainly allow 
me to emphasize that his process has to go on without being 
interrupted, or there will be danger that cinchonine crystallizes cut 
in the separator, which would, of course, give unreliable results. 

New Orleans, La., Oct., 1901. 



32 



The Sugar -Coated Pill. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I January. 1902. 



THE SUGAR-COATED PILL. 
By Wm. R. Warner, Jr. 

In itself a pill does not present a very weighty or complex sub- 
ject for discussion or essay, and yet, what a boon the sugar-covered 
variety has proven to the peoples of the earth. " 'Tis a bitter pill " 
was spoken of ye old time pill, and how true the saying ! For 
several centuries all sorts, sizes and conditions of pills and boluses, 
unsightly, bitter and nauseating, were made and poked down the 
throats of the unwilling patients. 

It was not until 1856 that the really scientifically prepared and 
inviting sugar-coated pill was manufactured and introduced in 
America by Mr. Wm. R. Warner, at that time retail apothecary, 
located in Philadelphia, who had spent much time and thought 
upon the subject, and finally gave to the world his conception and 
its results. 

It is a well-established fact that the first results were not produc- 
tive of the elegance afterwards attained, but the path was opened and 
the profession had at their command, in the hands of their pharma- 
cists, a product which was not only pleasing and palatable to their 
patients, no matter how nauseous the constituents of the pill, but 
which might be fully depended upon for expected therapeutic 
effects. 

Such conditions did not come spontaneously; they were- rather 
the result of the intelligent and exhaustive research and experi- 
mentation, aided by a master-mind and a thorough technical knowl- 
edge of pharmaceutical chemistry. 

A sugar-coated pill, properly made, should combine the following 
important points : 

A careful selection of the drugs entering into its composition. 
" In Medicina Qualitas Prima Est." An accurate subdivision of 
the medicament employed. Rapid disintegration after its adminis- 
tration. The use of such excipients in the preparation of the mass 
as will not be incompatible with its chemical construction, and 
finally the application of a coating which must be fully and freely 
soluble and yet protective of the inner pill or mass, so as to insure 
its continued activity and full therapeutic value, even though it be 
kept on hand indefinitely. 

Such a pill really possesses decided advantages over the ordinary 
pill of the shops, extemporaneously prepared, in that the minute 



m. Jour. Pbarm.") 
January, 1902. J 



Sugar-Coated Pills. 



33 



division of powerful chemicals is more readily and accurately 
reached through the processes and facilities specially invented and 
used for the purpose. 

Thus we have the ready prepared, sugar-coated pill of to-day as 
properly made; and notwithstanding the fact that the " old reliable 
has been assailed by coatings of other descriptions and preparations 
of other shapes, we believe it is destined to outlive in average pop- 
ularity any and all of its competitors. 



SUGAR-COATED PILLS. 
By Thomas S. Wiegand. 

This subject may be considered stale by some, as sugar-coated 
pills have been before the public for so many years ; the first of 
these that acquired much repute in this country were those imported 
from France and made by Garnier Lamoreau & Co. some fifty-five 
or sixty years ago, and were very beautiful specimens of the con- 
fectioners' skill ; but very many physicians of high standing and 
excellent judgment ignored them entirely, as the result of their 
experience induced them to think the process ol sugar coating 
' baked" them so thoroughly that they were nearly insoluble. 
Knowing this objection it early became a problem with me to remove 
any cause of complaint arising from this coating process by excluding 
all heat from them while being coated, and the method of doing it 
was simply to drive a current of cold air into the pan while the 
pills were being covered with the sugar ; another reason, and a 
better one in my judgment, why some sugar-coated pills were not so 
active was to be found in the fact that many of them contained less 
than half the quantity of the medicinal agent they purported to 
have — thus, in one instance, five 5-grain blue pills weighed with 
their sugar coating little over 15 grains, while their medicinal com- 
ponent should have weighed 25 grains and the sugar coating would 
add almost as much more to their weight. 

That sugar-coated pills should be objected to when properly made 
is to my mind altogether unreasonable ; but it must be remembered 
that, like all other remedies, the purity and activity of the materials 
used in their composition must be the first consideration ; yet the 
unscrupulous manufacturer has the opportunity of hiding very poor 
drugs under a very handsome coating of sugar flavored with some 



34 



Sugar-Coated Pills. 



( Am. Jour. Pliarm . 
1 January. 1902. 



aromatic that will cover up a want ot the true remedy that ought 
to be the chief constituent. Then, again, every well-informed and 
experienced pharmacist knows that the compounding of pill-masses 
requires much care and judgment in the methods of manipulation 
and the selection of excipients which will make the " mass " a good 
one to work and still remain in good condition even when long kept 
— these two points being accepted as indisputable, the coating of 
the pill must be done with such materials as will not be insoluble in 
the juices and acids of the stomach. The materials employed are 
gum arabic, starch, small quantities of wheat flour, and sugar in 
form of syrup. A quantity of pills are placed in a " pan " which 
rotates in a very peculiar way quite different from the confectioners' 
steam-coating pan, and a small quantity of syrup about half the 
density of simple syrup is poured on them, the whole mass of pills 
rolling in the pan soon becomes moistened and while moist a quantity 
of gum arabic is thrown in and a light coating of gum is thus given 
them, all unnecessary gum is removed and the sugar coating begins 
with an amount of syrup in which is mixed a little flour and enough 
finely powdered starch to render it opaque. The pills soon become 
sticky and form into a mass which must be stirred rapidly by the 
operator to set them free, and then they begin to roll around in the 
pan each as an independent body, they must then roll until quite 
dry when the process is repeated — each successive coat rendering 
the pill whiter and rounder. When they are well covered then 
plainer syrup, that is, one containing less starch, is used, and as they 
become smoother plain syrup is used, after a time thinner syrup is 
used, and finally less and less will be required to moisten them. So 
fine a surface is at last imparted to them that 100,000 pills will 
become moist with the addition of two or three tablespoonfuls of 
syrup. This is practically ail that can be written about the subject. 
The success of making a fine-looking lot of sugar-coated pills is to 
be learned only by working at the pan until you can do it. 



Adulteration in England. — The report of the Local Government Board 
shows (Chem. and Drug., i9or, 650) that the total number of samples of foods 
and drugs analyzed in 1900 was 62,858 ; the analysts reported against 5,503 of 
the samples examined; proceedings were taken in 3,321 cases; and penalties 
were imposed in 2,673 of these. 



A ^^uar ^ y P l902 ^m •} Coal Tar Derivatives and Morphine. 35 

COLOR REACTIONS OF CERTAIN COAL-TAR DERIVA- 
TIVES AND MORPHINE WITH FORMALDEHYDE 
AND SULPHURIC ACID. 

By Robert A. Hatcher, M.D. 

A description given in a recent journal of the reaction occurring 
between formaldehyde-sulphuric acid and several coal-tar derivatives, 
salicylic acid and its compounds, resorcin, creasote and carbolic 
acid, resulting in a purple color, so closely agrees with that of the 
color produced by the reaction between this reagent and morphine 
(Kobert) as to cause possible confusion. If the reactions were so 
similar, as would seem from the description, this test would have but 
a limited value in the case of morphine. 

A reaction similar to that mentioned in the case of coal-tar deriv- 
atives is given by the formaldehyde-sulphuric acid and aspirin 
(acetyl-salicylic acid), and is ascribed by Thorns (Pharm. Ztg. y XLVI, 
p. 5 53) to the phenol residue of salicylic acid. 

In order to decide whether the reaction with morphine is distin- 
guishable from those afforded by the substances mentioned, a number 
of comparative experiments were made. An alkaline solution of 
carbolic acid (I) was taken, and for the sake of more accurate 
comparison the same amounts of sodium hydrate and sulphuric acid 
were used in the morphine solution (II) and in that of carbolic 
acid and morphine (HI). 

The reagent is made, according to Kobert, by mixing 5 c.c. of 
formaldehyde (40 per cent ) with 100 c.c. of sulphuric acid. The 
colors were compared with a sample-card of the Diamond Dye 
Company. 

The following six substances were used, the results being found 
in the table below : 

N N 
I. -i gm. Carb. acid 4- 5 c.c. — NaOH warmed and 10 c.c. — 
& 1 J 10 10 

H 2 S0 4 added. 

N N 
II. -oi gm. Morphine sulphate -f 5 c.c. — NaOH -f 10 c.c. — 

H 2 S0 4 . 

III. -I gm. Carb. acid + -oi gm. morphine sulphate -f 5 c.c. 

N N 

— NaOH warmed, and 10 c.c. — H 2 S0 4 added. 

N 

IV. -i gm. Sodium salicylate (com'l) -f- 50 cc. — H 2 S0 4 . 



36 billing Capsules with Essential Oils, { A ^.SK*iS£ n " 

V. Sodium Salicylate C. P. 

VI. Salicylic acid C. P. (dissolved in q. s. alcohol . 

The first and third were evaporated to small quantity in order to 
try the effect of heat in liberating carbolic acid after warming with 
an alkali, the second was similarly heated for the sake of uniformity 
of treatment. In each case a drop of the solution was added to 
five drops of the formaldehyde-sulphuric acid. 



I. 


II. 


u, 


IV. 


V. 


VI. 


Cold. 


Cold. 


Cold. 


Cold. 


Cold. 


Cold. 


Crimson tq 
cherry, deep- 
ening to gar- 
net on stand- 
ing. 


Maroon, deep- 
e n i n g on 
standing. 


Deep crimson, 
inclining to 
garnet. 


Faint pinkish 
salmon. 


None. 


None. 


On Heating. 


On Heating. 


On Heating. 


On Heating. 


On Heating. 


On Heating. 


P'p't which is 
maroon. 


Bleaches to 
dirty brown. 


Brown, maroon 
tint. 


Rose-pink. 


None, except 
upon edges of 
vt ssel, where 
superheated, 
a fleeting 
rose-pink. 


Same as V, save 
that the color 
was even 
more fleeting 
and a strong 
odor of oil of 
wintergre e n 
was noticed. 



Of course, iree carbolic acid can be dispelled at a temperature 
below that required to decompose morphine, and from experiments 
not tabulated above, it is found that much of it may be dispelled 
from alkaline combination by evaporating for some time with strong 
sulphuric acid. We may conclude that the formaldehyde-sulphuric 
acid is a reliable test for morphine, but that it is well for one to be- 
come familiar with the reactions given by the substances mentioned, 
otherwise an error is quite possible ; and if these substances are pres- 
ent it would be well to remove them by some method, such as agita- 
tion with ether after acidulation, whereby the morphine is left behind. 

Cleveland, Ohio. 



A METHOD FOR FILLING CAPSULES WITH 
ESSENTIAL OILS. 
By Wiuiam G. Topus. 
The extemporaneous preparation of capsules containing consider- 
able quantities of fluid, such as volatile oils, has never been quite 
satisfactory. 

To seal the contents in soft capsules requires too much time and 
preparation for prescription dispensing. Attempts to seal on the 



A jaiuar r yfi902 rm -} Estimation of Berberine. 37 

covers of hard capsules may succeed ten, eleven, and possibly 
twelve times in a dozen, but there is a strong probability that one 
at least will leak. 

The addition of inert absorbent material ordinarily results in the 
production of a mammoth. The last measure, however, has some 
advantages over the others : it is speedy, convenient, and quite in 
line with the usual practice of the prescription department. Pro- 
vided the great bulk could be prevented, this plan would be, per. 
haps, the most acceptable for the purpose. 

It is with such procedure in mind that I invite your attention to 
the peculiar behavior of starch as an absorbent in this connection, 
The following prescription comes to me frequently : 

Ij*. Terebene 5 s s 
Ft. Cap. xii. 

To prepare this, simply weigh out one-half drachm potato starch, 
place it upon the pill tile, pour the liquid upon it, and with a spatula 
intimately incorporate. The result is a very thin flowing mixture, 
altogether too fluid to handle. Now add three or four drops of 
water and stir briskly, at once the mass begins to stiffen. Again 
add a few drops of water, with stirring as before ; repeat if neces- 
sary until the mass becomes quite solid. It may now be formed, by 
aid of a couple of spatulas, into a rectangular figure, and subdi- 
vided into the requisite number of parts. This method seems to be 
quite satisfactory, as it is possible to dispense the prescription in 
capsules not larger than number three. 

Arrow root answers as well as potato starch, but more powder is 
necessary, nearly twice the weight being required ; still, even with 
this addition, it is possible to put the prescription into twelve 
No. 2 capsules. The arrow root is considerably heavier bulk for bulk. 
It is possible to dispense such a prescription within ten minutes. 
The greasy box is impossible, and the first objection to this method 
has yet to be recorded. 



NOTE ON THE ESTIMATION OF BERBERINE. 
By H. M. Gordin. 

In a previous paper 1 I have given two methods for the quanti- 
tative estimation of berberine. In both these methods the ber- 



1 Papers read at the meeting of the A. Ph. A., 1901, Sept. 23, Arch. d. Pharm., 
1901, 638. 



38 Estimation of Berberine % { A ?anwyfX. m ' 

berine is extracted from the drug by means of hot alcohol. In the 
first of these methods the alcoholic solution is made up to a definite 
volume, filtered and in an aliquot portion of the alcoholic filtrate 
the berberine precipitated as an acid sulphate which is afterwards 
converted into the monoacid hydriodide. In applying this method 
to various drugs it was found that whereas in some of them, like 
Hydrastis canadensis, the berberine exists in a form that is easily 
soluble in alcohol ; in others, like some samples of barberry bark, 
the alkaloid seems to exist in a form which is very difficultly 
soluble in cold alcohol, so that it is impossible to make up the alco- 
holic extract with cold alcohol to a definite volume without leaving 
some berberine in the residue. It is therefore important:, when- 
ever the first method of estimation is used, to take care that no 
berberine containing residue be left. 

Should there be a sediment in the alcoholic extract, which does 
not dissolve in cold alcohol, even after repeated washing with this 
solvent, the sediment should be dissolved in water, filtered with a 
little talcum, if necessary, and the clear filtrate tested for berberine 
by one of the methods which will be given in the next paper. If 
berberine be found in the sediment then the first method of estima- 
tion is inapplicable, and the second method, which is applicable to 
all cases, must be used. 

With regard to the precipitation of berberine by potassium 
iodide, further work upon this subject has shown that, whereas in a 
neutral solution berberine is as completely precipitated by an 
excess of potassium iodide, as it is by Mayer's or Wagner's reagent, 
in the presence of free acid the precipitation by these latter reagents 
is more complete than by potassium iodide. It is therefore best to 
substitute Mayer's reagent as a precipitant for potassium iodide in 
the above-mentioned first method, in which acid is set free by the 
reaction. 

That the reaction is the same whatever neutral precipitant be 
used, was shown in another paper, 1 where, on adding standard acid 
to a neutral solution of berberine hydrochloride and precipitating 
the alkaloid with either of the above-mentioned reagents, no acid 
was consumed, showing that even in the presence of free acid, ber- 



1 Arch. d. Pharm., 1901, 629. Read at St. Louis before the A. Ph. A., 1901, 
Sept. 23d. 



A janua^, P i h 902 rn ' - } Flaxseed Adulterated with Mineral Oil. 39 

berine is always precipitated along with only one molecule of 
hydriodic acid by these reagents. 1 

Another improvement in the first method consists in collecting 
the berberine-acid sulphate upon a plug of cotton in a funnel, 
washing the vessel in which the precipitation took place twice, 
with a mixture of equal parts of ether and alcohol, using 5 c.c. of 
this mixture each time, and then thoroughly washing the vessel 
and the acid sulphate in the funnel with ether. The acid sulphate 
being completely insoluble in ether, as seen by the absence of color 
in the ethereal washings, the last traces of sulphuric acid can be 
washed away by using a considerable amount of ether for washing 
without increasing the correction to be added to the final results. 
The only correction that has to be made is for the constant amount 
left in the mother liquor. As to the 10 c.c. of ether-alcohol used 
for the first washings, the amount of berberine left in them can be 
entirely neglected, as this amount is less than 0-0006 gramme. In 
working upon 5 grammes of drug this would affect the result only 
to the extent of less than 0-012 per cent. 

Laboratory of Wm. S. Merrell Chemical Co. 



GROUND FLAXSEED ADULTERATED WITH MINERAL 

OIL. 

By Lyman F. Kkbi^er. 

The addition of mineral oil to linseed oil has frequently been prac- 
tised and is well known, but the adulteration of ground flaxseed 
with this article is of recent origin. A little less than two years 
ago Mr. E. H. Gane 2 reported that he had met a flaxseed meal 
which contained the pharmacopceial required 25 per cent of fixed 
oil, but found that the oil was not saponifiable. Further investiga- 
tion showed that the natural oil had been removed, and its place 
supplied by a petroleum oil of about the same specific gravity as 
linseed oil. Nothing more was heard of this fraudulent practice 
until within the last few months when a British journal informed us 
that an ingenious method of sophisticating linseed meal was being 



1 That the substance under operation was the neutral berberine hydrochloride 
was shown in that same paper a few pages further on. 

2 1900, Am. Drug., 36, 4. 



40 Flaxseed Adulterated with Mineral Oil. { A ^^yfi h 4 rm ' 

practised. This consisted in expressing the natural fixed oil from 
the crushed seed, and triturating the resulting cake with petroleum 
oil of about the same density as linseed oil. Such a mixture was 
then placed on the market as " pure crushed flaxseed." Following 
closely upon this, the writer was told that considerable of this 
mineral oil adulterated flaxseed meal was being handled in our 
markets. An investigation was immediately made, and it was found 
that the report was well founded, as the following results will show. 

A sample of ground flaxseed was secured and the per cent, of 
oil estimated by exhausting it with carbon disulphide in the usual 
way. This indicated the presence of 35.5 per cent, of fixed oil, 
which is good for this product. It is, however, not more than a 
high grade flaxseed usually contains, but physically the meal was 
abnormally oily, and possessed a foreign odor and taste. The word 
" meal " as used here means pure ground flaxseed and not the flax- 
seed meal from which the oil has been expressed. An examination 
of the extracted oil showed that there was an undue amount of 
unsaponifiable matter present. A considerable quantity of the 
above ground flaxseed was then secured, one portion exhausted by 
means of pure ether; from another portion the oil was removed by 
hydraulic pressure, and a third portion was reserved for future use. 

The oil obtained by hydraulic pressure, of which a sample is sub- 
mitted, is highly fluorescent, dark in color, and abnormal of odor. 
Pure raw linseed oil expressed in the cold (as the above was) 
possesses a golden yellow color, while that obtained at a higher 
temperature is of a brownish yellow hue, but none has ever been 
reported as being fluorescent. 

On examining the above expressed oil the following data were 
obtained : Specific gravity at 15 C, 9055 (normal specific gravity, 
0-930-0.940) ; acid number, 6 (not abnormal) ; saponification num- 
ber, 99 7 (normal variation, 187-200). 

The oil extracted by means of the ether possessed the same 
abnormal physical appearance as the expressed oil, and an exami- 
nation of it gave the following results: Specific gravity at 15 C, 
9039; acid number, 8-6; saponification number, 104-1. 

The iodine number was not taken in either of these oils, because 
the observed results so overwhelmingly indicated the presence of 
mineral oil that it was not deemed necessary. 

In view of the fact that the mineral oil must have been added to 



^January SD Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 41 

the expressed ground flaxseed, it was thought that possibly this 
added, absorbed, and mechanically retained mineral oil would be 
removed in larger proportions by expression than the natural oil, 
which was yet probably contained within the oil cells ; but a com- 
parison of the above results, obtained from the expressed and the 
extracted oils, respectively, would indicate that such was not the 
case. To be sure the extracted oil has a little higher saponification 
number (104-1) than the expressed oil (99-7), but this variation is 
not enough to substantiate this theoretical view. 

The above specific gravities and the saponification numbers are 
all abnormal. All these abnormalities point to the presence of a 
mineral oil, which was shown to be present in the above oils to the 
extent of 40 per cent., or basing the calculation on the ground 
flaxseed itself, each 100 pounds of the ground flaxseed examined 
contained a little over 14 pounds of added mineral oil. 

The writer also desires to note here that while the above investi- 
gation was made, a sample of ground flaxseed was met with which 
possibly indicates an embryonic attempt at adulteration, and no one 
knows what may come of it. The sample contained the requisite 
amount of oil, which possessed the same fluorescent appearance as 
those examined above, but the oil proved upon investigation to be 
different from anything heretofore examined or recorded. It had a 
specific gravity of 0-921 at 15 C, an acid number of 106, and a 
saponification number of about 155. An attempt might be made 
to explain the above abnormal numbers on the ground that the 
linseed oil oxidizes very rapidly, raising the acid number and lower- 
ing the saponification number, when such a favorable opportunity 
is given as is presented in ground flaxseed ; but this will neither 
explain the fluorescence nor the presence of an undue amount of 
unsaponifiable matter. The exact basis of this adulteration the 
writer has thus far been unable to ascertain. 



RECENT LITERATURE RELATING TO PHARMACY. 

OUTBREAK OF TETANUS IX ST. LOUIS. 

In speaking of the recent outbreak of tetanus in St. Louis, due to 
the injection of diphtheria antitoxin, Dr. A. C. Abbott (Phila. Med. 
Jour. t November 16th), in brief says that the real cause of the 
fatalities was either one of two conditions, namely : the presence ot 



42 Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. { A January fiS. m ^ 

the specific microorganism of tetanus in the serum favorable for 
growth when injected into the system, or that the serum employed 
contained the toxin or poison produced by the specific bacillus in the 
system of the horse circulating in the blood from which the anti- 
toxic serum was obtained. 

The latter supposition is thought by Dr. Abbott to be the 
more likely explanation : First, because the conditions under which 
the antitoxic serum is prepared are not favorable to the growth of 
the Bacillus tetani, even if it were introduced into the serum from 
some outside source during its preparation. This specific bacillus 
will not grow in the presence of oxygen, and as the blood when 
drawn from the horse, as well as the serum during its after- 
treatment contains oxygen, it is evident that no bacilli of tetanus 
were growing in the serum, and secondly, because antiseptics such 
as phenol, formaldehyde and tricresol are used in the preservation 
of serums. Thirdly, had the serum contained the bacilli or spores 
of tetanus in large numbers, tetanus would almost certainly have 
developed in some one or another of the susceptible animals used 
in standardizing the serum, which did not occur. He goes on to 
say that this condition may be due to the very small amount of 
antitoxin mixed with the toxin which is administered to the guinea 
pig, and a possible remedy in the future being to inject the test- 
animal with an amount of antitoxin equal to that administered to a 
human adult. 

As for the future development of tetanus in the horse, from which 
the serum is obtained, little can be said, for we know but little about 
the real time required for the bacilli to develop in the system to 
such an extent as to produce diagnostic symptoms. 

In this same journal, of November 30th, we find the report of the 
Commission appointed to investigate these cases of tetanus, during 
which investigations it was found that the serum of August 24th 
was obtained from two different animals or from the same animal at 
two different times ; the first being obtained before the attack or 
period of incubation, and the other or toxic serum after or during 
the period of incubation. The experiments which were carried out 
on susceptible animals showed this to be the case, as some of the 
animals injected with serum marked August 24th showed toxic 
symptoms, whereas others injected with other samples also marked- 
August 24th did not show any toxic symptoms whatever, seventy 



A January fwo2 rm '} Re cent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 43 

four animals having been used in this investigation. Some of the 
conclusions arrived at by the Commission might be summed up as 
follows : 

That the disease was tetanus was proven without a doubt by 
clinical observation on nine patients, there being in no case any 
wounds or injured epithelial surface on the body except those 
caused by the entrance of the injecting needle, and these places 
were without inflammatory reaction. To prove the diagnoses a 
number of autopsies were made immediately after death and the 
diseased portions studied carefully both macroscopically and micro- 
scopically. 

That the toxic serum of August 24th contained no Bacillus tetanz 
or its spores. 

That the toxic serum of August 24th and serum of September 
30th contained the toxin of Bacillus tetani previously formed in the 
horse from which it was prepared. The animal from which this 
serum of September 30th was obtained was shot on October 3d 
because it had tetanus. 

That the toxic serum of August 24th and that of September 30th 
were identical in nine different particulars, and that the non-toxic 
serum of August 24th was different in the same number and kind 
of tests; the Commission therefore concludes that the serum of 
September 30th had been issued without previous biological tests, 
and that some of this same toxic serum had been filled into tubes 
previously marked August 24th. 

That the blame for this awful catastrophe can be laid only at the 
door of those who had charge of the preparation and testing of this 
toxic serum. 

It will be seen from the review of Dr. Abbott's article, which was 
published some time before the Commission was appointed to 
investigate the cause of this catastrophe, that he quite accurately 
and minutely described a number of details which the Commission 
after a long investigation found to be the facts. From Dr. Abbott's 
most able article and its subsequent proving we should draw this 
one lesson as regards bacteriology : that it is a science based upon 
strong natural principles and not upon some mere disconnected 
links of some idle fancy. 

The members of the Commission cannot be too highly praised for 
their careful and incessant efforts to elucidate the matter. 



44 Editorial Notes and Comments. { A 7anuary, P i902 rm ' 

In this connection a note on tetanus as a possible complication in 
vaccination might be considered. Cases of this nature have arisen 
quite frequently this Winter in Camden, N. J., " where the compli- 
cations were more extensive than anywhere else in the history of 
vaccination." The true cause of these cases of tetanus was not 
due, as many supposed, to the contamination of the vaccine virus 
and consequent infection of the wound but to the infection of the 
wound by the patient from several possible sources, namely: under- 
clothing, uncleanliness in general, especially of bandages and sur- 
rounding flesh ; air, water which may have been used in cleansing 
the wound, or it may have come from the unclean instruments of 
the physician, or improper cleansing of the inoculating area. 

It must be remembered that the possibilities of infection from 
vaccine virus are remote in these days of asepsis and antiseptics, 
also that a case of tetanus in a calf is a rarity. 

The preventive measures presenting themselves in this connection 
might be summed up as follows : 

First, that the point of inoculation must be perfectly clean (chem- 
ically and bacteriologically). 

Second, that the instruments used in making the scarifications 
must be sterile. 

Third, that the inoculated area must be protected by a sterile 
shield and not a germ-loaded bandage. 

W. S. Weakley. 



EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

TO MARK DR. CHARLES RICE'S GRAVE. 

The editor of the Pharmaceutical Review (January) calls attention 
to the fact that the grave of Dr. Rice is without a suitable tablet 
to mark it, and suggests that, " under the circumstances, it 
is the duty of the representatives of American pharmacy to see 
that the spot where the earthly remains of Dr. Rice rest, be marked 
at least in a modest way. A granite boulder carried by glacier 
from a distant state to New York, no one knowing its exact home, 
would seem a fitting monument to the deceased ; a brightly polished 
surface with his assumed name, by which the pharmaceutical world 
knows him, with the date of his death, a fitting inscription. Let 
us honor the man and his memory, but let us do it in a way that 
would gratify him. The unassuming man who seems ever to have 



A jaiSa^fr902 m '} Editorial Notes and Comments. 45 

been ready to give what he had to others, to whom ostentation 
was repugnant, whose life was a life of work, should have a monu- 
ment befitting his character. 

"A more enduring monument than a granite or marble shaft 
should be raised, but not at Woodlawn Cemetery. A pharmaceu 
tical research laboratory, such as would have delighted Dr. Rice, 
the scientist, had he been able to work in it for the past twenty-one 
years and direct from it the revision of three editions of the United 
States Pharmacopoeia, is the most fitting monument that American 
pharmacy can erect to his memory. But while such a larger mon- 
ument is under contemplation, let us not entirely forget the resting 
place of Dr. Rice and mark the spot in a manner befitting the 
character and temper of the man." 

It should be said in this connection that Dr. Rice so conducted 
his life that his own personal interests were always subservient to 
those of his fellows, and there is good reason to believe that he- so 
disposed of his personal effects that they went to those whom he 
intended they should benefit. 

As to courting honors and favors which did not come from the 
heart, he had too fine an appreciation of truth and goodness ever 
to desire these. So, whatever we do in honor ot this truly great 
man, let it be done in a spirit of fraternity and reverence. His 
memory is our inheritance, and I am sure he would not reproach us 
if we did something to mark his grave (see this Journal, June, 1901, 
p. 305) providing we did it quietly and unostentatiously. When the 
plans are developed no doubt all who desire to share in this tribute 
will be given a chance to do so. 

As we have already said : " One ventures to believe that an ade- 
quate memorial of him will some day be undertaken." 

THE GERMAN PHARMACOPOEIA. 

H. G. Greenish has given a critical review [Pharm. Jour. y Sept., 
1901, p. 315) of the descriptions of the vegetable drugs of the Ger- 
man Pharmacopoeia, and concludes " that the compilers of the Ger- 
man Pharmacopoeia had no pre-arranged systematic plan for dealing 
with this part of the materia medica. They have admitted the 
desirability of dealing with powdered drugs, but they have not, in 
my opinion, dealt with them in a very satisfactory manner. Impor- 
tant toxic^as well as non-toxic drugs have been left with insufficient 



/ 



46 Editorial Notes and Comments. { A January P i9ol m ' 

details of their structure, or indeed without any. . , . The extreme 
brevity of the macroscopic descriptions is to be regretted, but on 
the other hand,, the introduction of numerous descriptions of the 
microscopic structure is much to be commended." 

FERTILIZATION. 

In an article on the nature of the " Process of Fertilization " in 
the Medical News (Nov. 16, 1901) W. J. Gies reviews the recent 
work which has been done by a number of investigators, and in 
summing up the chief experimental results says : 

(1) Extracts of the spermatozoa of the sea-urchin, which have 
been made by the ordinary methods for the preparation of enzyme 
solutions, do not possess any power of causing proliferation of the 
ripe ovum. 

(2) No evidence could be furnished of the existence of a zymogen 
in spermatozoa. 

(3) Extracts of fertilized eggs, in the earlier stages of develop- 
ment, were likewise entirely devoid of segmental activity. 

(4) Enzyme seems to be excluded from the catalytic substances 
which Loeb and others have thought may influence the initial 
divisions of the ovum after the introduction of the spermatozoon, 
although it is possible that the conditions of these and previous 
experiments were unfavorable to the manifestation of activity on 
the part of fecundative ferment. It seems more probable, however, 
that Loeb's theory of the influence of spermatic ions in fertilization 
affords the true explanation of the phenomena in question. 

PRUSSIC ACID IN CASSAVA. 

According to Carmody (Botanical Dept., Trinidad) there appears 
to be no grounds for the common belief that sweet cassava contains 
more HCN the older it is. Nor is there any ground for the belief 
that the locally grown sweet cassava is but a degenerate growth 
resulting from many years' association with the better variety. The 
analyses of the author show that \n sweet cassava the prussic acid is 
not uniformly distributed throughout the tubes and that in bittet cas- 
sava it is uniformly distributed, or nearly so. 

THE ATOMIC THEORY. 

In the Inaugural Address of A. W. Rucker, the President of the 
British Association for the Advancement of Science, the atomic 



Al januaryfi902 m '} Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 47 

theory was considered in the light of modern discoveries, and 
instead of concluding that it had served its purpose, Dr. Riicker 
concludes {Chem. News, 1901, 133) "that in spite of the tentative 
nature of some of our theories, in spite of many outstanding difficul- 
ties, the atomic theory verifies so many facts, simplifies so much 
that is complicated, that we have a right to insist — at all events 
till an equally intelligible rival hypothesis is produced— that the 
main structure of our theory is true; that atoms are not merely 
helps to puzzled mathematicians, but physical realities." 



REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

Pharmacopedia, a commentary on the British Pharmacopoeia, 
1898. By Edmund White and John Humphrey. With 46 full- 
page plates. London: Henry Kimpton, 13, Furnival Sq , E. C. 
1 901. 

The authors have recognized a need in all countries, of educators 
and students alike, to acquire such a knowledge of the subject- 
matter of the respective Pharmacopoeias as may exert an evident 
possible beneficent influence on the physician and pharmacist in 
their relation to the cure of the sick and diseased. Educators will 
admit with Huxley, as quoted by the authors: "The knowledge I 
have looked for was a real, precise, thorough and practical knowl- 
edge of fundamentals ; whereas that which the best of the candi- 
dates in a large proportion of cases have had to give me was a large, 
extensive, and inaccurate knowledge of superstructure." 

The Pharmacopoeias represent the knowledge that has been tried, 
accepted, and is likely to be valuable for a limited number of years. 
This knowledge is based on experiment, reasoning, and fundamen- 
tals that are necessarily not contained in its pages. These funda- 
mentals are what ought to be sought and acquired by teachers and 
students as well as practitioners and pharmacists. Works tending 
to this end are not only to be desired but are valuable in alleviating 
human suffering and prolonging life. The failure to possess this 
knowledge is one factor that is delaying the progress in medicine 
and pharmacy. 

The authors in this treatise have wisely confined themselves to 
the subject-matter of the British Pharmacopoeia. They have, fur- 
thermore, first ascertained the meaning of the British Pharmaco- 



48 Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. { A ™^S!Jyfig£ m * 

poeia, and have expressed this in a brief commentary which the 
readers and users of the Pharmacopoeia will find useful. 

The vegetable and animal drugs, as well as chemicals, are treated 
under the following headings : A general description as to origin 
and occurrence of the substance ; physical and chemical characters ; 
notes or comments. The various preparations are considered under 
their respective groups, and a "running" commentary is made of 
each. One of the values of the work is that it does not take the 
place of the British Pharmacopoeia but it supplements it in a manner 
that is commendable to the authors and will be beneficial to the 
interests of that Pharmacopoeia. Authors of text-books, students, 
physicians, and pharmacists will find it profitable to have the book. 

A Manual of Volumetric Analysis. Treating on the subjects 
of Indicators, Test-Papers, Alkalimetry, Acidimetry, Analysis by 
Oxidation and Reduction, Iodometry, Assay Processes for Drugs 
with the Titrimetric Estimation of Alkaloids, Estimation of Phenol, 
Sugar ; Tables of Atomic and Molecular Weights. By Virgil 
Coblentz. Illustrated. Philadelphia : P. Blakiston's Son & Co., 
10 1 2 Walnut Street, 190 1. Octavo, 180 pages. Price, $1.25 net. 

This manual is an elucidation of the principles underlying and 
connected with the subjects relating to volumetric analysis. The 
author is perfectly familiar with the modern theories in physical 
chemistry and has applied this knowledge in the treatment of the 
subject of indicators. The disturbing elements in titration, such as 
dilution, temperature, etc., are carefully considered. The fact that 
standard solutions require to be re-standardized, and that it is very 
convenient to prepare these empirical solutions when needed, has 
led the author to devote a special section to this subject, practical 
examples being given throughout the text. 

The following subjects are treated : I. Definitions, Apparatus, 
Standard Solutions. 11. Analysis by Saturation: Indicators, Test- 
Papers, Preparation of Standard Acid and Alkali Solutions, Alka- 
limetry, Acidimetry, Direct Percentage Estimations, Empirical Solu- 
tions in Titrating, Volumetric Estimations of Alkaloids. III. 
Analysis by Oxidation and Reduction: Estimations with Potassium 
Permanganate, Direct Methods of Estimation, Indirect Methods of 
Estimation, Estimations with Potassium Dichromate, Determina- 
tions involving Iodine and Sodium Thiosulphate V.S., Estimation 



A ja^uaryfiw2 m '} Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 49 

of Free Iodine and Iodometry. IV. Analysis by Precipitation : Esti- 
mation of Combined Halogens, Halogen Acids and Silver, Decinor- 
mal Silver Nitrate V.S., Decinormal Sodium Chlorid V.S., Volhard's 
or Thiocyanide Method. V. Estimation of Phenol and Volumetric 
Estimation of Sugars : Estimation of Phenol, Decinormal Bromine 
V.S., Volumetric Estimation of Fermentable Sugars, Pavy's Ammo- 
niacal Cupric Tartrate V.S. VI. In an appendix are given tables of 
atomic weights and of atomic and molecular weight multiples and 
a list of molecular weights of more important elements. 

It will not be saying too much to state that the book is a good 
treatise on the fundaments of volumetric analysis, and will be found 
valuable by those interested in the subject. 

An Introduction to Chemical Analysis. For Students of 
Medicine, Pharmacy, and Dentistry. By Elbert W. Rockwood. 
Illustrated. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston's Son & Co., 1012 Walnut 
Street, 1901. Price, Cloth, #1.50 net. 

This work has been written primarily for professional students, 
and is intended to show the value of chemical analyses and their 
application in the study of medicine, pharmacy, and dentistry. The 
author is to be commended for the free use which he makes of the 
metric system. 

The subjects treated are brought under the following heads : I. 
Qualitative Analysis: Metals, Acids, Organic Compounds. II. 
Volumetric Analysis: General Principles, Analysis by Neutraliza- 
tion, Analysis by Oxidation and Reduction, Analysis by Precipita- 
tion. III. Applied Analysis : The Sanitary Examination of Water, 
The Selection of Poisons, Analysis by Means of the Blowpipe. IV. 
The Preparation and Testing of Reagents, Chemical Elements, 
Symbols and Atomic Weights, The Metric System. 

The book contains much valuable information and will be found 
to be an aid to students, but on account of the large number of 
books of a similar character, will probably be more largely used 
by the author's own students than others. 



PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

The third of the series of pharmaceutical meetings of the Phila- 
delphia College of Pharmacy for 1901-1902 was held on Tuesday, 



5o 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



r A.m. Jour. Pharm, 
1. January, 1902. 



December 17th. Dr. R. V. Mattison, vice-president of the college, 
presided. 

The first speaker was Joseph L. Lemberger, Lebanon, Pa., who 
has been Treasurer of the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association 
for more than 25 years and who read a paper on " The Origin, 
History and Influence of State Pharmaceutical Associations " (see 
page 7). At the conclusion of the reading of the paper the chair- 
man said that he thought that all pharmacists who were alive to 
their interests became members of their respective pharmaceutical 
associations as soon as they could. Mr. Lemberger further stated 
that he believed that good legislation could be secured if the many 
pharmacists in Pennsylvania and other States could be organized and 
their influence brought to bear upon their legislators. (See Professor 
Beal's paper in this Journal, 1901, p. 69.) 

The next paper was on " The Sugar-coated Pill," by William R. 
Warner, Jr., and was read in the absence of the author by Charles 
H. La Wall (see page 32). Mr. Thomas S. Wiegand then followed 
with a paper on the same subject (see page 33). These papers 
proved to be of historical interest and were discussed by Messrs. 
Shinn, Lemberger, Remington, Lowe, Boring, Mclntyre, Wiegand, 
Kraemer and the chairman. The discussion brought out the follow- 
ing facts: That the first sugar-coated pills sold in this country were 
imported from France and were manufactured by Gamier Lumoreaux 
& Co. Mr. Mclntyre stated that the late William R. Warner was 
the first to make sugar-coated pills in the United States ; that these 
were made at Mr. Warner's store at Second Street and Girard 
Avenue. Subsequent to this various firms began their manufacture. 
Among the earliest of these were Bullock & Crenshaw, Philadelphia; 
Tilden & Co., of New London, N. Y.; and Henry Thayer & Co., of 
Cambridgeport, Mass. Professor Remington alluded to the method 
used by Messrs. Parke, Davis & Co. in imparting a gloss to their 
pills, which was simply to roll them backward and forward over a 
table coated with paraffin. Mr. Wiegand said this is in principle 
similar to that pursued some thirty years ago : some confectioners 
made a secret of a material composed of wax, parafifin, and oil of 
almond, which gave no better results than wax alone with a few 
pieces of best quality of French chalk. It is to be noted, however, 
that none of these substances will be efficacious unless the sugar 
coat is sufficiently fine before the attrition with the wax and talcum. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.l 
January, 1902. J 



Pharmaceutical Meeting, 



51 



Mr. Boring said that while many of the sugar-coated pills were 
beautiful in appearance that they were often composed of inferior 
materials and stated that he had, for instance, cut open pills of 
proto-iodide of mercury and found them to contain the bin-iodide. 

William G. Toplis gave an interesting paper with demonstration 
on " A Method of Filling Capsules with Essential Oils " (see page 
36). The paper was discussed by Messrs. Haussmann, Lowe, Boring 
and the chairman. Mr. Toplis said, in answer to various questions, 
that he was of the opinion that the method would work equally well 
with any of the volatile oils as eucalyptus, sandal-wood, etc. ; that 
he had not worked with creasote and other substances that were 
mentioned. Dr. Mattison alluded to the peculiar phenomena of the 
swelling of the starch containing the oil on the addition of cold 
water, and suggested that some one investigate this subject. 

The next paper was on " Ground Flaxseed Adulterated with 
Mineral Oil," by Lyman F. Kebler (see page 39). The paper was 
accompanied by a number of interesting specimens. Mr. Beringer 
called attention to the fact that he had examined some flaxseed some 
years ago (see this Journal, 1889, page 167), in which the oil had 
been partially extracted and to which corn meal had been added. 
Mr. Cliffe stated that grinders of flaxseed found it necessary to 
remove a part of the oil to facilitate grinding. Dr. Mattison 
remarked that the adulteration of flaxseed was largely due to the 
high price consequent on the failure of the crop and that instead of 
exporting flaxseed we are now importing as many as 1,700,000 
bushels. 

A paper on "The Pharmacologic Assay of Drugs," by Professor 
Arthur R. Cushny, of the University of Michigan, was read, in the 
absence of the author, by Professor Kraemer (see page 1). The 
paper was discussed by Messrs. Wilbert, England and the chairman. 

There were quite a number of attractive and interesting exhibits. 
A mill manufactured by the Abbe Manufacturing Company was 
described by Professor Remington. The grinding is accomplished 
by means of pebbles made of flint obtained from Greenland they 
are enclosed in a cylinder, which is slowly rotated. It appears to be 
useful in grinding such substances as opium, extract of colocynth, 
cantharides, arsenic and other substances, the grinding of which 
usually affects the operator on account of the poisonous or irritating 
properties of the dust formed. Mr. Wilbert stated that he had 



52 Pharmaceutical Meeting. { A ja^aryffe 111 ' 

found the mill better adapted as a mixer for Dover's powder and 
the grinding of hard substances, as extracts, than for powdering 
drugs. Mr. Boring stated that in making Dover's powder, Dr. 
Squibb's idea was that much of the value of the powder consisted 
in the thorough trituration of all the ingredients together. 

Wm. R. Warner & Co. exhibited a number of well-finished sugar- 
coated pills. Hance Brothers & White exhibited a line of elastic 
capsules. Gilpin, Langdon & Co. showed among other products a 
line of assayed powdered vegetable drugs. 

E. H. Gane, New York City, sent over recently a specimen of 
" chibu," which had been received by Messrs. Kesson & Robbins 
from one of their customers in Porto Rico. The product is used 
principally for making balsamic pills and elixirs in Porto Rico, and 
is reported by the natives to be valuable. According to Mr. Gane 
it is apparently very similar to our " gum thus," and our syrup of 
white pine compound will doubtless answer all the purposes of 
chibu. Richard Shoemaker exhibited a sample of mesquite gum 
recently sent from Texas. The gum can be furnished at a low price, 
and might be used for some purposes in place of sorts of gum 
arabic. John Laval & Sons sent a remarkably fine specimen of 
Virginia snakeroot. 

Mr. William Mclntyre presented a check for $35 for the use of 
the pharmaceutical meetings, and stated that inasmuch as he was a 
life-member of the College and was not required to pay any further 
dues ; and, furthermore, that, as he had profited by his attendance 
at the pharmaceutical meetings, he desired to give to the College an 
equivalent of annual dues for the past seven years. The check was 
accepted, and a vote of thanks was tendered Mr. Mclntyre for his 
donation. 

Before adjourning it was announced that the following provisional 
program had been arranged for the next meeting on January 21st: 

"The History and Uses of Digestive Ferments in Medicine." 
By Benjamin Fairchild, New York City. 

" Filtration of Drinking Water." By William G. Toplis. 

" Solubility of Tablets." By A. M. Hance. 

"Seidlitz Powders." By R, H. French. 

Discussion on Modern Drug Store Methods. 

Various exhibits and some other papers are also expected. 

H. K. 



THE AMERICAN 



JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



FEBRUARY, 1902. 



THE EVOLUTION AND USE OF THE ANIMAL .DIGEST- 
IVE FERMENTS IN MEDlCMEo,. tS> / 



« Ever since the time ' ferments and ferment action ' have been 
known," says Oppenheimer in his recent work on the subject, " their 
investigation has covered the whole field of inquiry in all branches 
of biology, because where there is life their manifestations play an 
important role. All the problems of animal and vegetable metab- 
olism — in brief life — are in some way related to the province of the 
ferments." 

Sir Michael Foster in his Lane Lectures," 1901, declares : "The 
history of physiology can be regarded in no other light than as the 
heart or kernel of the history of medicine." 

In attempting a review of the immense labors elucidating the 
nature of the ferments of digestion, we find ourselves confronted 
with a subject which, to present with the fulness it invites, would 
take us far beyond permissible limits. It is therefore necessary to 
attempt simply a brief, clear and authentic (in so far as possible) 
view of the genesis of the subject as it comes to and concerns us 
to-day in pharmacy and medicine. 

Physiology, as a science, was evidently unknown to the ancients ; 
and when the ignorance concerning human anatomy still existing 
at the beginning of the seventeenth century (Harvey discovered the 
circulation of the blood in 1628) is taken into consideration, phys- 
iology in general, as well as its application to digestion, must, at 
best, have been in its infancy at this period. 

It is therefore remarkable that the Belgian chemist, Von Hel- 




ta) 



54 



Animal Digestive Ferments. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm,. 
1 February, 1902. 



mont (15 87-1 644), should be credited with the statement that not 
the acids, but a definite body similar to those producing fermenta- 
tion, was the vital principle of the stomach. Is this a modern con- 
struction of some of his writings, or is it one of those brilliant con- 
ceptions several centuries in advance of the times ? As he termed 
all processes accompanied by the evolution of gases, even the effer- 
vescence of carbonates upon the addition of acids, " fermentation,'* 
our faith is somewhat shaken. 

That the stomach played an important role in the digestion of 
food was no doubt evident to physicians of all times, but the value 
of the gastric juice and the existence of the secreting glands was 
first perceived by Borelli. (i 608-1679.) 

With the dawn of the scientific era and the application of scien- 
tific method in physiological investigations our knowledge of diges- 
tion expanded. In 1752 Reaumur published his investigations, 
carried out on a regurgitating buzzard or kite, and established the 
fact that digestion is independent of the mechanical power of the 
stomach ; that a chemical change is produced in the food by the 
juices of the stomach, and that these latter have no action on vege- 
table food. 

In 1772 Hunter noted the fact of post-mortem digestion, in which 
the stomach itself is digested and dissolved by its own juice. In 
1777 we find Stevens applying Reaumur's method to a regurgitat- 
ing man, but eliciting nothing new. 

Then followed the classical researches of Spallanzani (1783), who 
by ingenious devices obtained from the living animal (birds and 
beasts) gastric juice quite free from extraneous matter. He was the 
first to clearly define the marked difference between peptic digestion 
and the phenomena of fermentation and putrefaction, and succeeded 
in demonstrating the potency of gastric juice outside of the body 
— in vitro. Inspired by Spallanzani's observations, Senebier, a sur- 
geon of Geneva (Saint Evangele), suggested and employed gastric 
juice in surgery in the treatment of foul wounds, sores and cancers, 
etc., and his results being communicated to Jurine of Geneva, and 
Toggia of Turin, they (the former especially) made extended experi- 
ments in the application of gastric juice obtained from various ani- 
mals — bullocks and sheep. They all observed that the gastric juice 
had the power "to remove all disagreeable smell from foetid ulcers; 
to give them a clean appearance ; to change the quantity and qual- 



A Feb J ruary P ?9 a o r 2 m '} Animal Digestive Ferments. 55. 

ity of the suppurated matter, and to obtain a speedy cicatrization.'" 
Carminati, a celebrated professor of medicine and surgery at 
Pavia, to whose notice these investigations were brought by Spal- 
lanzani, likewise used the gastric juice of animals as topical appli- 
cations, and also used it internally in cases of indigestion, etc., with 
equally good results — the first recorded therapeutic use of a digest- 
ive secretion. 

It is probably due to the absorbing interest manifested for the 
multitude of discoveries in all branches of science, more particularly 
in chemistry (by Scheele, Lavoisier, Gay Lussac, Berzelius and 
others), at the close of the eighteenth and the early part of the 
nineteenth century; probably also to the disturbed social and; 
political conditions incidental to the Napoleonic wars, that the 
researches of Spallanzani did not become generally known. Then, 
again, the difficulty of the subject, the crudeness of existing meth- 
ods, the want of exact instruments and appliances, may account for 
the conflicting opinions and theories, for the cessation of marked 
progress in the physiology of digestion, up to 183 I. It was about 
this time (1828) that a discovery of the utmost importance in 
chemistry, the breaking down of the barrier between organic and 
inorganic chemistry, the destruction of the idea of the existence of 
a " life " force peculiar to organic bodies, viz., the synthesis of urea, 
was made by Wohler. This may well be conceived to have given 
a fresh impulse and promise to the isolation of some of the princi- 
ples concerned in vital action, and thus to the study of the 
physiology of digestion, for the most important advances follow 
close on this time. 

In 1824 by Prout — and independently by Thiedemann and Gmelirt 
in 1826 — free hydrochloric acid was found in gastric juice, and 
believed by the latter to be the digestive principle. 

Luechs discovered, in 183 1, the power of saliva to dissolve starch 
and convert it into reducing sugar ; later Schwann, Mialhe and 
Cohnheim corroborated the statement and precipitated the active 
principle by various methods. 

In 1834, the publication of the results of Beaumont's observations 
of natural digestion in the human stomach — in a case of a traumatic 
fistula — terminated the discussion regarding the existence, activity 
and acidity of gastric juice. Beaumont, however, advanced the 
theory of the combination of the juice with the food to form 



5 6 



Animal Digestive Ferments, 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I February, 1902. 



" gastrites," and assumed the gastric juice to be the only digesting 
fluid of the body — an illustration of unfounded deductions leading 
to great error in association with important truths. 

In the same year Eberle materially advanced our knowledge of 
digestion by successfully preparing active artificial gastric juice by 
scraping the mucus from the inner wall of the dead stomach and 
extracting the same with water and with dilute acids. He demon- 
strated that hydrochloric acid alone would not digest proteids and 
produce chymification. He however fell into the error of assuming 
that mucus itself was the active principle. 

Eberle prepared similar infusions of other glands, particularly the 
pancreas, and was the first to note that it " liquefied gelatine, 
changed starch into sugar, and emulsified fat " — observations for 
which he does not seem to receive due credit. 

Eberle apparently made no attempt to separate the ferment ; but 
his method for preparing unlimited amounts of artificial gastric juice 
removed a great obstacle in the path of progress (scarcity of gastric 
juice, as well as contamination with other secretions, chyme, etc.) 
and paved the way for Schwann's brilliant researches in 1836. 
Apparently at the instigation of Johannes Muller, Schwann repeated 
Eberle's experiments, and this in so thorough and careful a manner 
that almost all of his observations and results hold true to-day. He 
found ^that the active principle was soluble in water and feeble 
hydrochloric and acetic acids ; that acid was essential for its mani- 
festations ; that free acid alone had no solvent power on coagulated 
albumen; that the active principle was not in combination with 
acids ; that an excess of acid destroys ; that dilution does not 
weaken the activity if the acidity is maintained ; that the action is a 
" contact action." He believed the ferment to be gradually 
destroyed during its action ; that there is marked similarity between 
digestion and fomentation; but noted that no oxygen was con- 
sumed and no carbonic acid liberated during digestion; that the 
same causes arrest or destroy both, as heat, strong alcohol; that 
digestion requires acid, fermentation, oxygen ; that in both, small 
quantities produce great changes. He tested the active principle in 
its behavior with acids, with metallic salts, with tannin ; showed 
how it differentiated from albumen by not being precipitated with 
ferrocyanide of potash ; from caseine by its failure to precipitate with 
ferrocyanide and acetic acid ; and that it differs from " salivin " and 



A FebrXvTi9 a o r 2 m *} Animal Digestive Ferments. 57 

" ozmazome " — names given then to other forms of proteids. He 
attempted to ascertain its nature, whether simple or complex; 
noted the curdling action on the casein of milk and proved that this 
was not due to the acid ; likewise studied its proteolytic power on 
muscular tissue and fibrin. Further showed that it was not mucin 
or a constituent of mucus, but secreted by the glands of the mucous 
membrane. He did not isolate the pure ferment (it has not been 
accomplished yet), but developed a method of purification by precipi- 
tation with mercury chloride and lead acetate, the metal being 
subsequently precipitated by hydrogen sulphide and removed by 
filtration. He was the first to ascribe a ferment nature to the active 
principle of the gastric juice, to which he gave the name pepsin. 

In 1839 Wasmann — a pupil of Miiller and Schwann — following 
the method of the latter, prepared a dry amorphous product by pre- 
cipitating the filtrate, after removal of the metal, with alcohol, and 
drying the precipitate at low temperature. 

Wasmann obtained a very potent product in this way from the 
pig stomach, extracting- with water at 35-40 C. 

He is stated by French as having considered the active principle 
a combination of pepsin and hydrochloric acid. 

The younger Burdach published, in 1841, the results of various 
experiments tending to show that acidulated infusions of many 
organs and tissues possess proteolytic powers. A glance at his- 
results shows that this power was exceedingly weak. 

In 1842, Blondlot in France, Bassow in Russia, succeeded in 
establishing gastric fistulae in dogs ; later on extended to the pan- 
creas by Bernard, Heidenhain, etc. Blondlot in his treatise speaks 
of the nature of chyme, and in a rambling, incoherent manner of 
various fermentations, etc. 

Lehmann, in 1842, treats of the manner of the proteolytic action 
of pepsin, considers it a protein of cellular origin and capable of 
transforming ingested albuminoids into substances susceptible of 
absorption. He credits Wasmann with regarding the granular 
matter in the glandular cells — the " cystoblastima " of Schwann — 
as either pepsin itself or the substance from which pepsin is formed. 

In 1845 Bouchardat and Sandras published results obtained with 
the pancreatic juice of fowls, exhibiting great diastasic power. They 
subsequently continued their investigations on rabbits. 

These authors are given credit for being the first to discover the 



58 



Animal Digestive Ferments. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 February, 1902. 



saccharifying power of the pancreas, although in 1833 Eberle found 
his artificial pancreatic juice to convert starch into sugar. French 
gives the credit to Professor Valentin, of Bera, although Gamgee 
in his history now objects to this. 

Bernard, in 1845, states that the whole function of the pancreas 
;is its power to emulsify fat ; this function was first noted by Eberle. 

Frerich, in 1846, reviews the whole subject of digestive ferments, 
stating that the pancreatic juice changes starch to sugar, decom- 
poses bile into insoluble substances for excretion, and, with the 
assistance of the bile, emulsifies fats. He argues in favor of an 
analogy between digestion and fermentation, combating^the pepsin- 
hydrochloric acid and "contact" theories; assails Bernard for 
assuming that all of the various phenomena of digestion are pro- 
duced by one and the same ferment, insisting upon the existence of 
independent ferments possessing specific powers, grouping them as 
digestive ferments. 

In 1849 Bernard reports success in establishing pancreatic fistulae 
in dogs, thereby opening up the field for accurate investigations of 
this gland. He failed to note its proteolytic function. 

Bidder and Schmidt, in 1852, contribute a paper on the digestive 
fluids of dogs and cats, giving an analysis of gastric and pancreatic 
juices. With the latter they fail to obtain proteolytic action on coagu- 
lated egg albumen, but obtain marked action on starch. Their 
remarks on pepsin contain nothing noteworthy. 

Although there is some dispute whether Eberle or Purkinji and 
Pappenheim should be given the priority of discovering the proteo- 
lytic power of the pancreas, Corvisart, in 1857, removed all doubt 
concerning the existence of the proteolytic power by careful sys- 
tematic investigation. He pointed out that the activity of the juice 
varied with the time elapsed since feeding, and believed the failure 
of others to note this function of the gland due to killing the animal 
at the most unfavorable period of digestion, the most active being 
between the sixth and ninth hour after a full meal. 

In 1858 Dr. Lionel Beale published a method of preparing pepsin 
by scraping the mucous membrane of the stomach and drying the 
viscid fluid so obtained on glass at a low temperature. He and 
Corvisart appear the first to suggest the use of " pepsin " in medi- 
cine. 

Meissner, in 1859 and i860, made an exhaustive study of both 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
February, 1902. J 



Animal Digestive Ferments. 



59 



peptic and pancreatic digestion, more particularly with a view to 
ascertaining the nature of the digestive products formed. Miahle 
was the first, according to Meissner, to use the term " albuminose " 
in reference to the products of proteid digestion, but the term as 
Miahle used it included all these products. Lehman, according to 
the same authority, proposed the term " peptone," and recognized 
different kinds of peptones, and described their character. 

Meissner corroborated the results ot Lehman, and discovered 
other intermediary products between albumen and peptone, experi- 
menting on both raw and coagulated albumen, meat, etc. 

Meissner likewise proved the correctness of Corvisart's results 
concerning the proteolytic power of the pancreas; but, strange to 
say, found it inert in aqueous and alkaline media and active only in 
acid medium. 

He did not believe pepsin alone to be of any promise of thera- 
peutic value, assuming it worthless unless acid was given at the 
same time. He therefore advocated the administration of peptone 
prepared outside the body with hydrochloric acid and pepsin, pref- 
erably from meat, as that from egg albumen was too bitter — the 
whole made more palatable by salt, spices, etc. — and gives a for- 
mula for preparing this peptone. He likewise suggested the use of 
the peptone solution as a nutritive enema. 

Brucke, in 1859, published a very complicated method for pre- 
paring pepsin, said by him to yield a product quite free from adher- 
ing proteid matter. It is of scientific interest only, and probably 
seldom or never used now. 

An interesting paper appeared in 1862, by Danilewsky, a pupil of 
Kuehne, on the active principles of natural and artificial pancreatic 
juice. It is written in a clear and definite manner, and seems to 
bring order into the confusion of views on the subject current at 
that time. His conclusions are that there are three distinct fer- 
ments present, acting respectively on starch, fibrin and fat ; that 
two of these ferments can be isolated in a form of comparative purity, 
the fat-splitting ferment being probable ; that the amylolytic ferment 
acts in acid, (?) alkaline and neutral media, the proteolytic in neutral 
and alkaline only ; that the digestion of the coagulated fibrin is not 
due to putrefaction ; that alkaline media is not favorable, excess of 
free alkali or free hydrochloric acid checking the action of fibrin. 
Further, that the proteolytic substance is not a pure albuminoid, 
but is a colloid substance. 



6o Animal Digestive Ferments. { A Feb J r°uarV!i™* 

Krassilinikow, a student of Brucke, first made use of dialysis in 
purifying pepsin in 1 864. 

Hoppe-Seyler, in 1864, published a comprehensive table, classify- 
ing the various forms of proteids, characterized by their solubility 
and by their precipitability with various neutral alkaline salts, as 
sodium chloride, magnesium sulphate, etc. 

One of the earlier contributions on the pancreas, its ferments, the 
nature of its action on proteids, the cleavage products formed, etc., 
a subject that was made the special study of Kuehne and his pupils, 
appeared in 1867. Since then, up to 1880, numberless papers on 
the subject have appeared, and our present knowledge -of this sub- 
ject we owe largely to this investigator. Kuehne also gave the 
name trypsin to the proteolytic ferment, and introduced the term 
,( enzymes " to designate this class of active principles, viz., the 
digestive ferments. 

Von Wittich, in 1869, suggested the use of glycerin in extracting 
the pepsin, and this has since been employed extensively both in 
scientific research as well as in the manufacture of the digestive fer- 
ments and their preparations. 

Scheffer, in 1872, published a method for preparing commercial 
pepsin by precipitation from an acid infusion of the stomach with 
common salt. He also stated that other neutral alkali salts, such 
as sodium sulphate and magnesium sulphate, could be used instead 
of common salt with good results. The action of saturated solu- 
tions of some of the neutral salts of the alkalies on different protein 
substances induced him to try their effect on pepsin. 

In 1873 we find Ebstein and Grutzner demonstrating that pepsin 
does not exist as such in the stomach, but is rapidly formed from its 
progenitor — termed pepsinogen by these authors — by the gastric 
acid. Schwann and Wasmann seemed aware of this fact, but laid 
no stress on it. Langley, more recently, and Glaessner, during the 
past year, have given this subject careful study. Heidenhain dis- 
covered a zymogen, now called trypsinogen, in the pancreas in 
1875. 

Enabled by the great improvement in technic and by the intro- 
duction of antiseptic methods, Heidenhain, Klememsiwicz and 
Thiry during the seventies, Pawlow and his pupils during the 
nineties, observed the functions of the digestive glands under vari- 
ous conditions and influences in the living animal. Interesting and 



A reb J r°u U a r r'yTi^2 m '} Animal Digestive Ferments. 6 1 

instructive as these investigations are, we cannot dwell upon them 
here. 

In 1883 Kuehne and Chittenden employed and advocated the use 
of ammonium sulphate as a superior precipitant of the albumoses, 
in separating these from true peptone. 

Recent scientific inquiry seems directed chiefly to attempts to iso- 
late the pure enzymes in the hope of ascertaining their chemical 
nature ; careful examination of the cleavage products of proteids, 
produced by enzyme or by chemical action, to throw some light 
upon the structure of the proteids themselves. Schoumow, Sima- 
nowski (1894), Wroblewski (1895 and 1898), Pekelharing (1896), 
Friedenthal (1900) and Nencki and Sieber (1901) published investi- 
gations on the chemical nature of enzymes in support of their pro- 
teid nature. 

Chittenden in connection with his various pupils, Osborne and 
Campbell, Hopkins, Kossel, Kutscher, Siegfried and others, have 
since Kuehne's time wrestled with the difficult problem of isolating 
and characterizing the multitude of forms of proteids, native and 
derived, but as yet the synthesis of albumen has not been accom- 
plished. 

Chittenden, chief among contemporaneous investigators in phy- 
siological chemistry, has made extended and varied experiments and 
researches, and has contributed voluminously to the literature on 
the subject. His experiments, in fact, are quite too numerous for 
reference. We cite these as especially pertinent: " Human saliva," 
" A comparison of natural and artificial gastric digestion," " Influ- 
ence of peptones and certain inorganic salts on the diastasic action 
of saliva," " The relative formation of proteoses and peptone in 
gastric digestion." 

It is also to be said that the studies of the illustrious Kuehne are 
likewise so voluminous that no adequately detailed mention of them 
can be made. 

New methods of assaying the various preparations of digestive 
enzymes have been suggested by Kremel, Mett, Allen, etc. 

The influence, deleterious and beneficial, of condiments, spices, 
beverages, antiseptics and medicinal agents upon the functions of 
digestive enzymes, received the attention of Chittenden, Stutzer, 
Buchner, Fraser, Mann, Mabery, Goldsmith, Roberts and others. 

Kbnig, Bomer, Kjeldahl, Stutzer, Wiley, Mallett, developed 



62 Animal Digestive Ferments. 

methods for ascertaining the composition and food value of the pro- 
ducts of enzyme action, viz., the various albumoses and peptones of 
the market. 

From the very first, we observe speculations upon the nature of 
the changes produced by digestion. Von Helmont believed it to 
be a fermentation ; Eberle, chemical solution ; Schwann, contact 
action differing from true fermentation ; Frerich again speaks of it 
as fermentation ; then Pasteur proved that fermentation was due to 
micro-organisms, and a distinction was made between organized 
and unorganized ferments, Kuehne suggesting the name enzyme for 
the latter. 

Since Buchner's undoubted discovery in 1897 that alcoholic 
fermentation of sugar is produced by an enzyme — Zymase — which 
can be isolated from the yeast cell, the old theory that fermenta- 
tions could only be produced by living cells, being inseparably 
associated with the life of these cells, has been shattered ; and the 
thought that all true fermentations are caused by enzymes, and that 
the digestive processes, among others, should be classed as such is 
rapidly gaining credence. 

The Zymase has not received complete chemical analysis, not 
having been prepared in sufficiently pure form. It appears to be 
very closely related to proteids. 

Loew has described the enzymes as being very labile proteid sub- 
stances, containing both aldehyde and amide groups. Oppenheimer 
denies that the. enzymes themselves are labile, but capable of pro- 
ducing cleavage in other labile molecules, they themselves remaining 
unaltered. 

The products of the digestion of food have naturally been the 
subject of scientific investigation related to the study of the ferments 
themselves, and to our subject ; for the reason that foods increas- 
ingly enter into therapeutics both in the prevention and in the cure 
of disease. The main point of view from which it must be regarded 
in medicine is the physiological — that the prime function of diges- 
tion is the conversion of food of all classes into a soluble, assimilable 
and nutritive form. 

The obstacles which we have encountered in the chemical inves- 
tigation of the enzymes in a measure exist in relation to various 
proteids, native and derived, owing to their colloidal, non-volatile 
and readily decomposable nature. However, it is sufficient to state 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
February, 1902. J 



Animal Digestive Ferments. 



63 



that we have arrived in recent years at definite methods for the pre- 
cipitation and separation of certain proteids, albumen, albumoses, 
peptones, etc., and the nitrogenous crystallizable, associated and 
derived principles of the food. 

In the study of the derivatives of starch digestion similar difficul- 
ties are encountered in the separation of certain of the soluble 
carbohydrates, namely, the dextrins, but their color reactions are so 
marked as to afford reliable and well-known methods for distin- 
guishing them. The crystalline nature of the sugars, the maltose 
and dextrose, has made their chemical constitution well known. 

So we have authoritative methods for the analysis of food and 
food preparations. It is within the power of the analyst to 
distinguish between a preparation that is merely a stimulant and 
one that is, in the strictest sense, a complete nutritive; he is in a 
position to judge the degree of the change produced in the foods by 
digestion, and to form an opinion as to the relative assimilability of 
foods. , 

The coagulated albumen may, in its susceptibility to ferment 
action, be compared to gelatinized starch ; the acid-albumen or 
syntonin, to soluble starch ; proproteoses, to erythrodextrin ; deu- 
teroproteose, to achroodextrin ; peptone, to maltose, and the more 
resistant antialbumen or dyspeptone, to cellulose. 

The methods by which chemists distinguish these various soluble 
products in their various stages of solubility belong to the chemical 
side of the subject ; their chief physiological significance is simply 
that as the digestion proceeds the substances become more soluble, 
more highly diffusible. Furthermore, chemical analysis as applied 
to these organic substances necessarily involves methods which, 
perfect for the chemist to distinguish their reactions and behavior, 
in themselves bring into play agencies never encountered in physio- 
logical conditions. 

The influence of various and single food elements — sugars, 
albumen, gelatines, albumoses, peptones, etc. — have long been the 
object of study in the feeding of animals. These various substances 
have also been artificially introduced into the circulation and the 
effects observed. 

When we come to trace the results of scientific research and 
experiment in the chemistry of digestion as taking practical form 
in pharmacy and medicine, we have to go back but a brief time, 



64 Animal Digestive Ferments. {^ebruaryTim 1 ' 

especially if we restrict ourselves to that period when it can be said 
that the facts adduced concerning the nature and behavior and rela- 
tions of the enzymes receive anything like general recognition, and 
their practical utility realized and applied. 

Pepsin was first officially recognized in pharmacy by the French 
Codex of 1866, as pepsin medicinale, by the method originally sug- 
gested by Schwann and elaborated by Wasmann — the precipitation 
by lead acetate and evaporation of the purified solution of the pepsin, 
and incorporation with starch. Pepsin by this method first appeared 
in commerce from French sources. 

In 1867 pepsin appears in the British Pharmacopoeia, by the 
method originally suggested by Beale. 

The first mention of any preparation of pepsin in the German 
Pharmacopoeia is in 1872 — " wine of pepsin " prepared from the 
stomach. The first preparation of pepsin appearing in the United 
States Pharmacopoeia is pepsinum saccharatum, 1880; also the 
liquor pepsinae, prepared from the saccharated pepsin. It was not 
until the Pharmacopoeia of 1890, that an official standard was 
adopted for " pepsin," and the strength of saccharated pepsin pre- 
pared with this being increased six times over that of 1880. The 
U.S. P. defines no method of manufacture of pepsin. The special 
interest and significance of the phaTmacopceial requirements of 
pepsin are in providing a commensurate standard of activity and 
practically complete solubility. 

It is interesting here to note the digestive strength of these various 
official preparations of pepsin — the French forty times its weight of 
moist fibrin with lactic acid; the British one hundred times its 
weight ; the U.S.P. pepsin three thousand, and the saccharated three 
hundred times its own weight of coagulated albumen. As for the 
pepsin of commerce, Boudault's is stated to convert four times its 
weight ; Scheffer's saccharated digesting from ten to fifteen times 
its weight of coagulated egg-albumen in from five to six hours. 

Scheffer's process and Scheffer's pepsin may justly be character- 
ized as marking an epoch in the production of pepsin by a method 
admirably adapted for commerce. It had the great merit of employ- 
ing reagents innocent in themselves and strongly antiseptic, and this 
is especially advantageous from the fact that the precipitate or 
magma which is collected is so strongly impregnated with the salt 
that either in the moist or pressed form it retains its properties under 



A rebruYryTi902 m '} Animal Digestive Ferments. 65 

the ordinary conditions of manufacture, without decomposition, until 
reduced to dryness. 

It is to be noted in this connection that the sodium chloride and 
the other salts suggested by SchefTer threw out of solution a very 
large proportion of the soluble proteid bodies formed in the macer- 
ation of the stomach, or the stomach membrane, in the diluted 
hydrochloric acid at ordinary temperatures ; the viscid solution thus 
formed containing the proteids very largely in the form of albumose, 
this giving an exceedingly copious, light, flocculent precipitate, 
which has the advantageous property of rising to the surface and 
of carrying the ferment embedded, so to speak, with the proteids in 
which it is associated. 

By re-solution, clarification and re-precipitation, the product 
obtained could be purified to a considerable degree from the pre- 
cipitant and associated proteids and salts of the gastric infusion, and 
a pepsin thus of great activity resulted. This Scheffer's " purified 
pepsin," however, did not come into general use in medicine, and 
was especially offered as a means of preparing saccharated. 

SchefTer himself, although, as he remarked, confining himself 
specifically to the production of a pepsin, leaving its virtue to be 
established by physicians, nevertheless expressed the opinion that 
the " purified " (undiluted) pepsin might produce undesirable results. 
He considered the milk sugar desirable, therefore, in addition to its 
specific utility, as a means of reducing the pepsin to a pulverulent 
form, overcoming the obstacle inherent in the extremely tough and 
insoluble nature of the precipitated pepsin when reduced to dryness 
without some suitable absorbent. 

Saccharated pepsin by the SchefTer process soon became very 
generally manufactured in commerce, but its very advantages, the 
facilities with which the raw material could be treated and the 
product obtained, may account for the appearance in commerce of 
pepsin which obviously could not have been produced by any means 
in accordance with Scheffer's methods, namely, the clarification of 
the acidulated solution, assay of the precipitated pepsin and incor- 
poration of the diluent milk sugar to a definite standard of digestion 
test. Much saccharated pepsin of commerce was greatly deficient 
and feeble in action, so much so as to be of trifling value. 

About ten years subsequent to the introduction of Scheffer's pro- 
cess there appeared a method, patented by Jensen, based upon the 



66 



Animal Digestive Ferments. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm 
\ February. 1902. 



fact long before recognized, as we have seen, that the stomach was 
capable of self-digestion, and thus the tissue of the whole stomach 
or the mucous membrane converted into a soluble form. This 
product when dried, therefore, contained the ferment in association 
with the peptones produced by its action. It is at this time unneces- 
sary to state that the products of peptic action — the peptonized 
proteids — possess no digestive action (although at one time there 
appeared to be some impression of this current) and their hygro- 
scopic nature distinctly unfits them as a vehicle or basis for com- 
mercial pepsin if associated in any large degree with the ferment. 

It may be said that all pepsins are produced by processes embody- 
ing principles which have been developed by scientific research and 
experiment ; at present, in brief, the infusion of the stomach by 
such methods as to obtain the ferment in solution as free as possible 
from associated proteids, or else by heat to convert the paptic glands 
into complete solution, and the precipitation of the enzyme from 
this solution by such well-known reagents as sodium chloride, 
sodium sulphate, magnesium sulphate, etc., and purification by 
various methods — dialysis, etc. 

In these processes, advantage is taken of the fact that by infusion 
of the gland with heat, in acidulated solution, the whole tissue can 
not only be converted into solution, but carried forward to such a 
point as to yield a considerable proportion of peptone, this not being 
precipitable by the reagents mentioned ; so that by this means the 
pepsin as precipitated is at the outset of a much higher activity 
than that associated, as already described, with a large amount of 
albumoses. 

During this time no progress in the utilization of the pancreas 
ferments at all comparable to that in pepsin had been made, very 
evidently for the reason that scientific observations concerning the 
varied nature and action of the pancreas enzymes had either escaped 
attention or failed of appreciation. " Pancreatine " seems to have 
been made by methods almost identical with the " salt process " for 
pepsin, ignoring the fact that the pancreatic ferments are soluble in 
salt even in concentrated solutions — not precipitable by salt. 
Scheffer criticized this method, for he proved sodium chloride 
incapable of precipitating pancreatin. 

In spite of the fact, then, that the pancreatic ferments had been 
shown to possess great energy in the conversion of starch and of 



m. Jour. Pharm. \ 
February, 1902. J 



Filtration of Drinking Water. 



6 7 



albuminoids, practical attention had been chiefly directed to the 
pancreas function of digesting fat, and even in this respect the pan- 
creatine being defectively prepared (and saccharated) its value was 
practically negative. 

Pancreatine was first officially recognized in the U.S.P. in 1890,. 
and about this time the National Formulary recognized it with a 
method for its manufacture and adopted the U.S.P. standard as to 
its proteolytic power, especially relating to its practical use in the 
peptonization of milk. 

" Pancreatine," as officially recognized by the U.S.P., is defined 
as a mixture of the enzymes of the pancreas gland, digesting albu- 
minoids and converting starch into sugar. 

Pavy, in 1867, suggested the first preparation of an artificially 
digested food, obtained from meat and preserved in a fluid form. 

Roberts, in his Lumleian Lectures of 1880, demonstrated the 
adaptability and potency of the pancreas ferments for the peptoniza- 
tion of foods for the sick, especially the susceptibility of milk as 
well as farinaceous foods to artificial pancreatic digestion. He 
adduced numerous experiments as to the behavior of these ferments 
of practical significance, and suggested methods for preparing phar- 
maceutical preparations of them, discussing and illuminating the 
whole subject in this series of brilliant and practical lectures. It 
was he, it appears, who brought into use the word " peptonized " as 
a convenient term for the description of artificially digested foods. 

The pancreatic ferments had been previously utilized in a very 
primitive and extemporaneous manner ; for instance, treating meat 
by direct incorporation with the fresh gland, especially for nutritive 
enemata ; " paricreatized " fats, in a similar manner, and pancreatic 
emulsions were also introduced into pharmacy, resulting from the 
treatment of fat by direct maceration with the fresh gland pulp. 

[To be continued.) 



FILTRATION OF DRINKING WATER. 
By WiivUAM G. Topus. 

The need of water purification begins immediately after its 
delivery by the mighty distillery of Nature. 

Its contamination is commonly incident with its delivery, while 
its purification often follows closely by the operation of naturaL 



68 Filtration of Drinking Water. { A Feb J r O ua r ry P ?e a 02 m ' 

laws ; yet the great mass remains a source of the utmost solicitude 
so far as the health of communities is concerned. The impurities in 
water may be separated into two principal divisions, namely, 
Inorganic and Organic. That consisting of mineral substances, 
such as salts of K, Na, Ca, Ba, Mg, as may be dissolved by the 
water in its passage through the earth, is of the first class, and 
from a hygienic point of view is not of a particularly harmful 
character, though from a technical point of view it presents consid- 
erations of most serious importance. 

In the second class is embraced every substance produced during 
the life-processes of plants and animals. It is to this source of con- 
tamination that our attention is most earnestly directed for the 
purpose of providing a wholesome and economical water-supply. 
To this kind of contamination is chargeable all of the diseases 
peculiar to drinking water. It must be plainly understood that 
disease is not necessarily due -to the simple presence of organic 
matter, but such material invariably decays, and it is this change 
that causes the trouble by enabling pathogenic "organisms to pro- 
long their existence. 

From the beginning of time Nature has rid herself of all dead 
organized bodies in but one way, decay, brought about by the 
growth of bacteria at the expense of the dead matter. These 
minute vegetable organisms, either by their mechanical presence 
or through their excretory products, are responsible for all water- 
borne diseases. 

With such facts in mind, then, it is but natural that effort is being 
constantly put forth to remove from our water-supplies not only the 
bacteria, but the pabulum for their existence- — the organic matter. 

Nature has pointed unerringly the way. Springs have long been 
held in popular esteem as the source of pure drinking water, and 
not without good reason, for in the majority of cases springs 
sustain this reputation after chemical and biological examination. 
It has long been known that impure water percolated through a deep 
bed of sand issues greatly improved in chemical character, but the 
precise nature of the changes were not thoroughly understood until 
Koch's revelation made possible the isolation and study of 
individual species of bacteria. Art seeks to copy the changes 
so long carried out in springs, but with the precise care of 
scientific exactness instead of the haphazard of chance, as in 



A Feb J r°uaryTS 2 m '} Filtration of Drinking Water. 69 

springs. The sand filter, therefore, means the most exacting, 
painstaking care to establish the proper conditions, together 
with the wise application of much chemical, bacteriological, 
and engineering knowledge. The container is commonly built 
of concrete, though masonry and puddled clay embankments 
are not infrequently used. The bottom of the container is care- 
fully graded so that drainage will be equal from every part. The 
underdrains are given like careful attention for the same reason, and 
are built of broken stone or large gravel measuring 2 to 3 
inches on 3 diameters. It is spread in a layer 6 to 8 inches 
deep ; on top of this is spread several inches of smaller gravel 
then finer, until we have a bed 12 to 16 inches in thickness. Upon 
this is placed 4 feet of fine sand, exercising care to pack it evenly, 
and avoiding holes and ways. The chemical character of the sand 
and gravel must be carefully looked into, as it is important to avoid 
carbonates and sulphates of the second group. Much carbonic 
acid is formed during the operation of the filter, and this in solution 
has the property of dissolving carbonates of calcium magnesium, 
barium, strontium, creating increased temporary hardness, while 
any sulphate of calcium would materially add to the permanent 
hardness. The best material for the purpose is a sharp silicious 
sand. Having constructed the filter it is filled by introducing water 
at the bottom to avoid disarranging sand by escaping air. The 
filtration is at once begun, and bacteriological and chemical samples 
of water are regularly collected from the effluent and likewise from 
the applied water. At first there is but little difference in the 
character of the water, either bacteriologically or chemically. After a 
few days a comparison of the bacteriological counts on the raw water 
with those of the effluent will show a very marked increase of 
bacteria in the effluent over that of the applied water; this increase 
will steadily rise until after a variable period of time, usually two 
weeks, the counts rapidly diminish until they become less than 
one per cent, of the number in the applied water. At the same 
time a comparison of the chemical analyses of the effluent and 
applied water will show in the effluent greatly decreased free and 
albuminoid ammonia, practically no nitrites, and greatly increased 
nitrates. The operation during this period of time is known as the 
ripening of the filter. It embraces many complex changes of absorb- 
ing interest, and copies with scientific exactness the example which 



jo Filtration of Drinking Water. {^ebv^im^' 

nature carries out in springs under the most favorable conditions. 
For convenience of illustration, we may assume that the bulk of or- 
ganic matter is embraced within the elements C, H, O, N. No matter 
how complex the molecules may be, the matter is ultimately broken 
down into the most simple compounds of the elements, namely,, 
C into C0 2 ; H and O into water, and the N into nitric 
acid or salts of the same. This is all brought about through 
the functioning of those minute vegetable cells called bacteria, 
not instantly, but progressively ; not necessarily all in one oper- 
ation, but in consecutive changes, proceeding orderly and with> 
deliberation until that which was organic and perhaps toxic becomes^ 
the most simple inorganic compounds of the elements, quite harm- 
less and ready food for plant assimilation. This is all carried out in 
a slow sand filter, and the object is to cultivate rather than destroy 
bacteria. The sand is not the filter, the sand is simply the bones 
upon which the filter grows. Surrounding each individual bacterium, 
under the microscope may be seen a gelatinous envelope, when 
many bacteria are joined together in mass; this envelope may be 
seen collectively without a lens, forming a jelly-like mass and is then 
called a Zoogloea. In a sand filter this Zoogloea attaches to and 
covers completely each grain of sand in the filter. The grains form 
fine avenues through which the water is compelled to pass. The 
bacteria line these avenues. The water carrying its organic content 
brings it as food for the bacteria in the Zoogloea. As the water passes 
along, it is gradually relieved of its organic matter, because it is 
digested by the bacteria, and in its place bears away the products of 
the decomposition. Sublime in its beautiful simplicity ! We have 
chemical and biological proof of each change. Those just men. 
tioned are indicators of every step — C into C0 2 ; H and O into water, 
N into nitric acid and its compounds ; but the proper conditions 
must be maintained, and perhaps the most important factor, aside 
from the bacteria, in the operation of the filter, is oxygen. Without 
this element the particular kinds of bacteria necessary for water- 
purification cannot perform their function. The oxygen must be in 
solution and carried along with the water into the filter, where it is 
utilized in the oxidation changes. 

Winogradsky has shown that nitrifying or oxidizing bacteria 
grow upon media altogether inorganic. No less than three sepa- 
rate and distinct classes of organisms are concerned in the transition 
of nitrogenous organic matter to the inorganic state, as follows : 



A Feb J rXyT?902 m '} Filtration of Drinking Water. 71 

It is broken down into ammonia — as the first change by one class 
of organisms, and here becomes truly inorganic. The second step is 
one of oxidation, and the ammonia becomes nitrous acid through 
the agency of another entirely separate organism quite different 
from the first. In the third and final step, the oxidation is completed 
by another organism entirely distinct from the other two. Here the 
nitrous acid becomes nitric acid, which unites with any base at 
hand, and is delivered as such in the effluent. This is why our filter^ 
working under favorable conditions, shows neither free nor albu- 
minoid ammonia, but does return the equivalent in nitrates that an 
ammonia determination on the raw water would call for. As before 
stated, the proper conditions must be preserved, and one of these is 
the element of time ; how rapidly may we pass the water through 
the sand as an economical proposition ? As might be predicted, 
the character of these changes would require a slow rate of flow; 
therefore, filtration must be restrained or controlled and maintained 
at a uniform rate, notwithstanding a constantly diminishing filtering; 
capacity due to clogging. This is accomplished in several ways by- 
automatic devices. It is not safe to carry the filtering rate much 
beyond 3,000,000 gallons per acre per twenty-four hours. This has 
been found by actual working conditions to be the safe limit, so far as 
bacteriological and chemical conditions are concerned. A 3,000,000- 
gallon rate is equivalent to filtering 10 vertical feet of water over 
the entire area of filter in .twenty-four hours. The problems met 
with in water purification seem to change with each source of supply, 
and so variable are they that no municipality would undertake 
the erection of a filtration plant without exhaustive study of the 
conditions covering practically a whole year. In some waters, color 
is the objection ; in others, taste is complained of, while turbidity 
and sewage, with every imaginable combination of all the faults, is 
commonly found. 

The principal problem encountered by the city of Philadelphia ins 
its effort to purify the water is that of turbidity. True, we have 
sewage contamination, odors, tastes, etc., but they readily disappear 
under treatment. The turbidity, however, gives trouble, particularly 
at times of freshet, when the suspended matter may rise to 200 or 
300 parts per million. This requires frequent scraping of the filter, 
resulting in loss of water and cost for attention. Under ordinary 
working conditions, with water carrying less than 40 parts per 



72 Filtration of Drinking Water. { A Feb J ruYr'y??m n, 

million, the filter should not require scraping more than thirteen to 
fifteen times per year, but in times of freshet I have seen the experi- 
mental filters shut down and scraped once a week. This condition 
is exceptional, however. After scraping, the bacterial counts are 
high, so the water is run to waste for a period. My observation on 
this point was that forty-eight hours usually elapsed before the counts 
returned to the normal. The depth of water covering the filter is 
about four feet ; this head forces the water through the sand. As the 
deposits accumulate there is diminished flow, gradually decreasing 
until the pressure is insufficient to deliver the 3,000,000-gallon rate, 
then the filter is shut down, drained and scraped. 

The operation of scraping the filter consists of removing about 
3^ inch in depth of sand from the surface, together with the 
deposit of mud, etc., after which the surface is raked even and filtra- 
tion proceeds as before. At the end of a year the total amount of 
scrapings is washed, loss made up, and returned to the filter in one 
operation. 

In order to be sure that there are neither holes nor ways through 
the filter, an ingenious procedure is adopted as follows : Large 
quantities of a culture of Bacillus Prodigiosus are applied to the 
surface of the filter at regular intervals of half an hour each for a 
period of twenty-four hours. Millions of these organisms are intro- 
duced at each application. Test samples of the effluent are taken 
every fifteen minutes during the time of the trial. Plates are made 
of each sample and counted. The Bacillus Prodigiosus grows best 
upon agar-agar producing a bright red colony distinguished at a 
glance from the ordinary water bacteria. If there are any ways or 
openings in the filter the bacilli are sure to be found in the effluent. 
When the test was applied to this city's experimental filters we 
found but two plates showing red colonies out of several hundred 
trials, and it is just possible that these were accidental contamina- 
tions, proving conclusively the excellent construction of those beds. 

In order to have the results of all bacteriological investigations 
comparable, it is absolutely necessary that the methods of manipu- 
lations be uniform. One most important stride in this direction was 
made by Fuller when he demonstrated that the medium most suit- 
able for cultivation of bacteria for water work is that composed of 
gelatin 10 per cent., peptone 1 per cent., salt y 2 per cent., dissolved 
in meat infusion representing the soluble portion of 500 grammes of 



A Feb J r U a r ry P ?9 a ^ m •} Filtration of Drinking Water. 75 

lean beef to a litre of water, the finished product having an acidity 
of 1 5 degrees. This means that a litre of such medium would require 
the addition of 15 c.c. of normal sodium hydrate solution to bring; 
it to the phenolphtalein neutral point. It has been repeatedly 
demonstrated that this medium gives larger counts than the same 
material made more acid or more alkaline, showing the very marked 
influence that the degree of acidity exerts upon the development of 
the bacteria under examination. This medium is the one now used 
almost universally by water analysts. 

The special apparatus used in quantitative bacteriological investi- 
gation is quite simple, consisting essentially of test-tubes and petri 
dishes. The petri dish is simply a circular glass vessel about four 
inches in diameter, with raised edge from three-eighths to one-half 
inch high. Two of these make a complete dish, the upper one fit- 
ting loosely over the lower. There are other pieces of apparatus, 
but those named are most in evidence. 

Absolute sterility of media and apparatus is the only condition? 
under which this work can be successfully carried out. To make a 
plate, the sterilized glass dish is set upon the level table ; a tube ol 
the gelatin medium, previously described, containing about 7 c.c, is 
fused by gentle heat, and when cooled to about blood temperature^ 
a measured quantity of the water to be examined is introduced 
from a sterilized graduated pipette. The test-tube is shaken to- 
thoroughly incorporate the water with the medium, which is then 
poured into the petri dish and immediately covered. After it has 
solidified it is placed in the incubator, where it remains for a period 
of forty-eight hours at a uniform temperature of 20 C, being the 
most favorable temperature for the cultivation of water bacteria. 
This period of incubation is adopted, because it not only indicates 
the condition as well as a longer time would do, but gives a more 
speedy notification of any change in the filters. Counting is done 
with the aid of a simple lens, and refers not to the number of bac- 
teria on the plate, but to the number of colonies. Each colony is 
supposed to be the progeny of one original bacterium, and the 
count gives the relative number of bacteria in the water at the time 
of plating. Determination of species is unnecessary as a routine 
procedure, though frequent search is made for the Bacillus Coli 
Communis, as this organism is invariably present in sewage and 
serves as an indicator of its presence in the water-supply. 



74 



Seidlitz Powders. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I February, 1902. 



Chemical considerations require so much time for their descrip- 
tion that I shall simply be content with naming over such processes 
as have been found most satisfactory at the Testing Station, Phila- 
delphia. For this information I am indebted to Dr. George E. 
Thomas, the chemist in charge of this branch of the work. 

For Color, Hazen's Platinum Cobalt Standard, described by Leff- 
man. 

For Turbidity, Whipple and Jackson, Mt. Prospect Laboratory, 
Brooklyn. 

For Solids, 100 c.c, evaporate to dryness, with loss on ignition. 
Suspended matter, collected on filter of asbestos, operating with a 
litre of water. 

The two ammonias collect six tubes from each distillate for 
Kesslerization. The peculiar clouding of the distillate noticed at 
times on addition of Nessler Solution may be corrected by addition 
-of mercuric chloride to Nessler Solution. 

Nitrites. — Alpha naphthylamine hydrochloride and sulphanilic 
acid. 

Nitrates. — Reduction by aluminum foil and direct Nesslerization 
of the ammonia. 

Oxygen Consumed. — Potassium permanganate and oxalic acid. 

I c.c. potassium permanganate sol. = -oooi gm. O. 

Chlorine. — Titrate with nitrate silver, potassium bichromate as 
indicator; using yellow light gives sharper indication of end reaction. 

Alkalinity. — Hehner's method, using J? H 2 S0 4 , described by 

Leffman. 

Total hardness. — Soap method. 
Oxygen dissolved. — Winkler's method in Sutton. 

N 

C0 2 . — Seyler's method — — Na 2 C0 3 , using phenolphtalein as 

an indicator, described in a recent issue of the Journal of the Amer- 
ican Chemical Society. 

SEIDLITZ POWDERS. 
By Roland H. Frknch. 

This paper is to be regarded as the result of an effort on the part 
of the writer to simplify the seemingly complicated and impracticable 
methods which have been set forth by previous investigators of the 



Am. Jour. Phartn. ) 
February, 1902. 1 



Seidlitz Powders. 



75 



subject, and, if possible, present a method of analysis which it 
would be practicable for the average pharmacist to carry out. 

The most able effort on the subject which has come to the writer's 
notice is a paper by Joseph Huntington, which was published in 
the American Journal of Pharmacy, 1900, p. 461, and reprinted in 
a number of other pharmaceutical journals. 

In this the U.S.P. method of titration with potassium hydrate 
volumetric solution was used for tartaric acid. An indistinct end 
reaction is here encountered, unless carried out in hot solution, on 
account of a precipitate of potassium bitartrate. 

The method for the estimation of the Seidlitz mixture consists in 
first estimating the sodium bicarbonate by adding an excess of 
sulphuric acid volumetric solution and titrating back with potassium 
hydrate volumetric solution. Second, another portion of the Seid- 
litz mixture is ignited, taken up with water, and titrated as in the 
previous case. The amount of solution required for the sodium 
bicarbonate alone is then subtracted, the remainder representing the 
Rochelle salt. 

This method gave 31*44 per cent, sodium bicarbonate and 85-86 
per cent. Rochelle salt, making a total of 117*3 P er cent. 

The 17-3 per cent., which this runs high, was accounted for from 
the fact that the work had been done in a warm room, which had 
caused a loss of moisture. No experiments were made, however, 
to prove the latter theory. 

As can be seen, the working of this method is not at all satisfac- 
tory, and the inaccuracy of the final result does not justify the effort 
required. 

The experiments which the writer has carried out on the subject 
will here be described and the conclusions reached noted. 

A series of experiments were carried out with chemically pure salts 
to ascertain the possibilities and to afford a means of comparison for 
the work on the samples to follow. 

Sodium hydrate volumetric solution was used for the titration of 
the tartaric acid, the precipitation thus being avoided, and perfectly 
satisfactory results being obtained in the cold. 

Experiments were then made with the ingredients of Seidlitz 
mixture to ascertain the effect of exposure under various condi- 
tions. Quantities of Rochelle salt and sodium bicarbonate, corre- 
sponding to the weights given by the U.S.P. for one powder, also 



7 6 



Seidlitz Powders. 



I Am. Jour. Pharnu 
1 February, 1902. 



a portion of Seidlitz mixture, all made from the CP. salts, were 
exposed under ordinary conditions, that is, in a room ranging from 
18° to 22° C„ and their weight taken every two or three days during; 
the course of four weeks. They were then placed in a room 
decidedly warmer than the average, ranging from 28 to 33 C, 
and the weights taken as in the former case. In both cases it was 
found that the condition of the weather had a good deal to do with 
the weights. 

The characteristic results obtained by these experiments are best 
shown by a table, as follows : 





Temperature i8° to 22 C. 


Temperature 28 to 33 C. 




Substance 
Taken and 
Weight in 
Grammes. 


Weather and 
Date. 


Loss in 
Grammes. 


Per Cent, 
of Loss. 


Weather and 
Date. 


Loss in 
Grammes. 


Per Cent, 
of Loss. 




Nov. 3, 1900, Started Experiment. 


1901. 








Nov. 27th wet. 


•002 


•025 


Jan. 3d wet. 


•009 


•112 


Rochelle salt, 
8,000. 


Dec. 9th dry. 


•007 


•087 


" 10th dry. 


'0115 


'143 




" 15th wet. 


•000 




" 12th wet. 


•008 


100 


Sodium 
Bicarbonate, 
2 - 6oo 


Nov. 27th wet. 
Dec. 9th dry. 
" 15th wet. 


•004 
•009 
•0025 


■is 

'34 
•09 


Jan. 3d wet. 
" 10th dry. 
" 12th wet. 


•004 
•012 
•005 


15 
•46 
•19 


Seidlitz 
Mixture, 
10-333 


Nov. 3d wet. 
Dec. 9th dry. 
" 15th wet. 


■065 
•099 
•092 


•63 
•95 
•89 


Jan. 3d wet. 
" 10th dry. 
" 12th wet. 


•104 

•i45 

•127 


i*oo6 

1 '4°3 
1*229 



Rochelle salt contains 25.52 per cent, water of crystallization. 
To determine the loss sustained by heating to various temperatures 
a portion was heated in an air bath : 

At ioo° the loss was 23-43 per cent. 

At I30°-I35° the loss was 24-19 per cent. 

Above 1 35° decomposition commenced, showing it to be impos- 
sible to separate the last trace of water without decomposition. 

Following these experiments, investigation was made upon six 
samples, all of which were collected without discrimination from 
reputable houses. 

All were subjected to the qualitative tests of the U.S.P., after 



Am. Jour. Pharm. l 
February, 1902. J 



Seidlitz Powders. 



77 



which the quantitative work was taken up ; the white powders or the 
tartaric acid were first examined, followed by the blue or the Seid- 
litz mixture. 

Quantitative Tests. — The volumetric solutions used for these tests 
were : 



The tartaric acid was titrated with sodium hydrate volumetric 
solution, phenolphtalein as indicator, as mentioned in experiments, 
the calculation being made in the regular way. 

Ihe Seidlitz Mixture was analyzed by first estimating the sodium 
bicarbonate by a carbon-dioxide determination, then the Rochelle 
salt by ignition and titration. 

This method will be best understood by carrying through an 
example, thus : 

. If 1722 grammes of Seidlitz mixture be placed in a carbon- 
dioxide apparatus and a slight excess of hydrochloric acid used for 
decomposition, it will yield 0-225 grammes of carbon-dioxide gas. 
The amount of sodium bicarbonate is then calculated from this 
weight of C0 2 as follows : , 

(C0 2 43-85) : (NaHCO.3 83-85) : : -225 : -42985 grammes of NaHC0 3 , 
then, 

1722 : -42985 : : 100 : 24-96 per cent, of NaHC0 3 . 

For the Rochelle salt estimation another portion of 1-722 grammes 
is taken and ignited carefully in a small crucible to entire carboniza- 
tion. This ignited mass is then taken up with water, all of the 
washings being carefully collected. This solution now contains 
the carbonates from the Rochelle salt, also that from the sodium 
bicarbonate. This solution is titrated directly with the sulphuric 
acid volumetric solution, using methyl orange as indicator. The 
solution of carbonates required 74-75 c.c. of the sulphuric acid 
solution. 

From this must be deducted the number of c.c. required for the 
carbonate from the sodium bicarbonate in order to determine the 



Sodium hydrate, of which 1 c.c, 



Sulphuric acid, of which 1 c.c. 




/ '05633 grammes NaOH 
1-01055 « H 2 C 4 H 4 6 

( 'O09327 grammes H 2 S0 4 
\ -004184 " co 2 
( -2684 « KNaC 4 H 4 ( 



78 



Seidlitz Powders. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
X February, 1902. 



exact amount required by the Rochelle salt. This may be cal- 
culated directly from the C0 2 in the previous determination, but 
it must be remembered that one-half of the C0 2 from the bicar- 
bonate has been driven off during its conversion into bicarbonate by 
ignition. Therefore, one-half of the C0 2 yielded by the bicarbonate 
must be used for determining the sulphuric acid required for the 
carbonate yielded from it. 

This is shown by the following reactions : 

2NaHC0 3 + heat = Na 2 C0 3 + H 2 + C0 2 

2NaHC0 3 + H 2 S0 4 = Na 2 S0 4 + H 2 + C0 2 

Na 2 C0 3 + H 2 S0 4 = Na 2 S0 4 + H 2 + C0 2 

The calculation would be thus : 

(#•225) -5- -004184 = 26-8 c.c. H 2 S0 4 V.S. 

Then 74*75 c.c. required for the entire carbonates less 26-8 c.c. 
required for the carbonate from the bicarbonate, leaves 47 95 c.c- 
required for the Rochelle salt. 

The Rochelle salt is then ascertained thus : 

47-95 X '2684 = 1-28697 grammes Rochelle salt found. 

Then, 

1*722 : 1-28697 : : 100 : 74'73 l P er cent. Rochelle salt. 

The six samples were all examined and analyzed by the methods 
just described, with the results shown in the following table. The 
U.S.P. weights and theoretical per cent, are also given to enable 
comparison : 

SEIDLITZ MIXTURE. 



No. 


Weights in 
Grammes. 


Results of Qualitative Tests. 


Per Cent. 
Sodium 
Bicarbonate. 


Per Cent. 
Rochelle 
Salt. 


1 


10*676 


Trace of sulphates. 


24-962 


74731 


2 


10-323 


Traces of iron. 


30-73I 


68-818 


3 


10*948 


Traces of sulphates and chlorides. 


29-622 


66-792 


4 


10-043 


Traces of calcium and sulphates. 


23-963 


75-838 


5 


10-384 


Traces of chlorides. 


25*073 


71-702 


6 


10-279 


Traces of calcium and chlorides. 


25-296 


74-196 


U.S.P. 


io-333 




25-000 


75-000 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
February, 1902. J 


Seidlitz Powders. 

TARTARIC ACID. 




79 


No. 


Weight in 
Grammes. 


Qualitative Tests. 


Estimation. 




i 

2 

3 
4 
5 
6 

U.S.P. 


2"I02 
2- 3 0S 

2-679 
2-673 
2*253 

2-308 
2-250 


Traces of lead and sulphates. 
Sulphates and traces of calcium. 
Sulphates. 

CiiltVli otpc trafpc oflparl q *n H r*a1r*intn 

OUi JJJJ dLC5, Li \JL ltdU aliU LalLlulil, 

Traces of lead and sulphates. 
Sulphate and trace of lead. 


99-66 
100*07 
99-18 

99-98 
100-04 





Comments. — The tartaric acid, as is seen by the table, is almost 
uniformly of good quality. 

The weights of the Seidlitz mixture show quite a little careless- 
ness in weighing or measuring, and the results of analysis show that 
there is also considerable carelessness in making up Seidlitz mixture. 
Numbers 3 and 4 especially show this. It will be noticed, by adding 
up the percentages in numbers 3 and 5, that they are quite a little 
low. These samples both showed tests for chlorides, which were, 
however, found to amount to but a small fraction of a per cent. It was 
noticed that these samples were particularly caked, indicating that 
the low percentage might possibly be due to adhering moisture. 

They, together with a portion of CP. Seidlitz mixture, were then 
dried at ioo° with the following results : 

CP. sample, loss = 18-805 P er cent. 
No. 3. " , " — 20-048 " 
No. 5. " " = 21-735 " 

It is observed that the loss in number 3 is 1-243 P er cent, more 
than the CP., and in number 5 is 2-93 per cent. more. This does 
not quite account for the entire shortage, but it is enough to show 
that it is in all probability the cause. 

To verify this conclusion a portion of CP. Seidlitz mixture was 
triturated in a mortar with a quantity of water equivalent to the 
shortage in per cent., and to all appearances it remained a dry 
powder, caking when wrapped up and laid away. 

Upon examination of the work and results just set forth it will 
be seen that for all practical purposes the Rochelle salt might be 
obtained by difference between the entire weight taken and the 



80 Solubility of Compressed Tablets. {^ebr^vy,!^ 

sodium bicarbonate found. Therefore, for all commercial purposes, 
a Seidlitz-powder analysis consists in making a C0 2 determination, 
calculating the sodium bicarbonate therefrom, and (providing the 
qualitative test shows no contaminating impurities) determining the 
Rochelle salt by difference. 

Before concluding, it might be well to state that designs for carbon- 
dioxide apparatus are to be found in nearly all reliable text-books, 
and many of them can be simply and quickly constructed. 



SOLUBILITY OF COMPRESSED TABLETS. 

By Anthony M. Hance. 

Among *he useful forms of medicine adopted' in recent years 
there is none of greater importance and value than compressed 
tablets. Like all innovations in medicine, their adoption was 
somewhat slow. The physicians' requirements could very readily 
be supplied by pills, either gelatin- or sugar-coated, of which a 
large variety of combinations then existed. 

The tablet form of medicine possesses important advantages not 
to be secured otherwise, such as minimum of bulk, certain and 
more rapid solubility and quicker therapeutic action. Certain com- 
binations which readily undergo chemical change in the presence of 
moisture can be made into tablets to better advantage than into 
pills. Certain conditions may be successfully treated with medicine 
in tablet form, when pills would be impracticable, as, for example, 
where a continuous local effect is desired. 

The purpose of this paper is to call special attention to the one 
all-important and absolutely indispensable quality of all scientifi- 
cally compressed tablets, namely, solubility. Upon this one quality 
alone the tablet, as a form of medicine, stands or falls. 

A tablet may be made ever so accurately and conscientiously 
with respect to purity of materials, skill in manipulation, a fault- 
less check-system to guard against errors, uniformity in weight and 
size and handsome appearance ; but, if the one quality of solubility 
is wanting, it is not a good tablet. 

In the early days of tablet manufacture, the importance of solu- 
bility was under-estimated. The distinct advance was thought to 
be in the compression of the drug, thus presenting the medicament 
independent of the usual substances required to make a pill mass. 
The essential quality was permanence of form. 



^FetauaryTisM™'} Solubility of Compressed Tablets. 81 

It seemed sufficient to compress the drug with such firmness that 
the finished product would not crumble from age nor break from 
attrition in handling or transportation. This was a mistaken idea. 
Such tablets were improperly made, and no more certain to produce 
the desired therapeutic effects than improperly made mass pills. 

The distinct advance of compressed tablets over other forms of 
medicine lies in the fact that they present the drug in permanent 
and accurate subdivision and soluble form, and the up-to-date tab- 
let is nothing if it does not possess the quality of ready solubility. 

Firmness, or that degree of hardness which gives form and per- 
manency to tablets, is essential in all well-made tablets, but neither 
prevents nor assures solubility, 

A tablet which may be readily crushed with the fingers may or 
may not possess the proper degree of solubility, while it is gener- 
ally not firm enough to be especially serviceable. 

The term solubility as applied to tablets indicates power to disin- 
tegrate rather than power to form solutions. It refers to the tablet 
mass solely, the medicament of which is frequently one or more 
insoluble drugs, as, for example, calomel, charcoal, etc. 

A tablet is soluble when, in the presence of the proper medium, 
it promptly disintegrates, thus liberating in a minutely subdivided 
condition the medicament it bears. 

The degree of solubility is easily influenced by the nature of the 
component part. Thus solid extracts, resinous substances and cer- 
tain drugs, such as reduced iron or corrosive sublimate, make tablets 
which disintegrate more slowly than others containing dissimilar 
substances. Tablets of corrosive sublimate are rendered more freely 
soluble than they would otherwise be by the addition of substances 
which favor solution, as, for example, muriate of ammonia. 

In certain tablets solubility is relative, and quite unavoidably so. 
In others it is intentionally of slow degree. Throat tablets, in 
which by slow disintegration a continued local effect is sought, are 
familiar examples of the latter. In tablets for making extempo- 
raneous solutions, and in hypodermic tablets especially, rapid disin- 
tegration and solution are desirable. 

The determination of this solubility is a matter of considerable 
importance. The process is, apparently, quite simple. Drop a 
properly made tablet into a quantity of water and note the result. 
Immediately the form of the tablet changes and disintegration 
rapidly follows. 



82 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm.. 
X February, 1902. 



When this action occurs in the stomach the medicament is in the 
best possible form for speedy solution and absorption. 

The tablets arranged before you for your careful and intelligent 
inspection, you will observe, possess this quality of free solubility 
or disintegration, and yet are remarkably firm or hard. 

To obtain the results here displayed, it has been necessary to 
study the characteristics of each tablet batch separately, as well as 
its intended use and form — as, for instance, an ordinary tablet for 
the same purpose as a pill, a tablet triturate, a hypodermic tablet — 
and by repeated experiments determine the special method of manu- 
facture which yields the best results. There is no one rule which 
can be applied to all tablets with uniformly good results. As each 
combination has distinct individuality arising from the nature of its 
component parts, so each kind of tablet requires its own special 
treatment to yield the most desirable degree of solubility. 

A general treatment applies only in the manufacture of such 
simple and compound tablets as chlorate of potash, soda-mint f 
muriate of ammonium, and the class designated " throat tablets," in 
which quick solubility is neither sought nor desired. 



PROGRESS IN PHARMACY. 

A REVIEW OF SOME ADVANCES MADE DURING THE PAST YEAR. 
BY M. I. WII.BKRT. 

After reading an interesting book, it is sometimes well to allow 
the subject-matter to pass in review before our mind's eye so as to 
impress the more interesting and important points on our memory 
in a connected and methodical way. 

The happenings of a day, a week, or a year are like the records of 
a book, and if at the close of any specified period we allow the 
memory of these happenings to pass again through our mind, we 
will not only be the gainer, by having them impressed more vividly 
and indelibly on our memories, but we may, in addition, assort the 
various facts into groups or classes, so as to facilitate our retaining 
them for future use and reference. 

The opening year of the twentieth century has passed into history^ 
and has left us, as a heritage, a wealth ot theories and facts that 
have been discovered and gathered together by the assiduous toil of 
many earnest workers in the various fields of scientific research. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
February, 1902. J 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



It is our purpose, in this short paper, to bring before you some of ■ 
the happenings of this past year that are especially interesting to 
us as pharmacists. It would, of course, be futile tor us to attempt 
to review even a single branch of research thoroughly, so we will 
content ourselves by looking about and picking out for review just 
a few of the more prominent and interesting facts in two subjects 
or classes that we as pharmacists are, or should be, particularly 
interested in. These are, in the first place, the bibliography of phar- 
macy, especially the pharmacopoeias and their accompanying books 
or commentaries, and then just a passing glance at some of the new 
drugs, or new uses for old drugs. In attempting so wide a field we 
will be compelled to ignore almost entirely the great amount of 
valuable information that has appeared during the year in the phar- 
maceutical journals, and can only mention briefly the lines that have 
been more thoroughly cultivated by the various contributors. 

Numerous papers have appeared on the subject of standardizing 
drugs and preparations, and many ingenious methods have been 
brought forward to simplify the necessary processes, and to increase 
the accuracy of the ultimate results. In this connection we should 
like to call particular attention to a paper by Linde (Apothkr. Zeitg. r 
1901), in which, under the able direction of Professor Beckurts, the 
author gives a summary of the methods of extraction, and the 
menstrua or solvents proposed by various authorities for assay- 
processes. The review includes processes for sixteen specific drugs,, 
and numerous reviews of general methods. Seventy-eight separate 
papers by sixty-five different authors are included in this review. 

The use of the microscope has been the theme of many interesting 
papers. The value of this instrument in recognizing drugs or their 
adulterations is now generally recognized, especially in Germany^ 
where the national pharmacopoeia includes many more or less 
accurate descriptions of drugs in the powdered state. It is from 
Germany too that we would naturally expect the greatest advances 
along this line. During the year two very important books on this 
subject have come from the German press : " Die Mikroskopische 
Analyse der Drogenpulver," by Prof. Dr. L. Koch, and a second 
edition of " Schimpers Anleitung zur Untersuchung der Vegetabil- 
ischen Nahrungs und Genussmittel." 

Adulterations have of course been the constant care of a host ot 
watchdogs in the pharmaceutical profession, and the reports from 



84 Progress in Pharmacy. { A pebiSSyfi9£ m " 

these able and disinterested workers have called attention to many 
crude as well as refined methods of contaminating drugs and food- 
stuffs with inert and sometimes dangerous materials. One of the 
most abominable and despicable methods of adulterating or cheap- 
ening galenical preparations is by the substitution of methyl alcohol 
in some of the preparations generally sold for domestic consumption. 
We will have more to say on this subject later under the title of 
Methyl Alcohol. 

Pharmacopoeias, representing as they do the sum total of prog- 
ress or research available to the respective revision committees, or 
commissions, are always objects of considerable interest to the 
scientific pharmacist ; and especially is this true of us at the present 
time, for we are all more or less interested in the revision and 
improvement of our own United States Pharmacopoeia, and the 
scientific or practical success or failure of other pharmacopoeias 
may indicate subject-matter to adopt or avoid in our own. 

Among the pharmacopoeias more directly interesting to us is that 
of the other half of the English-speaking world, the British Pharma- 
copoeia. The field of usefulness for this work has been extended 
by the republication and elaboration of the Indian and Colonial 
Addendum. This may be considered as the forerunner of the 
proposed British Empire Pharmacopoeia. This addendum includes 
122 titles: fifty-three of vegetable origin; two animal (Hirudo Aus- 
tralis and Mylabris); one chemical (Pyrogallol), and sixty-five galeni- 
cal preparations. Articles designed for a particular colony, and dif- 
fering from the same class or kind of article official in the body of the 
pharmacopoeia, are only to be used in the colony or zone for which 
they have been designed, and are not to be used or dispensed in 
any other portion of the empire unless especially ordered. 

To avoid misunderstandings, the empire has been divided into 
seven districts or zones: (i) India, (2) African Colonies, (3) Aus- 
tralian Colonies, (4) Eastern Colonies, (5) Mediterranean Colonies, 
(6) North American Colonies, (7) West Indian Colonies. 

" The Pharmacopedia," by Edmund White and John Humphreys, 
is a commentary on the British Pharmacopoeia. This book has 
been ably reviewed in the January (1902) number of the American 
Journal of Pharmacy, and deserves more than a passing notice. 
Pharmacopoeias of all lands are apt to be rather above the capacity 
and abilities of the average pharmacist, and it is for commentaries 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
February, 1902. J 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



*5 



of just this kind that there is a need and a want — a book that will 
aid and explain the obscure and knotty problems of the standard 
of authority. Works of this kind tend to bring the pharmacist up 
to the level of the Pharmacopoeia, instead of doing as some sup- 
posed commentaries do, bring the Pharmacopoeia down to the 
level of the average and even mediocre dealer in drugs and patent 
medicines. 

The Germans have for years had commentaries along the lines 
followed by the Pharmacopedia. We need but refer to the well- 
known work' by Hirsch, in which he was assisted in the later edition 
by Dr. Alfred Schneider. The fourth edition of this popular book 
is now in press, being published under the able direction of Drs. A. 
Schneider and P. Suss as a commentary to the fourth edition of 
the " German Pharmacopoeia." Another German commentary that 
is being issued at the present time is that of Jehn and Crato. 
Both of these works, however, are rather comprehensive. For such 
of the members of the German pharmaceutical profession as do not 
feel able to subscribe to these more or less pretentious and expen- 
sive works, and still wish to have something more available for 
reference than the very able and thorough aids and criticisms 
published in the German pharmaceutical journals, they have the 
choice of "Chemische Reagentien und Reactionen des Deutschen 
Arzneibuches IV," by Holdermann and Kendle, or the popular 
** Anlitung zur Erkennung und Priifung aller im Arzneibuch fiir 
das Deutsche Reich (4te Aufgabe) Aufgenommenen Arzneimittel," 
by Dr. Max Biechle. 

The fourth edition of the German Pharmacopoeia has been 
most thoroughly discussed and criticized, not only in the commen- 
taries and the current pharmaceutical literature, but also in the 
publications of the large drug houses and manufacturers in their 
so-called " Handels berichte " many of the discrepancies of the 
pharmacopoeia have been commented on, and much valuable infor- 
mation been contributed in this way. 

The requirements of the German Pharmacopoeia are of such a 
nature that many German apothecaries have found it advisable to 
attend short post-graduate courses in practical work with the micro- 
scope and chemical burette. These courses, it appears, are held in 
large university towns, and cover about twelve working days. The 
work with the microscope is largely devoted to the consideration of 



86 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
"i February, 1902. 



the use of the " micrometer ocular " for measuring starch and aleu- 
rone grains. The series of chemical tests usually include assay 
processes for ipecac, cinchona, hydrastis and nux vomica, and also 
the determination of the saponification and iodine numbers of fixed 
or fatty oils. 

The Deutschen Apotheker-Verein published during the year its 
" Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia." This book was published by the 
society with a view of securing greater uniformity in homeopathic 
preparations. It has not been officially recognized by the Imperial 
Government nor any of the smaller states outside of Prussia and 
Wurtemberg. Dr. William Schwabe has also published a new edi- 
tion of his "Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia." As might be expected, 
there is considerable difference of opinion between, the followers of 
Schwabe and the Society of Apothecaries as to which book is the 
more reliable and trustworthy interpreter of homeopathic principles. 

The eighth edition of the " Swedish Pharmacopoeia " (Svenska 
Farmakopen) has recently come from the press. This is the first 
revision of this book since 1879, and, as may be expected, the book 
presents many marked changes. Following the example set by 
other leading works of this kind, the text of the book is in the ver- 
nacular, while the titles of the various articles are in Latin. The 
work appears to be thoroughly up to date, and includes among 
other innovations qualitative and quantitative chemical tests for 
digitalis, cinchona, opium, belladonna, hyoscyamus, lobelia, ipecac, 
and nux vomica. The essential or volatile oils have had consider- 
able attention, and a variety of tests are given for possible adulter- 
ations. For the fatty oils the saponification and iodine numbers are 
given. The drugs of animal origin are restricted to wax, lard, sper- 
maceti, and suet. An innovation for this pharmacopoeia is the intro- 
duction of fluid extracts. 

At the end of the work appear various appendices, including 
lists of the reagents mentioned in the text, maximum doses of 
potent remedies, atomic weights (O — 16) and two indexes. One of 
these tables deserves particular attention : it is a maximum dose-list 
of active drugs for domestic animals ; it includes thirty-five titles of 
drugs and preparations and the maximum doses for horses, cattle, 
sheep, swine and dogs. 

The " Swiss Pharmacopoeia " is undergoing a revision, and the 
revision committee, consisting of eleven members, five apothecaries, 



Aru. Jour. Pbarm.\ 
February, 1902. J 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



87 



one pharmacologist, four physicians and the President of the Federal 
Sanitary Bureau at Bern, has published for consideration and 
debate two lists of drugs and preparations that are proposed as 
additions or changes in the forthcoming work. The two lists com- 
prise a total of eighty-three titles ; among others, a general title or 
proposition for serums. This particular proposition is rather inter- 
esting. The committee proposes the adoption of serums under the 
following headings: 

(1) Tuberculin, Koch. 

(2) Serums, general and special. 

(3) Antidiphtheritic serum. 

(4) Antitetanic serum. 

(5) Antistreptococcic serum. 

(6) Vaccine virus. 

In this connection it is proposed to have an official system of 
tests and standardizing under control of the Swiss Gesundheitsamt. 
Of the remaining eighty-three titles, twenty-nine are of proposed 
new additions, among them twenty-one chemicals, four plant drugs, 
and four galenical preparations. Among the chemical titles are bro- 
moform, ethyl chloride, ethyl morphine hydrochlorate and sodium 
theobromine salicylate. 

Another interesting work in this connection is the " Universal 
Pharmacopoeia," by Dr. Bruno Hirsh. This interesting book con- 
sists of a conglomerate of twenty-eight different authoritative works 
or pharmacopoeias. The first volume of the second edition of this 
work has been issued, and che second volume is said to be ready for 
press. This is probably one of the most interesting and valuable 
books in pharmaceutical literature, and it is to be regretted that 
it is not more readily available for reference and comparative study. 

New remedies of a patented or proprietary nature are increasing 
at a rate that makes it practically impossible to keep in touch with 
the nomenclature, to say nothing of becoming familiar with the 
composition or uses of the articles themselves. One apparently 
good feature of this over-supply is the gradual awakening of mem- 
bers of the medical profession to the fact that many of these sup- 
posed wonderful discoveries are nothing more than commercial 
ventures. No less an authority than Professor Kobert, of Rostock 
(Aertz. Vereins blatt f. DeutschL), calls attention to the ever-increasing 
number and varied claims of these compounds, and inquires as to> 



88 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I February, 1902. 



where the practitioner should look for authoritative information. 
He admits that the medical journals are too apt to be swayed by 
their advertising pages, and that at best, reports and opinions of 
individual workers are of little value ; and further, that few if any 
medical men have the courage to report their failures with new 
remedies. This latter fact has indeed been most unfortunate, as it 
has been the cause of untold disappointment and loss, not alone to 
the suffering patients, but also to the doctor, who, having been 
induced to try a certain highly recommended compound, fails abso- 
lutely to get the desired results, and concludes that either the man 
who was guilty of writing the glowing account of successful use was 
mistaken, or that he was pecuniarily interested. And while it takes 
a number of such experiences to make or have the 'proper effect, it 
is just a matter of time when the medical profession will awake to the 
necessity of having more than the say so of one or even half a dozen 
professional advertisers before they give aid to and prescribe a drug 
they know little or nothing about. In this respect the medical liter- 
ature of the past year shows commendable progress over that 
immediately preceding. There are a number of reports of unsuc- 
cessful use of drugs, or the appearance of unlooked-for and dis- 
agreeable secondary actions of the drugs or chemicals employed. 

Adrenalin. — The active principle of the suprarenal gland has 
played an important part in the medical and pharmaceutical liter- 
ature of the year. Its chemistry and uses are well described by its 
discoverer in a recent number of the American Journal of Phar- 
macy. 

Agurin. — A double acetate of soda and theobromine is being 
brought forward as a substitute for and an improvement on diu- 
retin. It is said to be free from the rather serious objection to the 
latter compound of causing more or less severe gastro-intestinal irri- 
tation. 

Bromocoll. — A combination of bromine, water and gelatine, said 
to be dibromine-tannin-gelatin, is claimed to have all the sedative 
properties of potassium bromide without any of its disagreeable 
secondary effects. Mayr [Deutsch. Med. Wochschrf. y 1901) reports 
using this drug in cases of epilepsy, with favorable results. Dose, 
2 to 8 grammes daily. 

Cacodylic Acid. — The salts of this compound of arsenic are not 
increasing in popularity. Several fatal cases of poisoning have been 



Am, Jour. Pharm.) 
February , 1902. / 



Progress in Pharmacy, 



8 9 



reported, and even French physicians admit that they do not always 
obtain favorable results. The alleged freedom from ill effects is due 
(Apothkr. Zeitg., 1901) to the fact that the drug is largely eliminated 
with the fecal matter, without having been decomposed or changed 
in any way. 

Chloretone is another of the new drugs that has not come up to 
the expectations of the average physician ; not being soluble in 
water, it has not always met with success as a local anaesthetic. 
Hedonal has been reported on from various quarters ; several 
authors object to the peculiar and disagreeable taste of the drug. 
Secondary effects are said to be not uncommon, but not serious;, 
one of the more disagreeable is due to the fact that the substance 
is also a diuretic. This action is at times so pronounced that it 
interferes with continued sleep. 

Hetol. — Sodium cinnamate. Kuhn (Munch, Med. Wochschrf., 1901) 
considers that the improvement in cases of tuberculosis treated with. 
intravenous injections of this drug was so slight that they may 
easily be accounted for by improvement in hygiene and surround, 
ings. Gidion (Deutsch. Arch. f. Klin. Med., 1901) comes to the same 
conclusion, and even reports several cases that have lost weight 
under treatment. 

Honthi?i. — Frieser (Therapist, 1901) describes this compound as 
a combination of tannin with albumin and keratin. He has used 
it in thirty-two cases with favorable results and believes it to be 
half as powerful again as tannalbin. It is given in doses of from 
0-5 to ro three or four times a day. 

Ichthyoform is a combination of ichthyol with formaldehyde 
Average dose i-o to 2-0, used in diarrhoea due to intestinal tuber- 
culosis, also used with good effect in the diarrhoea of typhoid 
fever. It is said to combine the analgesic and astringent action of 
ichthyol and the exceedingly energetic influence of formic aldehyde. 

Igazol, supposedly a mixture containing formaldehyde and iodo- 
form, has been reported on unfavorably by Wolff (Deut. Med, 
Wochschrf., 1901). 

Purgatin, the diacetate of anthrapurpurin, is one of the most 
interesting possibilities in the field of synthetic chemistry. It is 
probably the first compound that promises to be a more or less 
efficient aperient or cathartic. It was at first marketed under the 
name purgatol, and is an orange-yellow crystalline powder, insol- 



90 Progress in Pharmacy 

uble in water or dilute acids, but decomposed by dilute alkaline 
solutions (producing a solution of dark violet-red color). It prob- 
ably passes the stomach unchanged, decomposing only in the intes- 
tinal canal. In doses of o*5 it is said to produce a mild evacuation 
of the bowel in from twelve to eighteen hours without griping. It 
is said to have the same debilitating effect on the intestines that 
has been noted with other cathartics, especially rhubarb. One 
peculiar feature connected with this new drug is the fact that it 
imparts to the urine a blood-red color. The patient should be 
made acquainted with this fact so as to avoid unnecessary alarm. 
Stadelman (Dentsch. Aerzte Zeitg., 1 901) says that the dose advised 
by the manufacturers is too low, and that 2-00 is nearer a normal 
dose. 

Silver. — Organic salts of this metal threaten to increase indefi- 
nitely, despite the fact that they have been repeatedly proven to be 
more or less inert and ineffective. So far, no satisfactory and 
reliable substitute for nitrate of silver has been offered. 

Uresin. — The double citrate of lithium and urotropin is being 
suggested as a diuretic and urinary antiseptic. It should not be 
mistaken for the older, though not popular urosin, a combination 
of lithium and quinic acid. 

Urol. — A chinate or quinate of urea is being brought forward 
as a remedy for uric acid diathesis. Dose from 2*0 to 4-0 grammes. 

Urotropin, cystogen and formin, under which names various firms 
are marketing hexamethylene tetramine, have been the subject of 
considerable comment and discussion. It would appear from the 
published reports that this compound is not as harmless or as 
reliable as the earlier reports would indicate. Brown {Brit. Med. 
Jour., 1 901) reports two cases of hematuria after use of urotropin 
in doses of o*6 three times a day. Many other reports of a similar 
nature have since appeared, and it will be well to exercise consider- 
able caution so as to prevent any possible abuse of this remedy by 
self-medication. 

Apomorphine. — Douglas (Wiener Med. Presse) recommends this 
drug as an efficient and safe hypnotic. Hypodermatic injections of 
0-002 are said to produce sleep within five minutes. It is said to 
have the advantage of not producing a drug habit, as in larger or 
repeated doses it produces nausea and vomiting. 

Caffeine. — Ferraby (La Semaine Medicale, 1901) recommends this 



/ Am. Jour Pharm. 
\ February, 1902. 



A pebraarVT?9 a (c m '} Progress in Pharmacy. 91 

drug in cases of poisoning by carbolic acid. He has given 015 
hypodermatically with immediate favorable results. 

Calcium iodate has been recommended as a substitute for iodo- 
form. Mackie (Merck's Archives) considers it to be an excellent 
antiseptic, preventing hypergranulation and the formation of pus. 
It can also be used in solution for washing out the bladder, vagina 
and uterus. It may also be used in gargles and mouth-washes, or 
may be given internally to check fermentative processes in the 
stomach. Dose, 0-2 to 3. 

Carbolic Acid. — The use of alcohol instead of water to liquefy this 
chemical, gives a solution that mixes readily with fixed oils without 
separating or producing a turbid mixture. It is also more per- 
manent, not crystallizing in cold weather. 

Formaldehyde. — The increased use of this compound has increased 
the possible danger of poisoning from accidental or other causes. 
Therapeutische. Monatshefte, 1901, recommends the use of liquid 
ammonia well diluted, aromatic spirits of ammonia, or even liquid 
ammon. acetate, the theory being the reduction of the formaldehyde 
to hexamethylene tetramine, a comparatively harmless substance. 

Horse-Chestnuts. — Schurmeyer (Therap. Monatsh., 1901) recom- 
mends a fluid extract of horse-chestnuts as an external application 
in cases of rheumatism, neuralgia and painful affections of the 
skin ; also as a gargle in 1 and 2 per cent, solutions. The author 
also claims that the saponin contained in the horse-chestnut is not 
poisonous. 

Hydrocyanic acid gas has been recommended as a disinfecting 
agent and germicide. It has been in use as an insecticide, especially 
in greenhouses ; also in sleeping cars, to rid them of vermin. 

Ipecac root has been the subject of much investigation and dis- 
cussion. It appears that the total alkaloids of Brazil and Carthagena 
ipecac are about the same, but their composition varies considerably, 
the Brazilian root being richer in emetin, while cephaelin predomi- 
nates in the Carthagena variety. Both these compounds are emetics, 
with the consensus of opinion in favor of cephaelin as being the 
more active. In this connection it may be interesting to note that 
the Carthagena root is excluded from the German Pharmacopoeia by 
the limitation of the size of the starch granules, the starch granules 
of the Carthagena root being much larger than those of the official 
Brazilian. 



9 2 



Progress in Pharmacy . 



/Am. Jour. Pharm, 
I February, 1902. 



Methyl Alcohol. — Suggestions that have been made from time to 
time as to the possible use of this compound in pharmacy have, 
unfortunately, been adopted by a class of dealers that are always 
anxious to increase their profits regardless of any hazard or risk 
that may be incurred by their customers. Not alone in tincture of 
iodine, soap liniment, and other preparations used for external pur- 
poses, it has also been found in tincture of ginger, essence of 
peppermint, and other drugs and flavoring essences usually sold 
for popular consumption. Wiirdeman (Amer. Med., 1 901) reports 
several cases of blindness resulting from the use of this compound, 
and also gives a summary of a number of other cases that have 
been recently reported. Sieker (Chem. Zeitg. y 1901) suggests as a 
reliable test the reduction of cupric oxide by vapor of methyl 
alcohol and the production of formaldehyde, readily recognized by 
its peculiarly pungent and penetrating odor. 

Oleic Acid. — Artault [Rev. Therap. Med. Chirurg. t 1 901) suggests 
the use of purified oleic acid in cases of hepatic colic due to gall- 
stones. He gives the acid in doses of 0-5 to ro, and in cases where 
the attacks occur at intervals of a month or more he suggests giving 
the remedy for from ten to fourteen days. 

Picric acid is being brought forward as an external dressing and 
a remedy in affections of the skin. It has proved itself to be 
especially valuable in superficial burns, acute eczema, and herpes 
zoster; used in y 2 or I per cent, solution. 

Phosphorated oil, as a substitute tor this preparation, when it is 
to be used for internal purposes, Escalle (Zeitschr. des Allgemein. 
Oestr. Apoth. Verein, 1901) proposes glycerin as the solvent. He 
produces a I per cent, glycerin-alcohol solution by allowing 10* 
phosphorus to be heated under 1 00* glycerin until melted, then 
shake until cool, add 400* glycerin and 500- alcohol 96 per cent.; 
keep in a cool, dark place. 

Quinine. — Binz [Therap. der Gegenwart, 1901) recommends large 
doses of a quinine salt with cold baths in cases of typhoid fever. 
He thinks that quinine is an active poison to the lower organisms, 
and gives the drug in doses of ro every other evening. 

Salicylates, — Wolff {Chem. Zeitg., 1901) reports that freshly pre- 
cipitated hydroxids of iron, aluminum and copper are soluble in 
solutions of sodium or ammonium salicylate. It is said that the 
copper sodium salicylate reacts similar to Fehling's solution with 



A ™eb^uaryfS m '} Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 93 

substances containing sugar. And it is further suggested that the 
iron sodium salicylate might be of some use in medicine. 

Senna. — Alexandria senna has been demonstrated to contain 
upward of 20 per cent, more of the supposed active principle, 
oxymethyl anthra chinon, than the corresponding leaves of the Tin- 
nevelly variety. The former should, therefore, be considered the 
more efficient. 

Strophanthus. — According to F. Feist (Ber. d. Dent. Ghent. Gesells.) 
there is a marked difference in the preparations of this drug when 
made from Strophanthus Kombe, or Strophanthus hispidus, as they 
vary considerably in the kind and amount of the glucoside con- 
tained in them, the pseudostrophanthin of Strophanthus hispidus 
being twice as active as Strophanthin contained in Strophanthus 
Kombe. 

Wines. — Dr. Carl Rundquist [Apoth. Zeitg., 1901) has made a 
series of experiments with the idea of replacing the official wines of 
the " German Pharmacopoeia " by sweet wines in the making of 
official preparations of medicated wines. According to his experi- 
ments Port wines and wines of this character having a high percent- 
age of sugar appear to have greater solvent properties for alkaloids 
and active principles of drugs than sherry and Malaga wines. 



RECENT LITERATURE RELATING TO PHARMACY. 

NEW REMEDIES OF I9OI. 1 

Abroma Augustum— See Olut Kombool. 
Acetamidophenoxylacetamide — Antipyretic. 
Acetamidophenoxylacetamide-chloral— Sedative. 
Acetanilidsulphonsodium — Soluble antipyretic. 
Acetospirin — Acopyrine. Compound of aspirin and antipyrine. 
Antirheumatic. Dose : 0-5 grammes, 5-6 times daily. 
Acetylated Methylenediguaiacol— -See Euguform. 
Acid, Cinamylcacodylic — See Cinamylcacodylic acid. 
Acid, Iodosobenzoic — Local Antiseptic. 
Acid, Morphoxylacetic — See Morphoxylacetic acid. 
Acid, Orthohydrazineparabenzoic — See Orthine. 
Acid, Salolorthophosphinic — See Solvosal. 



^Merck's Report , January, 1902. 



94 Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. { A Feb J r U arV!iw2 m * 
Acopyrine — See Acetospirin. 

Acrolein-Sulphurous Acid — Local antiseptic, as wash, ointment, 
or dusting powder. 

Adrenalin — 1-1900 solution. Active principle of suprarenal cap- 
sule. 

Aethiopian Pepper — See Xylopia aethiopica. 

Agurine — Theobromine-sodium and sodium acetate. Diuretic. 
Dose : 0*2 5-0- 5 gramme. 

Albargin — Silver gelatose. Antiseptic and antigonorrhceic in 
0-1-0-2 per cent, solution. 

Albizzia Anthelmintica— " Musena " bark. African plant used as 
an anthelmintic. 

Alboferrin — Iron-phosphorus-albumin compound. Tonic and 
nutrient. 

Algicide — Anodyne and antiphlogistic. 
Alkaseptol — Antiseptic, germicide, and detergent. 
Alpha-Eunol — Compound of alpha-naphtol and eucalyptol. Anti- 
septic. 

Alummatine— Antiseptic surgical dressing. 

Amyl Salicylate : C 6 H 4 OH.C0 2 C 6 H n . Antirheumatic and seda- 
tive. 

Anaemin — Solution of " iron-pepsin saccharate." Antichlorotic. 

Anthrapurpurin Diacetylester- — See purgatol. 

Anticholerin — Cholera antitoxin solution. Disinfectant. 

Antiformin — Disinfectant. 

Antipyrine Salicylacetate — See Tyrosal. 

Aponia — Dental anesthetic. 

Aquinol — Disinfectant. 

Avenose — Infant food. 

Azymal — Buccal disinfectant. 

Bacillol — General disinfectant. 

Beta-Eucaine Acetate — Local analgesic and anaesthetic. Used in 
2 per cent, solution. 

Bioplasm— Antitubercular, antimalarial, and febrifuge. 
' Bismutal (Bismutol) — Mixture of sodium salicylate and soluble 
phosphate. Antiseptic. 

Bismuth Cinnamate — See Hetoform. 

Bismuth Dilactomonotannate — See Lactannin. 

Bismuth Lactogallate — Used like bismuth preparations. 



^eb^^mS 1 '} Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 95 

Bismuth Lactotannate — See Lactannin. 
Bismutol — See Bismutal. 

Bismutose — Bismuth-albumin preparation. Gastro-intestinal and 
local antiseptic. Dose : y 2 -\ drachm for children. 

Bocyl — Alcoholic solution of cinnamic and boric acids. Buccal 
disinfectant. 

Boliformin — Compound of formaldehyde and aluminum silicate. 
Dusting powder for wounds, and veterinary siccative. 

Boric Acid Ethyl-Ester — See Borogen. 

Borobenphenene — Antiseptic and germicide. 

Borogen — Boric-acid ethylester. Disinfectant for respiratory 
organs. Used by inhalation. 

Branalcane — Disinfectant for diphtheritic and infective diseases. 

Bromyl — Nervous sedative and antiepileptic. 

Cacodiacol — Guaiacol cacodylate. 

Calcinol — Calcium iodate. Succedaneum for iodoform. 
Calcium Glycerinoarsenate — Arsenical medicament. Dose: o-oi 
grammes. 

Calcium Iodate — See Calcinol. 

Calystegia Soldanella — Cathartic. Dose : 3-4 grammes of pow- 
der; of resin, 1-5 grammes. 

Camphoric-Acid Phenetidid — Compound of camphoric acid and 
paraphenetidin. Antipyretic and antihydrotic. 

Canutillo — See Ephedra nevadensis. 

Caynote — See Ephedra nevadensis. 

Cerevisine — Desiccated yeast, used like beer yeast in boils, fur- 
uncles, etc. 

Chloromethylmenthyl Ether — Forman. Compound of formalde- 
hyde, hydrochloric acid, and menthol. Used in coryza. 

Chloropepsoid — Remedy for gastritis, gastric neuroses, and ali- 
mentary disturbances. 

Choclon— A " vegetable milk " used in Argentine Republic as a 
nutrient. 

Chrysolein — Sodium fluoride. 

Chuchuarine — Alkaloid from Senecarpus anacardia. Aphrodisiac. 

Cmchonine Dihydrochlorate — Antipyretic, antiseptic, and ma- 
larial prophylactic. 

Cinchonine Sulphocresotate — Antipyretic, antiseptic, and malarial 
prophylactic. 



g6 Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy, {^ebruarVTim 1 '" 

Cinnamyl-cacodylic Acid — Used like cacodylates. 
Colyticine — Parasiticide, antiseptic, and disinfectant. 
Contrayerva — See Dorstenia brasiliensis. 

Corpulin — Antiobesity tablets, said to consist of extract bladder- 
wrack, tamarinds, and cascara sagrada. 
Cretamethyl — Local antiphlogistic. 

Cuprargol — Copper-albumin compound : Antiphlogistic and se- 
cretory stimulant. Used in 1-5 per cent, solutions. 

Cypridol — I percent, solution of " nascent " mercuric iodide in 
neutral aseptic oil. Dose : 2 gramme. 

Didymium Salicylate — See Dymal. 

Dioxogen — Trade name for hydrogen dioxide. 

Dithan — Trional. 

Dorstenia Brasiliensis — Contrayerva. Digestive tonic and dia- 
phoretic. Dose : Tonic, 2 grammes ; diaphoretic, 4-8 grammes 
daily. 

Doundake — Sarcocephalus esculentus. Bark is tonic, febrifuge, 
and astringent. Dose: Wine (3 per cent.), 1-2 fluid ounces;, 
extract, 2^-3 grains; bark, 50-60 grains; aq. extract, 3-4 grains. 

Doundakine — Alkaloid from Doundake (q. v.). Quinine substi- 
tute. Dose : 3-4 grains. 

Dymal — Didymium salicylate. Antiseptic and siccative. 

Dymol — Remedy for intestinal disorders. Dose: 1-3 grains. 

Enterol Carbonate — Carbonic-acid ester of enterol (mixture of 
cresols used as an intestinal antiseptic). 

Entona — White-wheat-gluten suppositories. 

Ephedra Nevadensis — Caynote ; Canutillo ; Tapopote. Blood 
purifier and antigonorrhoeic. Dose : Teaspoonful of fluid extract. 

Erysimin — Glucoside from seeds of Erysimum. Physiological prop- 
erties like those of digitalin. 

Esanofele — Antimalarial. 

Euguform — Acetylated methylenediguaiacol. Antiseptic vul- 
nerary. 

Enophtalmin — Improper spelling (in many journals) for euphtal- 
min. 

Eupyrin — Paraphenetidin vanillin-ethylcarbonate. Antipyretic, 
Dose: 1—1-5 grammes. 
Farola — Nutrient. 
Floricin — Ointment base. 



A F4br°ulr^i902 m '} Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 97 

Formaldehyde-soap — Compound of formaldehyde and soap. Dis- 
infectant. 

Forman — See Chloromethylmenthyl ether. 

Gasterin — Preparation made from stomach of the dog, and used 
like pepsin. 

Germiletum — Compound antiseptic solution. 

Giaourdi — Preparation of fermented milk. Nutrient. 

Glycine Subterranea — See Voandzou. 

Glycobenphene — Remedy for cutaneous diseases. 

Glycogenol — Substance obtained from animal organism, and 
nearly allied to glycogen. Used in tuberculosis and typhoid fever. 
Dose: 0*2 gramme hypodermically or per os. 

Glycosolvol — Peptonized theobromine-trypsin oxypropionate. 

Guaiacol Cacodylate — See Cacodiacol. 

Heliosin — Indefinite mixture of various inorganic salts with kera- 
tin. Antisyphilitic. 

Hemoglobin Albuminate — See Perdynamin. 

Hermophenyl — Mercury phenoldisulphonate. * Bactericide and 
antiseptic in 1-5 : IOOO solution. 

Hetoform — Bismuth cinnamate, Bi(C 9 H 7 2 ) 3 B 2 03. 
Hydrargotin — Mercury tannate. 

Ichthosin — Ichthyol compound of eosine used in skin diseases. 
Isopilocarpine — Isomer of pilocarpine. Action like that of pilo- 
carpine, but much weaker. 

Impatiens Fulva — See Jewel-weed. 

Iodized Meat Powder — Succedaneum for iodides and organic 
iodine compounds for internal use. 
Iodochloroxyquinoline — See Vioform. 

Iodogenol — Compound of iodine and peptonized albumin. Suc- 
cedaneum for iodine preparations for internal use. 

Iodokol (or Iodocol) — Iodine-guaiacol compound. Used in pul- 
monary tuberculosis, tubercular pneumonia, croupous pneumonia, 
and bronchial asthma. Dose : o* 2-0*4 gramme 4-5 times daily. 

Iodosobenzoic Acid — Local antiseptic. 

Iron Paranucleinate — See Triferrin. 

Ironal — Ferruginous preparation containing 80 per cent. iron. 

Jamrosin — Fluid extract of an East-Indian Myrtaceae used as an 
antidiabetic. Dose : six drops thrice daily. 

Jequirtol — Sterile abrin solution of uniform physiological action. 
Used for inducing conjunctival inflammation. 



98 Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. { A FebT°u£*iwF~ 

Jewel-weed — Impattens fulva. Freshly expressed juice is an 
antidote to poison-ivy. 

Kaki— Japanese persimmons, recommended for stubborn vomiting 
in pregnancy, and in diarrhoea. 

Kanagugi — Lindera erythrocarpa. The fluid extract is used by the 
Japanese in secondary syphilis. Dose : teaspoonful. 

Karos — South African plant used in dysentery and in ulcerative 
and hsemorrhagic intestinal affections. 

Kreospinal — Preparation of creosote and spinach. Remedy for 
phthisis. 

Kretol — Surgical dressing, antiseptic, and germicide. 

Lactanin — Bismuth dilactomonotannate. Used i-n diarrhoea and 
malaria. Dose : 1-5 grammes daily for children. 

Levico-Ocher — Iron-arsenic mud from Levico. Used as hot appli- 
cation in neuralgia, inflammatory processes and exudates, and also 
sexual diseases. 

Lindera Erythrocarpa — See Kanagugi. 

Liquor Thiophosphini — Solution containing chiefly potassium 
guaiacol sulphonate. Dose : 5-10 grammes. 

Lithrea Caustica — Litre. An Anacardiaceae found in Chili, and 
used in form of a tincture as a counter-irritant. 

Litre — See Lithrea caustica. 

Lozon — Trade name for hydrogen dioxide. 

Lycresol — Soap solution containing crude cresol. Antiseptic* 

Mangrove — Rhizophora mangle. Used in leprosy. 

Melan — " Condensation product " of the buds, leaves, and twigs 
of Melilotus'cceruleus. Cicatrizant and vulnerary. 

Melonemetin— Bitter principle from melon. Emetic and purga- 
tive. 

Menthyl Acetoacetate— CH 3 C(OH) : CH.COOC 10 H 19 . Bacteri- 
cide. 

Mercuramin — Mercury ethylenediamine citrate. 
Mercury Cacodylate — Antitubercular. Dose : 0*03 gramme per 
day intramuscularly. 

Mercury Ethylenediamine Citrate — See Mercuramin. 
Mercury Phenoldisulphonate — See Hermophenyl. 
Methylene Creosote — See Pneumin. 
Methylene Diguaiacol — See Pulmoform. 
Methylene Diguaiacol, Acetylated — See Euguform. 



A Feb J ru»ry^9 a o2 m '} Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 99 
Modoformol — Antiseptic dressing. 

Morphine Caseinate — Soluble compound of morphine and casein. 

Morphoxylacetic Acid— C 17 H 18 N0 3 .C.H 2 .COOH. Narcotic, like 
morphine, but weaker. 

Muscarium — Extract of Amanita muscaria. Used in digestive 
atony. Dose : 0-01-0-05 gramme. 

Musena — Bark of Albizzia anthelmintic a. Anthelmintic. 

Mycoserum — Muscle juice. Nutrient antitubercular. 

Oenotannol — Tuberculosis remedy consisting of tannic acid and 
grape juice or grape pulp. 

Oleite — Jelly-like ointment base obtained by action of sulphuric 
acid on castor oil. 

Olut Kombool — Abro?na augustum. East-Indian remedy for dys-. 
menorrhcea. 

Oroxylin — Crystalline substance from Oraxylon indicum. Astrin- 
gent and tonic. 

Orthine — Orthohydrazineparabenzoic acid. Phenylhydrazine de- 
rivative. Antipyretic. Dose : 4-7 grains. 

Orthohydrazineparabenzoic Acid — See Orthine. 

Ovos — Succedaneum for meat extract, prepared from yeast. 

Oxy toluylmethylvinyldiacetonealkaminehydrochlorate — See En- 
ophtalmin. 

Pancreon (Pankreon) — Pancreatin-tannin compound. Tryptolytic, 
used in gastro-intestinal digestive disturbances. Dose : o-3-0'5 
gramme, thrice daily. 

Paraphenetidin-Vanillin-Ethylcarbonate — See Eupyrin. 

Parietin — Chrysophanic acid. 

Pegmin — Species of rennet for rendering cow's milk easily diges- 
tible. 

Pelargonium Flabellifolium — South-African plant, the root of 
which is used as a remedy in dysentery. 

Pentodyne — 4(Na).C 34 N 5 H 40 .O 10 .OH(?). Analgesic, antipyretic, and 
neuralgic. Dose : 2-10 grains. 

Perdynamin — Hemoglobin albuminate. 

Peroxine — Non-volatile (?) hydrogen dioxide. 

Phenamide — Coal-tar derivative. Antipyretic and analgesic. 

Phenol-Celluloid — Phenol-camphor solution of pyroxylin used as 
a varnish for protecting wounds, etc. 

Phosphorylquinine — Quinine-phosphoric-acid ester. 



ioo Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. {^ehraai^iwT' 

Phrynine — Alkaloid extracted from cutaneous glands of several 
species of toad. Antiepileptic. 

Pneumin — Methylene-creosote. Antitubercular. 

Protan — Tannin-nucleoproteid. Antidiarrhceal. Dose : 20-30 
grains. 

Protose — Vegetable food for anemia, diabetes, obesity, dyspepsia, 
etc. 

Pulmoform— Methylene diguaiacol. CH 2 (C 6 H 3 .OHOCH 3 ). Anti- 
tubercular. 

Purgatol — Anthrapurpurin diacetylester. Mild purgative. Dose : 
0-5-1 gramme. 

Purgo. — Phenolphtalein. Purgative. Dose: o-i-o-6 gramme. 

Pyramidon Camphorate — Succedaneum for antipyrine and pyra- 
midon in tuberculosis. Dose : 1 gramme. 

Quinine Acetylsalicylate— C 20 H 24 N 2 O 2 QH 4 .O.C 2 H 3 O.COOH. Qui- 
nine compound for internal use. 

Quinine Phosphoric-Acid Ester — See Phosphorylquinine. 

Quinine Salicylic-Acid Ester — See Saloquinine. 

Quinine Methyldihydrazine Perchlorate — Compound obtained by 
fusing together quinine hydrochlorate, caffeine, and antipyrine. 

Radal — 20 per cent, solution of protargol. 

Ramogen — Infant and invalid food. 

Remarcol — Sodium fluoride. 

Rheumatin— Salicylquinine (saloquinine) salicylate. Antirheu- 
matic. Dose : 1 gramme. 

Rhizophora Mangle — See Mangrove. 

Saccharosolvol — Organotherapeutic preparation obtained by 
action of salicylic acid on diastatic ferment of pancreatic juice and 
spinal marrow of cattle. 

Salicylquinine Salicylate — See Rheumatin. 

Salicylic-Acid Benzyl Ester — External antiseptic. 

Salinigrin — Glucoside from bark of Salix nigra. 

Salolorthophosphinic Acid — Solvosal. 

Saloquinine — Quinine ester of salicylic acid. Febrifuge and 
analgesic. Dose : 2 grammes. 

Saloquinine Salicylate — See Rheumatin. 
Sanatolyn — Disinfectant and deodorizer. 
Sareocephalus Esculentus — See Doundake. 
Sarton — Nutrient. 



A ^e■b^ u U ary P i 1 9 a o r 2 m •} Pharmaceutical Meeting. 101 

Selenopyrine— Product of reaction between potassium selenide 
and antipyrine " chloride." 

Silver-Gelatose — See Albargin. 
Sitogen — Vegetable-meat nutrient extract. 
Sodium-Caffeine Salicylate — See Xanol. 
Solvosal — Salolorthophosphinic acid. 

Solvosal-Lithium — Compound of solvosal (q.v.) and lithium. 
Intestinal antiseptic and diuretic. Dose: 0-25-0-5 gramme: 3-5 
grammes daily. 

Solvosal-Potassium — Compound of solvosal (q.v.) and potassium. 
Intestinal antiseptic. 

Tapopote — See Ephedra nevadensis. 

Tartaric-Acid Diphenylester— Condensation product of tartaric 
acid and phenol. Antipodagric. 

Tartrophen — Compound of phenetidin and tartaric acid. Used 
like citrophen. 

Tetramethylcyanpyridon — Myotic. 

Theobromine-Sodium and Sodium Acetate — See Agurine. 

Theobromine-Trypsin-Oxypropionate, Peptonized — Glycosolvol. 

Thiopyrine (Thioantipyrine) — Product of reaction between potas- 
sium sulphydrate and antipyrine " chloride." 

Thymatol — Thymol carbonate. Tyratol. Anthelmintic. Dose: 
2 grammes; 0-5-1 gramme for children. 

Thymol Carbonate — See Thymatol. 

Thymol Chlormethylsalicylate — Condensation product of thymol 
and chlormethylsalicylic acid. Antiseptic. 

Triferrin — Iron Paranucleinate. Hematinic. Dose 5 grains 
three times daily. 

Triphenylguanidine Guaiacoisulphonate — Local anaesthetic. 



PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

The lourth of the series of pharmaceutical meetings of the Phila- 
delphia College of Pharmacy for 1901-1902 was held on Tuesday, 
January 21st. Mr. William L. Cliffe, well known for his activity in 
pharmaceutical matters, presided. 

The first speaker was Mr. Benjamin T. Fairchild, New York City, 
a member of the firm of Fairchild Brothers & Foster, who gave 
a very comprehensive paper on " The Evolution and Use of the 



102 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
X February, 1902. 



Digestive Ferments in Medicine" (see p. 53). The author treated of 
the genesis of the subject in its relationship to pharmacy and medi- 
cine and briefly referred to the brilliant researches of Spallanzani, 
Schwann, Kiihne, Buchner, and others. Spallanzani was the first 
to make a distinction between peptic digestion and putrefaction; 
Schwann first demonstrated the existence of pepsin in the gastric 
juice ; Kiihne introduced the name enzymes ; Buchner has shown, 
the presence of zymase in yeast capable of setting up alcoholic 
fermentation. 

Mr. Fairchild considered the different theories in regard to fer- 
mentation : the production of digestive ferments by the animal cell 
their action upon the various kinds of tissues with which they may 
be brought into contact, and the different conditions and substances 
which influence and destroy their action. This was then followed 
by the consideration of the utilization and isolation of these physio- 
logical principles, and especially the advances made in bringing them 
into available form in medicine. 

The use of pepsin in medicine and pharmacy was referred to in 
detail by the speaker, who said that the first pepsin to be prepared 
in a commercial way was of French origin. The introduction of 
pepsin into the different Pharmacopoeias was discussed, their 
strengths noted, as also the manner of testing. The different 
methods for extracting and preparing pepsin for the market were 
considered, and the author in this connection presented the different 
theories in regard to the origin of pepsin, the peculiar conditions 
necessary for the action of digestive ferments, and the care that 
should be exercised in combining them with substances that either 
have only an inhibitory effect or destroy their action entirely. 

The pancreatic ferments were dealt with, the author discussing 
their properties, compatibilities, and their use in the artificial diges- 
tion of foods. He said that while pancreatic juice is held to be 
alkaline in character, nevertheless he finds the fresh gland and 
infusions therefrom to be invariably acid. 

In discussing the paper, Dr. Lowe referred to the erroneous 
notions held by many in regard to the influence that ferments have 
in digestion. J. W. England moved that a special vote of thanks be 
tendered to Mr. Fairchild for his valuable paper, and said that it 
seemed especially appropriate for it to be presented at this time, as 
it was just thirty years ago that E. SchefTer published a paper in the 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
"February, 1902. j 



PJiarmaceutical Meeting, 



103 



American Journal of Pharmacy on the preparation of pepsin 
(1872, p. 49). The motion was unanimously adopted. 

The next paper was on " The Filtration of Drinking Water," by 
William G. Toplis (see p. 67). The author, in connection with the 
paper, demonstrated the construction of a sand-filter, and said that in 
the purification of water no less than three separate and distinct 
classes of organisms are concerned : the first changing the organic 
matter into ammonia ; a second group changing the ammonia into 
nitrous acid ; and finally, a third forming from the latter nitric acid. 
He also alluded to the different methods for the biological and 
chemical examination of water. 

A paper on the "Solubility of Compressed Tablets" (see p. 80), 
by A. M. Hance, was read on behalf of the author by W. C. White. 
The author said that the term solubility, as applied to tablets, indi- 
cates the power to disintegrate rather than power to form solutions. 

Rolland H. French presented a paper on " Seidlitz Powders " (see 
p. 74). The author said that for all commercial purposes the 
analysis of Seidlitz mixture might be reduced to simply a C0 2 
determination, from which the sodium bicarbonate was calculated 
and the Rochelle salt found by difference. 

" Progress in Pharmacy " was the title of an excellent paper (see 
p. 82) by M. I. Wilbert, Apothecary to the German Hospital. The 
author briefly reviewed some of the advances made during the past 
year, and among other things called attention to the fact that the 
requirements of the German Pharmacopoeia are of such a nature 
that many German apothecaries have found it advisable to attend 
short post-graduate courses, embracing work with the compound 
microscope and volumetric analysis. 

Owing to lack of time the " Discussion on Modern Drug Store 
Methods " was postponed until the next meeting. 

Among the exhibits was that of Merck & Co., who exhibited a 
specimen of gaduol (the alcoholic extract of cod-liver oil) and the 
various preparations which can be made from it, as with hypophos- 
phites, peptonized iron, dionin and thiocol. The exhibit also- 
included thiocol (guaiacol-sulphonate of potassium) and dionin 
(ethyl-morphine hydrochlorate). 

Gilpin, Langdon & Co. exhibited a line of spices ; they also had & 
number of samples for distribution. An exhibition of metal goods,, 
including pill machines, bottle stoppers and collapsible tubes, was 
made by A. H. Wirz. 



104 College of Pharmacy. {*f£?S£X™ % 

The following provisional program has been arranged for the next 
meeting, February 18th : 

"The Basis of Atomic Weights." By Prof. Edgar F. Smith, 
University of Pennsylvania. 

" Adulteration of Drugs and Foods." By Dr. Albert Robin, 
Delaware State Board of Health. 

" Deodorized Opium Preparations." By Albert E. Ebert, Chi- 
cago. 

" Dose Measures and Measure Doses." By M. I. Wilbert. 

" Discussion on Modern Drug-Store Methods." H. K. 



PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 

The quarterly meeting of the members of the Philadelphia College of Phar- 
macy was held December 30, 1901, the President, Howard B. French, in the 
chair. Twenty-two members were present. The minutes of the semi-annual 
meeting, held September 30th, were read and approved. 

The minutes of the Board of Trustees for the meetings held September 3d, 
October 1st, and November 6th, were read by the Registrar^ W. Nelson Stem, 
and approved. 

Announcement was made of the death of our fellow-member, Charles W. 
Warrington, which occurred at his residence, 1700 Mount Vernon Street, on 
November 13th. He became a member in 1900. 

A communication was read from Mr. F. W. E. Stedem, resigning his mem- 
bership in the College— to take effect immediately. All the requirements for 
resignation having been complied with, -it was on motion accepted. 

At the semi-annual meeting held September 30, 1901, it was "resolved that 
a committee of five be appointed to take into consideration all matters pertain- 
ing to the meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association in 1902, in 
which the College may be interested." The President appointed the committee 
as follows : H. L. Stiles, Chairman ; Mahlon N. Kline, Wm. L. Cliffe, George 
M. Beringer, and Walter A. Rumsey. 

The Committee on Membership presented a communication proposing the 
names of three persons for election to Honorary Membership. 

The Committee further recommends that renewed efforts be made to increase 
the Associate Membership in the College, calling attention to the privileges 
conferred on this class of members, which are : 

1. The regular receipt of The American Journal of Pharmacy. 

2. Access to Library. 

3. All other privileges of membership except that of voting. 

A certificate is given to Associate Members, and it seems only necessary for 
these facts to be presented properly to the students and others for them to 
become members. C. A. Weidemann, M.D., 

Secretary. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



MARCH, i go 2. 



THE EVOLUTION AND USE OF THE ANIMAL DIGEST- 
IVE FERMENTS IN MEDICINE. 

By Benjamin T. Fairchujd. 

{Concluded from page 6/.) 

The period covering the past twenty years has been one of 
quickened and extended interest and progress in the applied 
science of the digestive ferments. In this time we see the begin- 
ning of their practical use in the artificial digestion of foods 
for the sick by methods available in the household by means of 
various special preparations of the pancreas ferments. The animal 
digestive juices and ferments are now largely utilized in the tech- 
nical laboratory in the production of peptonized foods in an agree- 
able, adequately nutritious and stable form, especially adapted as 
widely available foods for the sick. The observations of Roberts on 
the pancreatic ferments as peptonizing agents, led thus to a realiza- 
tion and development of their remarkable availability in the 
feeding of the sick. The dependence of pepsin upon an acid 
reaction, and the limitation of its action to proteids only, has 
restricted its use in the artificial digestion of food purely to labora- 
tory methods. Pancreatic preparations in both dry and fluid form, 
prepared by direct extraction from the glands or by precipitation 
with strong alcohol from infusions of the gland, have come into 
very general use as therapeutic agents. 

The manufacture of pepsin has been greatly improved, and its 
standard of value raised to an adequate point. The milk-curdling 

(105) 



io6 



Animal Digestive Ferments. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm r 
t March. 1902. 



enzyme has now become much employed in therapeutics as a means 
of administering soluble metallic salts (such as mercurials, iodides, 
etc.), bound up with the curd of milk or junket ; also used in the 
preparation of whey, presenting the soluble constituents of milk — 
non-coagulable proteids, salts and sugar — in a fluid form as a food 
for the sick and in infant-feeding. 

The topical application of the gastric juice so convincingly pre- 
sented at the very outset of its investigation, after long escaping 
notice, has been brought to renewed attention and use by means of 
artificial gastric juice prepared directly from the fresh stomach. 
This interesting and important therapeutic utilization is based upon 
the well demonstrated facts of the solvent action of the gastric 
juice and its bactericidal, healing and deodorizing properties. 

Trypsin is also now employed in the treatment of pus cases, espe- 
cially where the indications are for the application of a solvent of a 
neutral or alkaline reaction. The proteolytic ferment of the pan. 
creas is now utilized in the qualitative conversion and quantita- 
tive adjustment of cow's milk to normal human milk in digestibility 
and in the ratio and content of nutritive constituents. 

The many products and uses of the peptic and pancreatic fer- 
ments thus brought into medicine cannot be considered here in 
detail. In addition to the directions already mentioned, they are 
utilized as therapeutic agents to promote the efficiency and tolera- 
tion of medicinal agents, especially those which directly disturb 
digestion and circulation ; as aids to digestion in acute and chronic 
diseases, and in various forms of dyspepsia. 

From our present knowledge and view of the enzymes of the 
animal digestive secretions we know that the proteolytic enzymes 
do not exist pre-formed in the secreting cell ; it may be said that 
they exist as " zymogens." It is uncertain as to whether there is 
also a zymogen of the starch-converting and curdling and emul- 
sifying ferments. In the writer's opinion, the preponderance of 
evidence at the present time is that this has not been established 
for other than the proteolytic enzymes. 

In their chemical constitution, the enzymes are presumably identical, 
being proteid,or closely akin to proteid in their nature and behavior. 
As we have already seen, some of the most recent investigators 
have declared their belief that they are of the nature of nucleo- 
proteids. Whilst we have the statement long ago made by Briicke 



Am. Jour. Pharm.1 
March, 1902. / 



Animal Digestive Ferments, 



107 



and recently by Oppenheimer that a proteolytic ferment possessing 
the power to dissolve fibrin, but failing to give the proteid reactions 
had been isolated, it is very singular that others have not verified 
this, especially when we consider the careful attention the subject 
has received from the most eminent physiologists and chemists. 

The enzymes are all soluble, destroyed when in solution, by heat; 
resistant to high temperature (ioo° C.) when in a dry form, and, 
with probably one or two exceptions, non-diffusible. 

If we prepare an infusion of the peptic gland and submit this to 
heat under the physiological conditions necessary to convert into 
peptone all the associated proteids digestible by the enzyme, and 
remove these by dialysis, we shall still find this infusion to contain 
a non-dialysable body, exerting peptic action, precipitable upon 
boiling. This precipitate, so obtained, washed and submitted to 
pepsin-hydrochloric acid digestion, proves, absolutely refractory to 
pepsin action. This substance has the properties of a proteid and 
Contains nucleic acid. Identical results are likewise obtained with 
the pancreas enzymes, 

Whether the enzymes then are nucied-proteids, or whether nuclein 
may be the " material substratum " of the enzymes, cannot at pres- 
ent be stated. We have not obtained an enzyme in any form as 
yet which is not in its constitution and character analogous to pro- 
teid. 

The gastric juice is generally held to contain two distinct 
enzymes, although 'some writers have recently suggested that both 
the curdling and proteolytic action are manifestations of the one 
enzyme under different conditions. This seems very doubtful from 
our own observations, and is without analogy in the behavior and 
functions of the ferments in general. Whilst pepsin is present in 
the stomach of all ruminant and carnivorous animals, we, however, 
regard the milk-curdling ferment as particularly a constituent of 
the nursling animal ; for we have observed that in the calf and 
other animals the curdling activity steadily diminishes in direct 
ratio to the growth of the animal. 

The enzyme becomes potential or vitalized only at the momei^of - 
its discharge or extrusion from the cell. Pepsinogen is not feaund 
up with the acid, for the enzyme may be freed from hydrochloric 
acid without destroying its vitality; nevertheless, there is a strong 
chemical and physiological tie between them. 



Animal Digestive Ferments. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I March, 1902. 



The hydrochloric acid of the gastric juice we know does not exist 
as free acid, but is in some way bound up to the proteids, this acid 
again uniting with the proteids and bases of foods and displacing 
organic acids. So that we must be mindful of the distinction exist- 
ing between the acid of pure gastric juice and the acid contents of 
the digesting mass. 

Seeing that the gastric juice is essentially an acid-pepsin secre- 
tion, it might be, and indeed it generally has been presumed, that 
solutions containing hydrochloric acid of the percentage of gastric 
juice would constitute favorable vehicles for the peptic ferment, as 
pharmaceutical products. But a mixture of pepsin, hydrochloric 
acid and water has not the stability of gastric juice ; it differs there- 
Irom in important particulars- — in the absence of proteids associated 
with pepsin and united with the acid, and in the absence of inor- 
ganic constituents of the gastric juice; and we must consider gastric 
juice in its entity as being of a peculiar composition, essential and 
indispensable to the complete exhibition of its function. 

Pepsin in solution with hydrochloric acid of the percentage of 
normal gastric juice, if brought in contact with albumen, digests it 
with facility, but here a portion of the acid is immediately united 
with the albumen and with the alkali of the albumen. If, however, 
we submit pepsin to long-continued contact simply in this dilute 
hydrochloric acid we find the pepsin to progressively deteriorate 
in activity. Therefore, acid cannot with impunity be added to pep- 
sin in solution in the manufacture of products necessarily to be sub- 
mitted to conditions of commerce. 

The pancreas gland contains four distinct ferments. Its proteo- 
lytic enzyme is probably not elaborated in an active form, but 
becomes endowed with vitality by contact of the pancreas juice 
with the acids of the chyme, which are undoubtedly organic in a 
very considerable degree, and are known to be powerful developers 
of the latent energy or vitality of the pancreas trypsinogen. 

The diastasic ferment undoubtedly exists pre formed, and we 
know of no reason to assume that it requires to be developed, nor 
of any chemical or physiological data which would indicate this 
view. 

The fat-digesting ferment varies greatly in the glands of different 
animals, and its action upon fat in reducing fat globules to a minute 
form is difficult to account for, especially as the ferment is not in 



An ML O rcti902. rm "} Animal Digestive Ferments. 109 

any known way related to an acid or an alkali ; and inasmuch as 
alkalies themselves emulsify fats, it is difficult to differentiate between 
the action of the ferment and the alkali in any conditions in which 
both are present. 

From our observations we are strongly inclined to the view that 
fats in contact with weak acids are more readily emulsified than 
pure fats ; that the pancreas ferment has the power of splitting up 
fats is certainly undoubted. 

During the normal conditions of digestion it would seem that the 
distribution of fat in a finely divided state is brought about (both 
by chemical and physiological means) through the natural commin- 
gling of the mass, the diffusion of the fats by heat, and the effect 
both of the bile and pancreatic secretions upon the fat as so con- 
tained in the acidulous chyme. 

The milk-curdling ferment of the pancreas appears to be in every 
way analogous in its action to that of the rennet ; in practical 
operations, however, it is difficult to utilize it like the rennet fer- 
ment, or to separate it for study. The clot of milk, as originally 
formed by the pancreas juice, is absolutely identical in apparent 
character with that of the rennet coagulum, but after a short 
time the caseine and other milk proteids are rapidly attacked by the 
trypsin of the pancreas juice and gradually reduced to solution, 
which phenomenon does not occur in contact, however prolonged, 
of milk with the rennet ferment, for here the coagulum gradually 
separates in a mass from the milk serum. The pancreas enzymes are 
secreted in a juice which is exceedingly complex in nature, being 
rich in saline constituents (in ash) and also in organic matters, those 
which constitute the enzymic and related bodies. 

Whilst the pancreatic juice is said by many observers to be an 
alkaline fluid, we invariably find that infusions from the gland, pre- 
pared immediately upon being taken from the animal, or in the ordi- 
nary methods of procedure, give a distinctly acid reaction (with no 
alkaline reaction) due, we believe, to acid phosphates, which yield 
an acid ash. The fresh gland itself invariably gives an acid reac- 
tion to test paper, and I am unable to account for this except upon 
the hypothesis that the juice becomes alkaline either at the time of 
exudation from the gland or by some changes set up by the media 
with which it thus comes in contact. It is known that these fer- 
ments are not in the least degree dependent upon an alkaline reac- 



I IO 



Animal Digestive Ferments. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1902. 



tion — have no relation to an alkali in any way analogous to that 
between pepsin and hydrochloric acid. It cannot be too strongly 
pointed out that free alkali does not present a favorable medium for 
the extraction or preservation of the pancreas ferments in any 
form suitable for pharmaceutical uses. On the contrary, in alka- 
line solutions, the pancreas ferments all undergo rapid deterioration 
when submitted to the ordinary conditions of commerce. The pan- 
creatic enzymes are so active in neutral or faintly acid media that the 
intervention of a feeble alkali, whilst it increases their action, does 
not (in the most favorable percentage) by any means do so to any 
great extent ; and, as a matter of fact, the pancreas ferments are all 
readily utilizable for all purposes of artificial digestion without the 
intervention of any alkali whatever. In fact, with alkaline solutions 
the pancreas ferments are more readily destroyed than is pepsin in 
free acid. 

It should here be mentioned that the use of an alkali in the ordi- 
nary peptonizing processes with pancreas extract is not so much to 
increase the activity of the ferment, as it is for its convenience in 
enabling us to raise the temperature of the milk to the boiling 
point at any time during the partial digestion of the caseine, with- 
out coagulating the partially converted caseine, for caseine acquires 
the remarkable characteristic of curdling upon boiling, after it has 
been acted upon by the trypsin ; this coagulation, occurring only at 
the boiling point, is quite distinct from the milk-curdling reaction, 
the ferment having been destroyed before this reaction is reached. 

As for the practical side of the zymogen subject, it need only be 
said that in operations with the pancreas glands, especially when we 
seek to utilize the proteolytic ferment, the glands are best preserved 
at ordinary- room temperature, according to the season, for a sufficient 
length of time to develop the ferment, taking care to maintain aseptic 
conditions. On the other hand, if the starch-converting ferment is 
desired, the pancreas gland may be immediately put into operation. 

When we see that the latent zymogen becomes the potential 
enzyme when in contact with the food in normal digestion, and 
when existing in the gland is not utilizable unless likewise vitalized 
and developed by appropriate means out of the body, we are at a 
loss to attribute any virtue to the " mother " ferment in medicine ; 
for the very evident reason that as a mother ferment it is valueless, 
and becomes valuable only when it loses the characteristics of a 
zymogen and becomes an " enzyme." 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1902. 



Animal Digestive Ferments. 



1 1 1 



The behavior of the various digestive juices toward each other, 
their related role in the digestion process, has been the subject of 
immense research, theory and conjecture, and opinions of the widest 
possible variance have been expressed. This variance can be 
accounted for in a great degree by the nature and oftentimes incon- 
clusive methods of experiment ; the fact is sometimes lost sight of, 
that the contact of these enzymes in solution and in various media, 
acid, neutral or alkaline, introduces conditions foreign to those met 
with in the alimentary tract. 

The first and only positive conclusion to be drawn from such 
experiments is, that solutions of mixed ferments which are found to 
exert injurious effect upon each other, under the ordinary conditions 
to which they must be submitted in use, should not be prepared and 
presented as pharmaceutical products. 

We have particularly noted that the behavior of free hydrochloric 
acid towards the ferments is distinct from that of the gastric juice 
itself where the acid exists in peculiar physiological relation to the 
various proteids. This is the common observation of physiologists. 
Free hydrochloric acid behaves, for instance, very differently to 
starch digestion (of any diastase) from the equivalent amount of 
acid as combined in the gastric juice. 

The fact that diastase is injured in solution by maceration 
with pepsin and hydrochloric acid does not make it by any means 
conclusive that the saliva is useless in the stomach ; for it must 
be considered that the various juices from the salivary, gastric, 
and pancreatic glands are secreted under the stimulus of food, 
are brought together mingled with foods of a complex nature 
and in various stages of digestive conversion ; and that the 
various constituents of the juices and of the foods have important 
functions in the whole digestive scheme. Furthermore, there are 
various stages of activity and reactions of media in the normal 
progress of digestion. 

In the therapeutic use of the digestive ferments we are by no 
means dealing with normal digestion, nor are we restricted solely to 
one period or one method in the introduction of the various enzymic 
agents into the economy. This subject is of very great importance 
as regards the therapeutic use of the digestive ferments. 

The writer dealt with this subject in a pamphlet on the " Extract 
of the Pancreas and its Uses," in 1 883, and referred to his experiments 



112 



Animal Digestive Ferments. 



(Am. Jour. PDarm. 
X March, 1902. 



made with the gastric juice obtained by permanent fistula in a per- 
fectly healthy dog, and the use of this fresh juice in digestion 
experiments upon foods in association with the pancreas ferments. 
Later, in his ''Handbook of the Digestive Ferments," 1892, he 
especially called attention to the distinction between pharmaceutical 
compatibilities of the enzymes and their physiological relations and 
therapeutic adaptability. 

In our review of this subject, we are struck with the fact, as in 
the history of all science, that there are periods of productiveness, 
of sterility, of reaction ; that observations of the greatest impor- 
tance and significance are unheeded or oftentimes directly denied, 
or become the subject of controversy when it would seem that they 
could have been corroborated by the simple repetition of the ex- 
periment ; and thus we see the evolution of errors, and indeed the 
survival of error. 

Investigators make correct and important observations on the 
special phenomena investigated, yet propound theories radically 
erroneous, not really deducible, and beyond the scope of the facts 
elicited. They come close to the heart of the matter, yet either dis- 
continue, or, by faulty hypotheses, are diverted from the direction 
which should have led to great discoveries. 

Errors concerning the nature, behavior, and relations of the 
enzymes have led to the preparation and employment of incompat- 
ible compounds, and have operated greatly to retard their utilization 
and the wide clinical investigation which would fully make known 
their therapeutic possibilities. 

The early idea that pepsin should preferably be exhibited in 
small doses, the prevalence of mere saccharated attenuants of pep- 
sin, led to a state of things which naturally was not favorable to 
any adequate development of its possibilities as a therapeutic agent. 

As for " pancreatine," the erroneous impression early conceived 
(and perpetuated by constant repetition of the statement) that the 
pancreas ferments could only act in an alkaline media, bore a 
relation to alkalies analogous to that of pepsin to acid, has created 
a false presumption as to their therapeutic limitations. 

In pharmacy we have yet to completely recognize that the 
enzymes have limitations and susceptibilities and compatibilities of 
a radically different nature to those of drugs and chemicals. For 
even at the present time we see that the enzymes are sometimes 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
March, 1902. J 



Animal Digestive Ferments. 



ii3 



destroyed when prepared with the best of purpose ; and this in a 
way which does not at all exist as regards chemical preparations, 
simply from the universally recognized facts as to the compatibility 
and reactions of chemicals. It will be interesting to mention a few 
instances for their present practical importance : 

It happened that Scheffer's interest in the subject was co-existent 
with the " elixir " mania, when the tendency was to produce as 
many combinations as possible, rather than to ascertain those most 
eligible for this form of exhibition. Naturally, pepsin and pan- 
creatine did not escape. 

SchefTer insisted on the incompatibility of bismuth in solution 
with pepsin. The writer has without success endeavored to pre- 
pare a solution which should retain pepsin in a vital form in con- 
tact with bismuth in solution for a sufficient length of time to 
justify its issuance as a pharmaceutical product. Compounds of 
pepsin and bismuth in solution are yet in commerce, and have a 
place in formularies. 

That the ferments combined in solution are antagonistic to each 
other has often been pointed out. SchefTer early called attention 
to the incompatibility of pepsin and pancreatine, and pepsin and 
diastase in elixirs. It is impossible to prepare any media suitable for 
the preparation of the enzymes of the stomach and pancreas in com- 
bination in solution ; for whether the reaction of the preparation be 
neutral, alkaline, or acid, there will be a gradual, sure, progressive 
deterioration of the product under the commercial conditions to 
which the preparation must be submitted. If the liquid preparation 
of the mixed peptic and pancreatic ferments be neutral or alkaline, 
the pepsin becomes destroyed ; if acid, all but the pepsin perish, and 
the acid compound will therefore be found to be devoid of any pan- 
creatic activity — capacity to convert starch, or to convert proteids 
in neutral or alkaline media. 

On the other hand, it is a fact that suitable solutions of peptic and 
pancreatic ferments can be mixed extemporaneously and found to 
retain the virtues of the component ferments for a sufficient length 
of time for their use in the ordinary method of prescribing. 

The role of hydrochloric acid, since Schwann's time (both its 
normal function and the limitations of its compatible percentage) 
has become thoroughly known; yet free mineral acids in destructive 
degree to the enzymes are often used in pharmaceutical prepara- 



114 



Animal Digestive Ferments. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1902. 



tions. And it has been even possible now for the assertion to 
receive publication that hydrochloric acid is the real digestant of 
albumen in the pepsin test. 

Alcohol and glycerin in relation to the ferments are so important 
that they should receive attention. 

In order to preserve the enzymes in solution, some antiseptic 
must be employed, and alcohol and glycerin prove the most desir- 
able for pharmaceutical preparations of the enzymes, as they are in 
galenical preparations in general. The value of glycerin in the 
extraction and preservation of the enzymes is well known; we would 
say, however, that we cannot regard concentrated glycerin as being 
favorable for direct gland extraction ; dilution with water is advan- 
tageous. 

A great deal of misconception has existed regarding the relation 
of alcohol to the digestive ferments, especially as to the pharma- 
ceutical and therapeutic significance of the facts, that strong alcohol 
precipitates pepsin ; that pepsin does not digest well in the presence 
of diluted alcohol. 

The writer, in his " Hand-Book of the Digestive Ferments," pub- 
lished in 1892, pointed out that alcohol retarded digestion in vitro 
simply for the reason that alcohol is not a media either for the 
activity of pepsin or for the solution of the products of digestion ; 
that water is the prrysiological media in which the ferment performs 
its functions and by which the products of digestion are taken up as 
they are formed. And in his experiments with the influence of 
various agents upon digestion, he showed that glycerin, peptone, 
sugar, and other substances, likewise retarded digestion, not because 
they exerted in themselves any injurious influence whatever upon 
the ferments, but simply in the degree to which they diminished the 
proportion of water and its consequent capacity as a media. 

The products of digestion all clog the action of the enzyme by 
which they are formed simply to the degree to which the media 
becomes saturated with them, not because they ** paralyze " or injure 
the ferment. For upon the removal of these products by dialysis, 
and the addition of a fresh quantity of albumen, or by the addition 
of a fresh volume of the acidulated water and the addition of albu- 
men, the ferment will exhibit its digestive action ; and repeatedly, 
to such an extent that we do not really know the limits of its action 
— the life of the enzyme. 



Am Mirch,f902. rnJ '} Animal Digestive Ferments. 115 

Alcohol in any percentage used in pharmaceutical and medicinal 
preparations is immediately diluted to a negligible quantity in the 
stomach in its relation to the enzyme in its ordinary exhibition ; 
and in submitting alcohol preparations to the usual digestive 
test the alcohol forms so small a percentage of the digesting 
mass as to exert no retarding influence upon the action of the 
enzyme. 

It was thought that because wines of pepsin were found by Squibb 
to be feeble or practically inert, their defect was necessarily due to 
the presence of alcohol ; but this is not the fact. 

In the first place, there was no certainty that the vinous or elixir 
preparations of pepsin had ever had any vital pepsin in them, or 
that the pepsin had not been injured by the acid in the preparation. 

The conventional quantity of pepsin used in those days was a 
grain of the saccharated to one or two teaspoonfuls, so that a tea- 
spoonful of such preparation could by assay digest only twelve to 
fifteen grains of albumen. Preparations containing sufficient alcohol 
and glycerin to ensure stability are readily made directly from the 
stomach, of which one teaspoonful upon U.S. P. assay will convert 
from 2,000 to 3,000 grains. There is an evident error in the attempt 
sometimes made to "assay" fluid preparations of pepsin containing 
alcohol by adding the coagulated albumen directly to the prepara- 
tion. The question to be asked of an alcoholic preparation of pepsin 
is, whether it exhibits the action of pepsin when submitted to the 
proper (physiological) conditions — just as we assay the dry ferment, 
and thus only we determine its pepsin strength. 

It was early observed that pepsin was destroyed by maceration 
with sodium carbonate and free alkali in minute percentages ; pep- 
sin has also been spoken of as being " altered " or " modified " by 
the action of an alkali. 

Inasmuch as formulas have been suggested in which the neutral- 
ization of the acid pepsin infusion is directed, it is worth while to 
mention that pepsin is injured if the neutralization be carried to the 
very faintest alkalinity, and that this occurs instantly, and at ordi- 
nary temperatures ; the pepsin cannot be considered " modified " or 
u altered " pepsin in any sense ; it is simply annihilated ; its activity 
cannot be restored by acidification or by any treatment. 

In a word, it may be said that in determining the pharmaceutical 
possibilities of a preparation of the enzymes, the question is not 



n6 Animal Digestive Ferments. {^il^^S^' 

first (or necessarily at all) to be considered as to whether it is a 
" clear," visibly compatible preparation; its value can only be ascer- 
tained by submitting it to actual assay; that is to say, a fluid prepara- 
tion must be tested by precisely the same means as the dry ferments. 
The preparation, then, should have such stability as to reasonably 
ensure its coming into medicinal or technical use in a proper form, 
assuming, always, that it will receive a proper degree of care in con- 
sideration of its organic nature; that it will not be exposed to heat, 
and that a proper rotation of supply will be observed. 

The therapeutic use of the digestive enzymes in the peptonization 
of food is based upon purely physiological grounds, differing from 
ordinary alimentation only in the degree and extent to which the 
food is pre-fkted for assimilation when exhibited. 

The chemico-physiological investigations as to the physiological 
reaction of the proteids, their cleavage products and derivatives, 
when introduced into the system otherwise than by the gastrointes- 
tinal tract, interesting and practical as they are in advancing the 
domain of our knowledge, so far throw no light on the normal or 
abnormal processes in the body, and have presented no ground in 
the mind of any investigator, we believe, for any conclusions or 
theories, of significance in practical medicine. Especially unfounded, 
for instance, is any assumption that the more soluble proteids of 
digestion may be considered less valuable than the native or par- 
tially converted proteids. 

We know well the composition and value of the native food, 
and the nature and object of the digestive conversion. Wide 
experience has well determined that a normal dietary must con- 
tain the varied elements of food, and in proper nutritive balance, 
and that the most minute elements thereof, even the inorganic, 
exert a marked influence upon the acceptability and digestibility of 
the foods with which they are associated. 

The solution of food is essential to its availability for nutrition, 
and by means of the animal enzymes it became for the first time 
possible to prepare fluid food actually containing the entire digest- 
ible solid in solution in a non-coagulable form, thus utilizing in 
the feeding of the sick the normal typical foods, farinaceous and 
proteid. 

The instinctive repugnance to solid food in disease has in itself 
led to the evolution of diet in therapeutics, and the peptonized foods 



An Mi?ch,f902. rm '} Animal Digestive Ferments. 117 

have naturally been a scientific and practical advance in contrast to 
the reliance upon fluids containing little or no solids, or solids in an 
indigestible form. 

The disastrous effects in the past of delusive ideas as to what 
constituted food for the sick have been seen in the dependence so 
largely placed upon beef tea and extracts containing purely stimu- 
lating nitrogenous bodies. The effect produced upon animals 
in feeding them upon pure gelatin, or protein, or sugar, only con- 
firms experience and reason as to the futility of such experiments 
in determining the value of foods, for if we were to measure the 
value of food elements by such results, we should logically have to 
conclude that no element is suitable for nutrition. 

It is here interesting to mention that we are now obliged to 
qualify the view once so generally accepted as to the absolutely 
innutritive quality of gelatin. Recent physiological investigations 
go to show that gelatin in the ordinary diet exerts a marked influ- 
ence in conserving and promoting the energy of other protein 
compounds, and probably in the building up or the replacing of 
the connective tissues analogous to gelatin. 

At the outset of this paper the writer referred to the far-reaching 
scope of the subject. It will be seen that from whatever direction 
we approach the physiological and pharmacological investigations 
involved, we find matter of scientific and practical interest, and 
embodied in voluminous literature. Reference even to these 
researches has only been possible by restricting ourselves to those 
points of the greatest practical purport. 

It is evident that we have arrived at a position where we can deal 
with the enzymes in pharmacy and medicine with as much practical 
certainty as with drugs and chemicals. It is true that we do not 
know what pepsin is: but if we ever succeed in isolating the enzymes, 
in order to prove for them a peculiar chemical constitution, it is not 
easy to see how we shall thereby make advance in pharmacy or 
medicine. Inasmuch as we do not know the chemical constitution 
of the enzymes; have no chemical tests or reagents to distinguish 
them as a group or as individuals, or, as it is often expressed, " we 
know the digestive ferments only by their action," this is often inter- 
preted or stated from the viewpoint of presenting a distinct limita- 
tion and defect in our knowledge. But the physiological test quite 
transcends in delicacy the chemical, for it enables us to get the char- 



n8 



Animal Digestive Ferments. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm . 
1 March, 1902. 



acteristic action of the ferment from an amount so small as to quite 
elude and defy analysis. Just as in the anti-toxins, the characteristic 
effect is obtained from an amount so small as to even tax the imagi- 
nation. 

It may be said, also, that we do not know why sodium chloride 
exerts an unfavorable influence upon the proteolytic enzyme in vitro y 
but it positively does, even when present to the extent of 2 per 
cent. Likewise, we do not know why some of the extractive mat- 
ters present in the pancreas secretions and in saliva (and in malt 
also) exert a profound influence upon the starch-covering ferment. 
We however know that inorganic salts in association with the fer- 
ments in normal juices exert a powerful action, and upon the sepa- 
rated enzymes themselves, and are in some way intimately related 
to their life and activity. We know how to extract the enzymes 
and preserve them, and how to apply them in many important 
directions; know their compatibilities and incompatibilities; and we 
are also able to distinguish differences between simple solutions of 
the ferments and the secretions of the glands themselves. 

The limitations of our knowledge, whilst presenting most inviting- 
subjects of inquiry, are mainly in their biological relations. The 
whole field of investigations in relation to the therapeutic utilization 
of the animal gland secretions is the object of active laboratory and 
clinical study, and we may naturally anticipate yet further additions 
to the brilliant achievements already made. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY CHRONOLOGICALLY ARRANGED. 

Reaumur : Mem. de l'Acad. de Sciences, 1752, p. 266, 461. 
Stevens: Inaug. Thesis University of Edinburgh, 1777 (De ali- 
mentorum concoctione). 

Hunter, J.: Philos. Transactions, 1772. 

Spallanzani : Experiences sur la Digestion de l'Homme, etc., par- 
Jean Senebier. Geneve, 1783. 

Leuchs : Kastner's Arch. f. d. ges. Naturlehre, 1831. 

Beaumont : Experiments and Observations on the Gastric Juice\ 
1834. 

Eberle : Physiologie der Verdauung, 1834 (reprint 1838). 
Miiller, J. : Physiologie, 2d ed., 1835. 
Muller and Schwann : Muller's Arch. f. Anat., 1836. 
Schwann: Muller's Arch. f. Anat., 1836. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
March, 1902. J 



Animal Digestive Ferments. 



119 



Wasmann : Inaug. Dissert, Berlin, 1839. 

Burdach : Physiologie, French transl., 1841, with notes by the 
younger Burdach. 

Lehmann: Lehrb. der physiol. Chemie, 1842 (1st ed.). 

Blondlot : Traite analytique de la digestion. 1843. 

Bouchardat et Sandras : Acad, de Sciences, 1842. 

Bernard: Comptes rend. Acad, de Sciences. 1845, p. 88. 

Frerichs : Article " Verdauung " Handworterbuch f. Physiologie, 
by Wagner, 1846. 

Miahle: According to Meissner, 1845. 

Lehmann : According to Meissner, 1850. 

Bernard : Arch, de med., etc., 1849. 

Bidder and Schmidt : Die Verdauung. 

Corvisart : Sur une fonction peu connue du pancreas, etc., Paris, 
1857-8. 

Beale: Archives de Medicine, 1858. 

Meissner: Zeitsche f. rat. Med., 1859, Vol. VII, VIII. 

Briicke: Sitzungsber. d. Wiener Akad., 1859, XXXVII. 

Danilewsky : Virchovv's Arch., 1862, No. 25. 

Krasilinikow : (cited by Hammersten) 1864. 

Kuehne : Virchow's Arch., 1867, No. 39. 

Von Wittich : Pfliiger's Arch. d. Physiol., 11, 1869. 

Scheffer : Amer. Journ. Pharm., 1872. 

Ebstein and Griitzner : Pfliiger's Arch. d. Physiol., 1873. 

Pavy : Treatise on Food and Dietetics, 1874. 

Klemensiewicz : Sitzunsber. d. Akad. d. Wiss., 1875, LXXL. 

Heidenhain : Pfliiger's Arch. d. Physiol., 1875. 

Scheffer: Proceedings Amer. Pharm. Ass'n, Vol. XXIII, 1875; 
Vol. XXIV, 1876. 

Langley : Journal Physiology, III, 269, 1880. 

Chittenden and Ely : Ibid., 327, 1880. 

Roberts: 1880. (Roberts' Lumleian Lectures, 188 1.) 

Chittenden and Griswold : Amer. Chem. Journ., Ill, 305, 188 1. 

Kremel : Pharm. Post, 27-30, 1885. 

Fairchild : Extractum Pancreatis, 1883. 

Neumeister: Z. f. Biolog., XXIII, 381, 1887. 

Chittenden and Painter: Stud. Lab. Phy. Chem., Yale Univ., II, 
156, 1887. 

Kbnig and Kisch : Z. f. Anal. Chem., XXVIII, 191, 1889. 



120 Dose Measures and Measured Doses. { Am March,f£2. rm ' 

Chittenden and Smith: J. Physiology, IX, 410, 1890. 
Chittenden and Hartwell : Ibid., XII, 12, 1891. 
Chittenden and Solley : Ibid., XII, 23, 1 891 . 
Chittenden and Goodwin: Ibid., XII, 34, 1 891 . 
Stutzer: Z. f. Anal. Chem., 31, 591, 1892. 
Fairchild: Handbook of the Digestive Ferments, 1892. 
Mett: Arch, des Scien. biolog., I, 142, 1894. 
Siegfried: Z. f. Phy. Chem., 21, 360, 1894. 
Chittenden and Mendel : J. Physiology, XVIII, 48, 1894. 
Chittenden and Amerman : Ibid., XIV, 249, 1894, 
Chittenden and Meara : Ibid., XV, 501, 1894. 
Schoumow-Simanowski : Arch. Exp. Path. u. Pharm., 33, 336, 1894. 
Wroblewski: Z. f. Phys. Chem., 21, 1895 ; Ber. de Chem. Gesell., 
31, 1130, 1898. 

Osborne and Campbell : J. Am. Chem. Soc, 17-22, 1895, 1900. 
Pekelharing : Z. f. Phys. Chem., 22, 1896. 

Kossel : Ibid., 22, 184, 25, 190; 26, 586; 28, 382, 1896, 1900. 
Allen: Analyst, 285, 1897. 

Pawlovv : Arbeit, de Verdauungsdrusen, Bergmann, 1897. 
Mann: Diss. Erlangen, 1897. 

Mabery and Goldsmith: J. Am. Chem. Soc, XIX, 889, 1897. 
Chittenden: Proc. Am. Phys. Soc, 1898, 3. 

Chittenden and Mendel and McDermott : Amer. Jonr. Physiol., 
1898, 1,255. 

Bomer : Z. f. d. Unters. d. Nahrungsmittel, X, 160, 1898. 

Wiley: Chem. News, 80, 88, 1899. 

Mallett: Ibid., 80, 43, 117, 168, 1899. 

Biichner : Arch. f. Klin. Med., 29, 537. 

Fraser : J. of Anat. and Physiol,, 31, 469. 

Friedenthal : Arch. f. Anat. u. Phys. Ph. Abth., 181, I9OO. 

Nencki and Sieber : Z. f. Phys. Chem. 27, 1901. 

Qppenheimer : Die Fermente u. i. Wirkungen, 1900. 

Green : The Soluble Ferments and Fermentation, 1901. 



DOSE MEASURES AND MEASURED DOSES. 

By M. I. WiivBERT. 

While dose measures have necessarily been in use as long as doses 
of medicines have been given, little attention has been paid to their 



Am Mi?ch,f9ol rm '} Dose Measures and Measured Doses. 121 

accuracy, or to the accuracy of the doses measured. It is true that 
occasionally we find an article calling attention to the variation in 
the shape and size of the different household utensils that are used 
as dose measures. But, so far as the writer's knowledge goes, no 
attempt has ever been made to inquire into the needs and necessities 
for obtaining more accuracy in the administration of potent medi- 
cines to the patient. 

Some remarks that were made at a recent pharmaceutical meeting 
led the writer to try and investigate more fully the existing dose 
measures as to their efficiency* and accuracy, and to further make 
some investigations as to the importance ol the part played by per- 
sonal equation in the measuring of doses. 

To confine ourselves within reasonable limits we will not go into 
a discussion on metrology, nor will we take up the measures for 
larger quantities, but will restrict ourselves to a consideration of 
the ways and means for measuring out spoonful doses of active 
medicines. 

The difference in the size of various tea and tablespoons has been 
recognized for a long time. More than twenty-five years ago Mr. 
Barnard S. Proctor brought the matter up for dfscussion before the 
Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. In the course of this dis- 
cussion several substitutes were suggested, Mr. Proctor himself 
championing a cheap graduate marked in quantities of drams and 
ounces, ignoring any and all reference to the term spoon. Others 
suggested graduated glass measures similar to those used so exten- 
sively at the present time. 

Among the other devices for overcoming what was thought to be 
a serious problem was the graduating of the medicine vial into tea 
and tablespoon doses, so that the patient in pouring out the medi- 
cine could tell whether or not the proper quantity was being taken. 
This same device has since come into extensive use in connection 
with nursing-bottles. Here it answers a double purpose : facilitating 
the proper mixture of milk, cream and water, and at the same time 
aiding the mother or nurse to keep an accurate account of the 
amount of food consumed by the child. 

Still another device was the use of a half-ounce bottle as a 
measure for tablespoonful quantities ; this could be graduated for 
teaspoonful doses by making a scratch at the proper position with a 
new or sharp-edged file. 



122 Dose Measures and Measured Doses. { AD, MS;S m ' 

Of late years, the number and variety of graduated medicine 
measures has not only increased, but improvements in the methods 
of manufacture have materially reduced their price. 

Among the first graduated medicine measures was a porcelain 
spoon graduated in quantities of tea, dessert and tablespoons. The 
one on the table is of English manufacture, and a fair sample of the 
way these lines, or graduations, are usually found. 

The next step in the evolution of a cheap medicine measure was 
a molded tumbler with lines on the outside of the glass. As illus- 
trated by the samples on the table, Jhese measures were usually very 
crude and rather ungainly. A decided improvement, so far as accu- 
racy in indicating the contents of these measures is concerned, was 
made when the lines were put on the inside of the glass. To do 
this it was of course necessary to engrave corresponding depressions 
in the plunger used for molding the glass. The resulting lines are 
never very heavy, and often become entirely obscured when we 
attempt to measure dark or viscid liquids. 

Hand-graduated tumblers are not to be forgotten; but these* 
especially in the earlier days, were rather expensive and not within 
the reach of any but the more opulent. At the present time, prob- 
ably the most popular variety of a cheap tumbler is a combination 
having the lines engraved on the outside of the glass, while the 
quantities are indicated by molded numbers. 

Before passing to a critical examination of these various measures, 
let us revert a few moments to the subject of spoons as measures of 
capacity. A spoonful is defined in English dictionaries as being as 
much as a spoon will hold. This rather loose definition is accepted 
as authoritative, in so far, at least, that every one using a spoon for 
measuring is allowed to put his or her own construction on what is 
meant by it. The French Codex, so far as the writer's knowledge 
goes, is the only authoritative work that defines exactly what is 
intended by the term spoonful. This book says, ' A spoon is full 
when the liquid is on a level with, but does not show a curve above 
the upper edge or rim of the bowl." 

Using this definition as our guide, we have made a number of 
examinations of spoons as found in use at the present time. The 
results thus obtained have been grouped in Table No. I. 



'•} Dose Measures and Measured Doses. 123 



Table No. i.— CAPACITY OF SPOONS, MEASURED ACCORDING TO DEFINITION OF 

FRENCH CODEX. 





Tea. 


Dessert. 


Table. 




4-6 




H'5 




5'o 




14*3 




5'o 


IO'O 


14-8 


3 


4-8 


9-0 


I5'° 


4 • • • 


4-8 


9-0 


14-6 




4"9 




15' 




5*2 


9-4 


14-8 




4'9 


9-6 


I5"4 



In this connection we might say that the figures given are the 
average results of ten spoonsful of alcohol, it having been found 
that the necessary conditions were more readily obtained with this 
liquid than with water. 

An examination of the table will reveal the tact, that when meas- 
ured according to the definition of the French Codex, spoons do 
not vary to any considerable degree in their capacity. They do, 
however, differ considerably from the generally accepted equiva- 
lents as popularly used in this country at the present time. 

The results, on the other hand, concur, in the main, with the 
equivalents given by the writer in an article on " A Metric Medicine 
Glass," published in the Am. Jour, of Phar. for November, 1901. 

In this connection, the writer would like to call attention to the 
desirability of recognizing, in an official way, the fact that the 
capacities of spoons in use at the present time conform very closely 
to metric quantities, Another point that the writer should be 
pleased to see taken up for discussion, is the question of definite 
values for the various approximate measures in the metric system. 
This would appear to be a timely problem and one that should be 
decided in some official method. At the present time, if a physician 
writes a prescription in the metric system, and abbreviates his direc- 
tions to " 5 c.c. T. I. D.," the pharmacist almost invariably tran- 
scribes this as " One and one-third teaspoonful three times a day," 
much to the contusion of the patient and also to the chagrin of the 
physician, who accuses the druggist of being behind the times, and 
not understanding the system of weights and measures according to 
which he is supposed to prepare his preparations. 



124 Dose Measures and Measured Doses. { A Va??h, i9o!. rm - 

It is popularly supposed that the ideal dose measure is to be 
found only in the graduated medicine glass ; so much so, that 
authoritative works on pharmacy and therapeutics unhesitatingly 
recommend the use of these measures where any degree of accuracy 
is to be desired. It has even been asserted that these measures are 
invariably accurate and could be relied on to deliver the exact 
quantities intended by the prescriber. 

Let us take up first the matter of accuracy. The price at which 
these measures are usually sold would evidently preclude any argu- 
ment that a reasonable amount of care had been expended in their 
manufacture, or, that they had been individually tested as to their 
actual capacity at various points. 

Admitting this, it need not surprise us if we find that, at times, 
these measures are not even approximately correct. 

One peculiar feature of the problem is the fact that the more 
expensive medicine glasses are much more likely to be wrong than 



Table No. 2. — CAPACITY OF MEDICINE GLASSES IN CUBIC CENTIMETRES. 



Glass No. 


Teaspoon. 


Dessertspoon. 


Tablespoon. 


2 Tablespoons. 


Normal 


37 


7'4 


14 8 


29'6 




3 -o 


5'2 


122 


27'5 




6-4 


8 8 


16-4 


33 "5 




4-8 


8-4 


14-8 


31-0 




3 5 


7'° 


14-2 


29'5 




3-6 


7-o 


i4 - 6 


30-0 


6 


3:2 


7-2 


14-8 


32' 




50 


9-0 


16-0 


3 r6 


8 • 


41 


7-i 


15-2 


34"o 




4-9 


8-2 


14 8 


310 




35 


7*2 


i4"4 . 


31-0 




4-2 


9-2 


17-2 


33*° 




3-6 


6-8 


13-2 


30-5 




4- 2 


y8 


15*2 


34"5 


*4 


3-8 


7-6 


15*2 


31-0 


15 


4 - 3 


8'2 


16-0 




Metric normal . . . 


S'o 


I0"O 


I5'° 


30" 


16 


4"i 


8-2 


i6 - o 


336 


17 


4"9 


10-3 


15-2 


3°' 


18 


4 5 


9-6 


I5'° 





Am Ma rctr9o| rm -} Dose Measures and Measured Doses. 125 

are the cheaper variety that may usually be purchased for a mere 
trifle. 

We have measured a number of these glasses and tabulated the 
results in Table No. 2. In explanation, the writer would like to say 
that with but few exceptions all of these glasses are samples 
obtained from manufacturers or dealers, and that the figures are, as 
in the case of the spoons, average results of ten or more measure- 
ments for each quantity, made as nearly as possible under the same 
physical conditions. 

It will be noted that there is a marked difference in the quantities 
measured from the various measures, and that some of these 
glasses vary at different points. An attempt has been made to 
demonstrate the reasons for this, and at the same time to illustrate 
the difficulty most persons would have in attempting to measure 
small quantities from some of these graduated measures. 

Table No. 3 gives the inner diameter of the various glasses at the 



Table No. 3. — GIVING DIAMETER OF MEDICINE} GLASSES IN M.M. 











DISTANCE IN M.M. FROM 


Glass No. 


Teaspoon. 


Dessertspoon. 


Tablespoon. 






Bot'mto Table. 


Tea to Table. 




28- 


30- 


35" 


i3'5 


ii" 




33* 


34' 


36- 


i8- 5 


ir 




35" 


35 '5 


37"5 


i5* 


IO" 


4 • 


34' 


37' 


40- 


I3'5 


io'5 


5 • • • 


40- 


40-5 


42- 


13" 


9' 




33' 


34' 


37' 


H' 


"'5 




39' 


40- 


42- 


14' 


8- 


8 


35' 


36'9 


39* 


16- 


IO* 




31- 


32' 


34" 


i8'5 


12' 




27' 


29' 


3i 5 


23' • 


i6'5 




27-5 


3°* 


35" 


29' 


17' 




27- 


30- 


34' 


21" 


15" 


13.- 


30- 


32- 


35' 


22' 


I5 - 


H • 


29 '5 


32' 


34' 


21* 


16- 


15 ■ • • 


26- 


27'5 


3i' 


26" . 


18- 


16 


29- 


3i'5 


34'5 


22- 


16- 




30' 


32' 


34' 


21'5 


14' 


18 


26: 


28- 


30" 







126 Dose Measures and Measured Doses. { Am Ma?ch,f902. rm ' 

tea, dessert, and tablespoon mark, and also, as nearly as this is pos- 
sible, gives the distance in millimetres, from the bottom of the glass 
to the tablespoon mark, and then the distance between the tea and 
tablespoon mark. 

A description of the methods used for graduating these measures 
would not be out of place, and will serve to explain some of the 
variations in capacity. 

For a cheap measure the lines blown or molded on the outside 
of the tumbler are the ones most readily available. These lines 
may be made quite heavy and distinct, but it will, necessarily, be 
very difficult, if not well-nigh impossible, to get two glasses exactly 
alike, on account of the variation in the amount of glass entering 
the mold and the consequent difference in their inner capacity. 
This type of glass is illustrated by numbers io and II. 

The next has the marks placed on the inside of the glass by a 
graduated plunger. If the plunger is accurately graduated this 
method will give quite uniform results for the same lot of glasses. 
Numbers 12, 13 and 16 are glasses of this variety, and illustrate the 
possible variation due to different plungers. These glasses also 
illustrate the fact mentioned a few moments ago, that these lines are 
sometimes very faint and easily obscured by a dark or viscid liquid. 
This is due to the fact that the plunger cannot be deeply engraved, 
as this would interfere with its consequent withdrawal from the fin- 
ished glass. 

Engraved glasses appear to be graduated according to one of the 
following methods : 

Where a pressed glass is used for graduation, it is customary for 
some manufacturers to accurately measure and graduate one glass 
as a sample ; from this they graduate a wood block, and this block 
is subsequently used as a pattern to graduate the remaining glasses 
made from this particular mold. Glasses graduated in this way 
seldom vary more than 10 per cent. The cause of variation is a 
slight difference in the internal diameter of the glass, or a slight 
elevation or depression of the bottom of the tumbler that prevents 
the gauge block from going to its proper position. Numbers 14, 15 
and 17 are made according to this method, and are fair specimens 
of the results. 

The next method, and the one that is used almost exclusively on 
the higher priced glasses, is to measure into a glass a certain quan- 



Ab mS; So™'} Dose Measures and Measured Doses. 127 

tity ot water, usually one tablespoonful. The glass is carefully 
marked at this point, then another tablespoonful of water is run in, 
and this point is also marked. This marked glass then goes to the 
engraver, who cuts the graduations in at the points that are marked, 
and then, either promiscuously or according to some fixed rule, the 
intervening space is marked off and graduated to represent the frac- 
tional parts of a tablespoonful. The glasses from 4 to 9 are 
examples of this style of measure and fairly represent the short- 
comings of this method of graduating glasses. The third method 
of graduating plain glasses appears to be by the rule of thumb, and 
consists simply of putting on the outside of the glass the requisite 
markings according to some fixed scale or pattern. This style of 
graduation is always readily recognized, the lines are always in the 
same relative positions, regardless of any variation or difference in 
the shape, size, or thickness of the glass itself. Numbers 1 and 2 
are samples of this style of graduations. 

The variations that exist in some of the other medicine measures 
are shown in Table No. 4. Among these we have the porcelain 



Table No. 4. — CAPACITY OF OTHER MEDICINE MEASURES. 





3'5 


7-2 


14-2 






6-5 


148 




4-0 


6-o 


16 



medicine spoon, referred to before, as being a type of an early 
attempt to replace spoons by some more accurate means of measur- 
ing. 

Recently a pressed glass graduated spoon has been put on the 
market. As a measure this has no advantages over the porcelain 
spoon just referred to, and it would appear to be of but slight use 
as a carrier or vehicle with which to administer doses. 

Glass medicine spoons have been used to some extent, but these 
are to be classed among the most variable of all medicine measures. 

A review of this portion of our investigations would appear to 
bring out the fact that these medicine measures vary as much as Jo 
per cent, at the teaspoonful mark; this graduation should really be 
the most accurate, as medicines that are given in teaspoonful quan- 
tities are necessarily more active than those given in larger amounts, 
so that a variation at the lower mark would appear to be of relatively 
more importance than the same variation at the graduations for 
larger quantities. 



128 Dose Measures and Measured Doses. { Am Mi?ch,f902. rm * 

This actual variation in shape, size and capacity of medicine, 
glasses is but one side of the problem ; another, and probably a much 
more important part, is played by the personal equation, or ability, 
of the person that is actually doing the measuring. This factor is 
usually lost sight of in discussions of this kind, but is really of con- 
siderable moment, especially when we consider that doses are 
necessarily measured by all classes and kinds of people that may, or 
may not, have had training in this particular direction. 

To get some approximate ideas as to the real importance of this 
personal equation factor, we have made several hundred investiga- 
tions or trials on, or with, upwards of a hundred people. Repre- 
sentative medicine measures were taken, and the various persons were 
requested to measure out ten doses, just as though they were to be 
given to a patient. For the liquid, a diluted alcohol, slightly colored 
with caramel, was used. An alcoholic mixture was chosen so as to 
reduce as much as possible the error resulting from portions of the 
liquid remaining adherent to the sides of the glass. The doses 
were measured into a beaker or glass tumbler so as to avoid any 
suggestion that might be offered by the lines and figures on ihe 
sides of a graduate. The total quantity was later measured, and 
this total, divided by ten, gave us the average for the individual doses. 
By measuring twenty doses alternately, in two separate tumblers, it 
was found that the averages were remarkably even, so that for all 



Table No. 5— SHOWING HIGHEST, LOWEST AND AVERAGE QUANTITIES 
MEASURED FROM THE SAME MEASURE BY VARIOUS PERSONS. 



TEASPOONS. 


Glass No. 


TABLESPOONS. 


High. 


Low. 


Average. 


High. 


Low. 


Average. 


36 


1*5 


2'5 


4 


15-2 


11 6 


144 


3 - 4 


2"I 


3"o 


5 


I4'5 


io-8 


12-8 


3*5 


i-8 


26 


6 


13-8 


■ n'5 


12-6 


4'9 


3'o 


3'9 


13 


i'6'6 


I2'0 


14-2 


5' 2 


3'i 


3-8 


14 


16-6 


I2'0 


15-0 


4*4 


3*5 


4'i 


15 


162 


i4'o 


14 8 


6-o 


3 - 2 


4"4 


17 


l6"2 


12-3 


14-9 


7'o 


3 - o 


5*o 


Spoon. 


18-0 


8-9 


14 


4*2 


2'0 


3'2 


Med. spoon. 


16-4 


122 


14-2 


5'i 


4'5 


4-8 


Special. 


I5'2 


14*6 


14-9 



■ Am March,i£»2. rm '} -Dose Measures and Measured Doses. 129 

practical purposes there was no decided element of error to be taken 
into consideration. 

Table No. 5 shows some of the results, and illustrates the highest 
and lowest dose averages obtained from several of the medicine 
measures used. When we compare the results given here with the 
diameter of the glasses as given in Table No. 3, we learn that 
the cheapest available medicine-glass may be considered the most 
accurate for all around use. This is due to the fact that the manu- 
facturer, in the first place, graduates these measures nearly correct; 
and, secondly, that in the subsequent use for measuring, a slight 
variation of the resulting meniscus above or below the line is of 
comparatively little moment. With wide glasses, on the other hand, 
a slight variation of the engraved line, by the maker, or a corre- 
sponding variation of the meniscus of the liquid being measured, 
makes a decided difference in the amount of liquid actually measured. 

Here again we may note that the variations at the teaspoonful 
quantities are comparatively much greater than at the tablespoon. 

Altogether these tables would appear to contain much food for 
thought, and in a general way indicate the lines on which a more 
accurate and reliable medicine measure might be made. 

Another series of experiments, made with a view of obtaining 
some data as to the value of experience in measuring doses, are 
shown in Table No. 6. These experiments were again made with 
tea and tablespoonful doses, and the tables give the highest, lowest 
and average quantities measured by respectively ten patients, ten 
nurses, and ten physicians. 

As was to be expected, the greatest amount of variation occurred, of 
course, in the use of the spoon ; this is accounted for by the fact that 
there is a decided difference of opinion as to what constitutes a spoon- 
ful, some people considering a spoon full when it is filled to a point 
where it would become difficult to carry it about without spilling 
some of its contents. Others, on the other hand, appear to contend 
that a spoon is not full " Until it doth run over ; " it is easily seen* 
therefore, how in the one case we may have as the result more than 
donble what we had in the other. 

Pretty much the same thing occurs, however, with a medicine- 
glass ; very few people, unless previously instructed, have any idea 
how to measure with a graduated measure, the great majority read- 
ing from the upper edge of the resulting meniscus, so that under 



130 Dose Measures and Measured Doses. { A 



Table No. 6.— SHOWING HIGHEST, LOWEST AND AVERAGE QUANTITIES 
MEASURED FROM THE SAME MEASURE BY, RESPECTIVELY, TEN 
PATIENTS, TEiST NURSES, AND TE^ PHYSICIANS. 



TEASPOONS. 




TABLESPOONS. 


Hi°h 






Patients. 








7'° 


3'° 


5' 2 


Spoon . 


i8'o 


9 


I 3"5 




3'2 


38 


Glass No. 14. 


l6'2 


12*0 


14-2 


6'o 


3'4 


4'4 


Glass No. 17. 


15-6 


I2"3 


14-4 


TTicrh 

XXlg 11. 




Average. 


Nurses. 


High. 




Average. 


67 


3-6 


48 




162 


12-6 


139 


4-4 


3"5 


3-8 


Glass No. 14. 


i6 - 4 


13-0 


14-9 


5'2 


3'2 


4'6 


Glass No. 17. 






14*5 


High. 


Low. 


Average. 


Physicians. 


High. 


Low. 


Average. 


5-8 


3-8 


4"9 


Spoon. 


15-6 


12-0 


14-4 


4-8 


3"i 


3"9 


Glass No. 14. 


16-6 


14*8 


157 


6-o 


3-6 


4'8 


Glass No. 17. 


16-2 


13-8 


14-9 



certain conditions a patient may, at one time, get more than double 
the dose of an active medicine than he has been in the habit of 
having. Altogether, the possible results from variations of this 
kind are not in keeping with modern ideas of scientific medicine. 
Several other interesting features were developed in the course of 
these investigations : one of them is the fact that the majority of 
people measure out larger doses from a ^mall bottle than they do 
from one three or four times the size. Using the same liquid and 
the same measure, the variation in the size of the doses measured 
reached as much as 20 per cent. The reason for this particular 
difference was not developed, but it was probably due to some sug- 
gestive influences. 

Another interesting variation was noted in connection with spoons. 
It appears that individuals using the same spoon almost invariably 
measure out more when using a colorless fluid than when using one 
that has a decided color. In some cases this difference has reached 
as much as 70 per cent. This variation was found to be more 
marked in artificial light. This latter incident probably gives the 
clue for a solution ot this particular problem. The direct cause for 



Ad mS', 5o2. rm ' } Dose Measures and Measured Doses. 131 

the variation probably being the fact that a colorless fluid is not so 
readily seen against a bright shining spoon as is one that has con- 
siderable color. 

Suggestion is a factor that plays an important part in experiments 
of this kind, and at times, at least, is very difficult to guard against. 
Just one case to show how easy it is to influence even most intel- 
ligent people : 

A particularly careful physician was asked to measure out doses 
with the various measures, and after obtaining several averages it 
was suggested that he try measuring teaspoonsful of a colorless 
fluid just to notice the difference in the size of the doses. His 
averages in this case were slightly below his corresponding averages 
for the colored liquid. When told that his results in this particular 
test varied considerably from those obtained by others, he volun- 
teered to try again, and despite the fact that he asserted the quanti- 
ties to be no larger than before, his averages in this case were nearly 
one-fourth greater. 

There is one other feature of the personal-equation factor that 
might be mentioned in this connection; this is the variation that 
occurs in measuring doses of medicines that contain opiates. It is 
not an uncommon occurrence to have customers who have this class 
of prescriptions refilled at gradually shortening intervals. This 
would indicate one of two things : either the patient was taking 
more doses than the physician prescribed, or his dose-measures 
were gradually becoming larger; at any rate, it is one of the many 
possible abuses that should be guarded against by the pharmacist. 

Having enumerated a few of the possible sources of error in 
measuring doses, the question naturally arises, Is there any possible 
remedy to correct these various discrepancies ? 

The solution of the problem that suggested itself to the writer's 
mind is a rather tall and narrow measuring-glass, on which the tea- 
spoonful quantity is correctly indicated. With such a medicine 
measure there would be but slight chance of any grave or glaring 
error, either in its manufacture or its subsequent use. 

The subject of drops and droppers was taken up later, with a 
view of determining what, if any, difference existed between the 
drops from various shapes and sizes of so-called medicine-droppers. 
This simple device is now in such general use in this country, and 
the number of very active drugs that are measured out in drop 



132 Dose Measures and Measured Doses. { Am ^rch,S. rm ' 

doses is increasing to such an extent, that an inquiry into the pos- 
sible variation in the size of the drops was thought to be of con- 
siderable and timely interest, especially in view of the fact that the 
Pharmacopceial Revision Committee has before it a proposition to 
adopt an official or standard dropper. 

The literature on the subject of drops is quite extensive. The 
files of the American Journal of Pharmacy alone contain numerous 
and exhaustive papers on this subject, and many, if not all, text- 
books and commentaries have considerable amount of space devoted 
to a more or less exhaustive review of the subject, and also the more " 
or less reliable tables of the number of drops of various liquids that 
are necessary to measure a fluid dram. Many, if not all of the 
investigations that are usually quoted, were carried out by dropping 
either from the lip of a bottle, the edge of a cork, or the lip of a 
minim graduate. As far as the writer's knowledge goes, no exten- 
sive investigations have been made into the subject of drops from 
the much-used medicine-dropper. 

In dropping liquids from a pipette it is essential that the latter be 
held point down, if correlating results are to be obtained. In 
actual practice this necessary precaution does not appear to be 
recognized or appreciated. In some experiments that were made 
to determine what, if any, effect personal equation would have on 
the number of drops necessary to weigh one gramme, it was noted 
that comparatively few people held the dropper point down, but 
that the majority held the pipette at such an angle that the drop 
was formed from the side rather than the point of the dropper. 
That a difference in the way a pipette is held has a most decided 
effect on the size of the resulting drop is well illustrated in Table 
No. 7. 

Few people would admit that there could be such a variation in 
the size of drops from the same dropper, but a series of experiments, 
that any one can conduct for himself, will be the best way of con- 
vincing them of this fact. One question naturally arises: What 
dependence can be placed in the extensive drop-tables usually 
published in works of reference ? Here, again, the answer must be 
with the individual, and the only suggestion that the writer wishes 
to offer is, that it may at times be well for the individual to try and 
duplicate some of the quantities stated according to his own methods 
or ideas. 



irm.j Dose Measures and Measured Doses. 133 



Table No. 7.— SHOWING NUMBER OF DROPS REQUIRED TO WEIGH 1 GRAMME. 





Diameter. 


Normal. 


DIST'D WATER. 


dil'd alcohol. 


ALCOHOL. 


High. 


I<ow. 


High. 


L,ow. 


High. 


L,ow. 








26 


13 


50 


20 


68 


45 


r\ t*r\n n c\ 


3 m.m. 




25 


18 


54 


• 42 


73 


52 




3 m.m. 


20 


20 


10 


44 


26 


54 


33 


Bent 


2m. m. 


28 


32 


10 


70 


30 


90 


35 




3m. m. 


20 


22 


10 


48 


26 


65 


36 


French 


7mm. 


10 


14 


10 


40 


24 


47 


29 


Large bulb 


i8m.m. 


8 


9 


8 


22 


20 


28 


26 




9 m.m. 


10 


10-5 


9"5 


28 




36 


33 


Dropping bottle .... 




10 


12 


10 


33 


29 


36 


32 



One thought that was suggested by the results obtained was, that 
a drop of water, weighing the one- tenth part of a gramme, was a 
relatively more constant quantity, and one that could be more easily 
duplicated, than the proposed standard drop weighing the one- 
twentieth part of a gramme. This proposed standard drop is rather 
difficult to obtain without considerable variation or error. One 
improvement in the pipette, as proposed by Dr. Seaman to the 
Pharmacopoeia! Revision Committee, suggested itself. This is, to 
grind the lower edge or mouth of the pipette; this appears to retard 
the crawling up of the liquid and the consequent increase in the 
dropping surface. But even with this modification, we still have a 
possible variation of more than 30 per cent. 

If we modify the "French pipette" in the same way, we can 
reduce the variation to less than 20 per cent. ; and in addition to this 
we would practically establish the proposition that a drop of distilled 
water is a metric quantity, being equal in weight to one decigramme, 
or in bulk to the one-tenth part of a cubic centimetre. 

It is possible, however, to bring the drop of distilled water still 
nearer to a fixed metric standard. If we had a perfectly round 
sphere, of from 7 to 9 m.m. in diameter, arranged so as to allow 
drops of water to form and drop from it, we would find that these 
drops were so regular in size and weight that they might be used 
as a standard of weight and bulk. To all intents and purposes this 
would at least equal in accuracy the plump grain of wheat that is 
the standard of weight for the various systems at the present time. 



134 



Solubility of Alkaloids. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm 
t March, 1902. 



As such a sphere is not readily adapted to be used as a dropping 
pipette, the writer has devised a simple spherical outlet to an ordi- 
nary pipette, and with a dropper constructed on this principle it is 
possible to drop, either from the sides, bottom or edge of the tube, 
drops that will weigh, within a minute fraction, one decigramme. 
So constant are these drops as to weight and size that 10 will weigh 
one gramme, and 100 will weigh 10 grammes or measure io c.c., 
with a possible variation of less than 5 per cent. 

From a series of experiments that have been made, it may be said 
that this ratio is iairly constant, for all aqueous liquids or solutions, 
as to weight but not measure. The relative number of drops of 
alcohol may be said to be three to one of water, and of dilute alcohol 
about two and a half to one of water. This latter proportion is 
perhaps a little high, and for all practical purposes the following 
ratio may be taken as representing a fair«average : Water, 1 ; diluted 
alcohol, 2 ; alcohol, 3. 

In conclusion, the writer would suggest that a perfectly made 
decigramme pipette may simplify the relative size and weights of 
drops, and would also offer an additional argument for the introduc- 
tion and use of the metric system of weights and measures. 



A METHOD OF DETERMINING THE SOLUBILITY 
OF ALKALOIDS. 
By Robert A. Hatcher, M.D. 

In attempting to dissolve cinchonine in water much difficulty was 
experienced, owing to the fact that the powder floated upon the sur- 
face of the liquid or clung to the sides of the vessel. 

The alkaloid was then dissolved in alcohol and added to water, 
the alcohol being expelled by heat ; but this method proved no 
more satisfactory than the first mentioned. 

The cinchonine was next rubbed with water until a smooth mix- 
ture was made ; to this was added from a burette the requisite 
N 

amount of — H 2 S0 4 to convert it into the sulphate, and solution 
10 

easily effected. Portions of this were diluted in various propor- 

N 

tions, and to each a slight excess (about 2 c.c.) of — NaOH added ; 
from the relative amounts precipitated in the various dilutions an 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
March, 1902. / 



Solubility of Alkaloids. 



135 



estimate of the amount remaining in solution was gained, and a 
new series of dilutions made and precipitated as in the foregoing. 
That solution which gives a barely perceptible precipitate, using a 
control solution for comparison, is taken as the solubility, or this 
dilution and the lowest giving no perceptible precipitate are taken 
and the solubility is reckoned as the mean of the two. Applying 
this method to morphine, it gave results agreeing with the solubility 
given by the Pharmacopoeia. 

I therefore suggest the following method of finding the solu- 
bility of those alkaloids which do not readily dissolve in water: 

Take o-i gramme of the substance, rub with water to a smooth 
paste and then with water until a smooth mixture of about 9 c.c. is 
obtained, to this add enough N H 2 S0 4 from a burette to convert 
the alkaloid into the sulphate, and then enough water to make 
10 c.c. of solution; of this take portions of 1 c.c. each and dilute 
in several proportions ; to each add a slight excess of N NaOH, 
and from the relative amounts of precipitate estimate the solubility; 
again, take several portions of 1 c.c. each and dilute to approxi- 
mately the point of saturation, in one case using higher and in 
another lower dilutions; again, precipitate with slight excess of 
NaOH, and more accurately estimate the solubility. From a third 
series, using the second estimate as a basis, the solubility may be 
learned by taking the mean of the highest giving a precipitate and 
the lowest giving none that is perceptible. 

I would also suggest the application of this method for testing 
those alkaloids, the solubility of which is known. Thus, morphine 
is soluble in 4350 parts of water ; and if 01 gramme morphine be 
rubbed with water and then with enough N H 2 S0 4 to convert it 
into the sulphate and diluted to 10 c.c, and two portions of I c.c. 
each of this be further diluted to 43 c.c. and 44 c.c, including the 
requisite amount of N NaOH to give a very slight alkalinity, a 
slight turbidity or precipitate should be found in the first and none 
in the second, from which is taken the mean, or 1 part in 4350, as the 
solubility of morphine. Of course, in the case of expensive alka- 
loids, o-Oi gramme may be used instead of 01 gramme, but more 
accurate results will be had by using the larger quantity. 



136 



Solubility of Cinchonine. 



/ Am. lour. Pharm. 
I March, 1902. 



THE SOLUBILITY OF CINCHONINE. 

By Robert A. Hatcher, M.D. 

Being requested to examine a specimen of cinchonine from a repu- 
table manufacturer (Schuchardt), which was sold as pure, the phar- 
macopoeial tests were applied, including those for the detection of 
other cinchona alkaloids, melting point, solubility in alcohol, ether 
and water. It conformed to every requirement save that of solu- 
bility in water. 

The Pharmacopoeia states that cinchonine is soluble in 3,760 parts 
of water. Roscoe and Schorlemmer quote Hesse, giving the solubility 
as 1 to 3,670 at 20°, 1 to 2,500 at the boiling point. I regret that. 
I have not access to the original paper, as there is evidently a typo- 
graphical error in one of these, transposing the 6 and 7. 

The difficulty experienced in effecting solution led to the device 
which is the subject of the preceding article. Prolonged boiling in 
15,000 parts of water proved ineffectual, none seeming to have dis- 
solved. Having added an alcoholic solution to water, the amounts 
precipitated from dilutions of i-io.OOO and 1-20,000, while none 
precipitated from the 1-25,000, furnished an approximate idea of 
the solubility. 

The method just described was used, o*i gramme being dissolved 

N 

in 90 c.c. of water with the aid of H 2 S0 4 , and enough water 

10 

added to make the volume up to 100 c.c. Several portions of 
10 c.c. each of this solution were diluted to 150 c.c, 200 c.c. and 
250 c.c, respectively, making dilutions of 1-15,000, 1-20,000 and 

N 

1-25,000. To each of these was added a slight excess of — NaOH ; 

10 

the weakest solution showed no precipitate, the next showed some, 
and the strongest considerable. The solubility evidently lay between 
1-20,000 and 1-25,000. The process was now repeated, using 10 
c.c. and diluting to 1-20,000, 1-22,000 and 1-24,000. Upon adding 
N 

a slight excess of NaOH to each, and cooling to 21 C. for about 

10 

12 hours, a slight precipitate was observable in the dilution of 
1-22,000, but none in that of 1-24,000. The mean was taken as 
the approximate solubility of cinchonine — 1-23,000 — and this is as 
near the exact figure as can be attained by ordinary procedures, 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
March, 1902. J 



A True Benefactor \ 



137 



the nature of cinchonine and the presence of certain insoluble par- 
ticles which pass through the filter serving to obscure the more 
exact results. 

N 

Upon adding the exact equivalent of — NaOH for the H 2 S0 4 

employed, no precipitation occurred even upon cooling stronger 
solutions to 20° for 24 hours, hence the slight excess of alkali was 
employed. 

A TRUE BENEFACTOR. 
By Wiixiam B. Thompson. 

The announcement of the death of Prof. Emil SchefTer, of Louis- 
ville, Ky., at the honorable and unusual age of 90 years — almost 
patriarchal in duration — recalls to the recollection some interesting 
facts . It is now thirty years since Professor Scheffer generously gave 
to scientific knowledge the result of his studies, and the exact deter- 
mination of the nature and physical character of that chief factor 
of peptic-ferment, pepsin. Previous to Professor Scheffer's success- 
ful and valuable labor no distinctive isolation of pepsin, as a sub- 
stance, had been made. French scientists had recognized the fact 
that there existed a normal agent in the gastric and digestive fluid 
of the stomach, and had even traced its origin to a secretion from 
the mucous folds of that organ and of the intestinal tract. There 
was a theory that it was only in the living organism that this pecu- 
liar and potent agent exercised its action, and that with the cessa- 
tion of vitality it at once became inert. Thus it was that the separ- 
ation, or elimination, if attempted at all, was merely a mechanical 
process, accomplished by scraping the separable mucus from the 
walls of the stomach of mammals. Therefore, the pepsins of the 
then almost wholly foreign commerce consisted of mucus artifi- 
cially and imperfectly dried with, possibly, some semi-converted 
food, as peptone, and an absorbent medium, such as starch, with the 
addition of a proportion of lactic acid to complete the imaginary 
character. From this it will readily be observed that there was 
nothing whatever of definite existence or proportion ; and whilst 
such substance found its way into medical adoption, and useful 
results were thought to be traceable to it, it could not be considered 
other than a crude and unsatisfactory product. The older pharma- 



138 



Recent Drug Adulterations. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I March, 1902. 



cists will well remember the intractable character of the American 
imitations of that former day and the vexatious attempts to bring 
it into pulverized accord with accompanying components of pre- 
scriptions. With the successful completion of Professor Scheffer's 
labors and determining experiments, he gave to the world, in 
pamphlet form, a clear and comprehensive resume of all the various 
steps of process of preparation, a minute description of the proper- 
ties of pepsin, its behavior to other substances, its assimilation, and 
its antagonistic associations. For this most unselfish, generous, and 
liberal spirit the victims of pain and suffering everywhere, the 
votaries of science, the medical profession, and the exponents of 
pharmaceutical research have incurred a debt of unrequitable grati- 
tude, and owe that fullest meed of honor and praise that is ever the trib- 
ute of sincere appreciation. By this act Professor Scheffer bestowed 
upon commercial enterprise, without reward, an article of manufac- 
ture, which not only amply enriched those who appropriated it, but 
which added wealth to the material productions of our country. 
Alas ! there are but few to be found now of that nobler mold of 
mind and spirit which actuated this man. The demon of individual 
grasp and greed, the clutch for self-gain, now suppress all higher 
instinct, and make of the discoverable benefactions to mankind a 
secret of trade, to be accorded to general use only when some selfish 
desire for pecuniary benefit is amply recompensed. 

Professor Scheffer labored in the ranks of pharmacy, with which 
pursuit he was immediately identified. Let the honor due his labors 
be felt and appreciated by his confreres, and let his name be enrolled 
on the scroll of benefactors of mankind. 



SOME RECENT DRUG ADULTERATIONS. 
By Lyman F. Kebi^er. 

According to the First Annual Report of the New York State 
Board of Pharmacy to the Governor, 3,390 medicinal remedies were 
examined, and of this number 2,637 were adulterated, or not up to 
the required standard. These drugs were purchased from all sec- 
tions of New York State — Eastern, Middle and Western — and that 
over 77 per cent of such a collection should be of inferior quality is 
hardly creditable. The writer has kept watch of the wholesale 
trade in Philadelphia for the past six months, and finds that his 



Am. lour. Pharai."i 
March, 1902. _f 



Recent Drug Adulterations. 



J 39 



former statement relative to the percentage (less than 5 per cent.) 
of adulterations met with well covers this point. 

The following interesting adulterations have been met with by 
the writer and other workers in various sections of the world : 

ARTIFICIAL CINNAMON BARK. 

Guava (Jungle Bark) can be placed on the Columbo market at a 
very reasonable price. This bark resembles cinnamon bark very 
closely, and, consequently, certain unprincipled individuals have 
taken this bark, scented it with oil of cinnamon, or the by-products 
in the distillation of the cinnamon oils, and offered it as cinnamon 
bark. A superficial examination of this bark would not reveal its 
identity. — Pharm. Centralblatt, 42, 526. 

CROTON OIL IN TINCTURE OF IODINE. 

It has been reported that the above oil has been found in tincture 
of iodine. (Tincture of iodine and croton oil resemble each other 
in that they are irritants to the skin, but here their similarity ends. 
No one would ever think of applying croton oil where iodine was 
indicated. Whether the above adulteration is an ingenious one 
from the druggist's point of view is questionable. The object, of 
course, was to make the tincture more efficient by using a small 
quantity of croton oil. When it is remembered that croton oil will 
take up, at least, 100 per cent, of iodine, and thus tend to make the 
tincture of a lighter color, and at the same time it is questionable 
whether the hypothetical " Crotonoleic Acid " will retain its normal 
irritating properties when combined with iodine, such an admixture 
would, on general principles, be considered very injurious. L. F. K.) 
— Brit, and Colonial Drug., 40, 176. 

A NEW ADULTERATION OF BERGAMOT. 

Dr. Salvatore Gulli (Chemist and Druggist, 59, 699) notes 
that the commercial adulteration of oil of bergamot, by means 
of either the crude or other inferior bergamot distillates, or by 
isomeric peel essences, has almost ceased, because the normal 
physical properties are usually abnormally distributed by such addi- 
tion. New falsifications are, however, making their appearance. 
One of the ingredients chiefly distributed is the per cent, of 
linalyl acetate, which it is the desire of the manipulator to be 



140 



Recent Drug Adulterations, 



j Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I March, 1902. 



as high as possible, because this is frequently the basis of a pur- 
chase. With this object in view, he diligently seeks to add some 
material which will bring up the ester content of an inferior oil. 
This he has found in bi-hydrochloride of terebinthin, or other 
products resulting by the action of hydrochloric acid gas on turpen- 
tine. These chloro-derivatives are decomposed when submitted to 
the usual alcoholic potash saponification process, and consequently 
the apparent quantity of ester is increased. 

From 5 to 10 per cent, of these chloro compounds when added to 
oil of bergamot are sufficient to raise the indicated per cent, ot 
linalyl acetate without materially disturbing the normal properties 
of the oil, as is clearly shown by the examination of a number of 
commercial samples of oil of bergamot which contained the above 
chloronated turpentine compound. 

Specific Gravity Opt. Rot. at 20 C. Per Cent. 

No. at 1 5 C. in a 2 cm. tube. of Ester. 

i 0*882 +io*5° 36*05 

2 0*8817 + 8° 3675 

3 o-88io -f 6° 36-40 

It will seen from the above figures that these oils are normal in 
every respect; nevertheless, they were all adulterated with from 5 to 

10 per cent, of this artificial chlorine product. The presence of this 
impurity is not very easy to detect, and the above writer recom- 
mends the following process: Boil several grammes of the suspected 

011 with alcoholic potash, evaporate gradually, and then calcine so 
as to get rid of the organic matter ; treat the resulting residue with 
distilled water, filter and test the filtrate for chlorides in the usual 
way. 

HONEY ADULTERATED WITH SUCROSE. 

Recently a sample of honey was examined by the writer with 
the following results: Specific gravity at 15 C, 1-354, ac id 
reaction; pollen grains, none; moisture, 24^ per cent. ; ash, 0-21 
per cent. ; optical rotation, direct, -f- gy 2 divisions sugar scale, at 
25 C. ; optical rotation after inversion, — 1 1 -6 divisions on the 
sugar scale, at 25 C. ; reducing sugar direct, 54 per cent. ; reducing 
sugar after inversion, 63-50 per cent. 

The above figures all indicate the presence of added cane sugar. 
The dextro-rotatory power of the honey was apparently ample to 
decide that it contained cane sugar, -because, as yet, we have no 



Am. Jour. Pharru. \ 
March, 1902. / 



Recent Drug Adulterations. 



141 



genuine honey of this country reported as being dextro-rotatory, 
and until such an authentic observation is made, which is possible, 
a dextro-rotatory honey must be looked upon with suspicion. 

THE ADULTERATION OF ERGOT OF RYE. 

The Paint, Oil and Drug Reporter contains a letter which informs 
us that ordinary rye ergot is being at present largely adulterated 
with ergot of wheat and barley to the extent of from 30 to 40 per 
cent. If this condition of affairs exists, it certainly is very unfor- 
tunate, because very few manufacturers in' this country are in posi- 
tion to detect such adulteration. While it is generally known that 
rye ergot contains more or less of the wheat ergot, it is generally 
believed by those in a position to know that this practice does not 
exist to the extent of 30 to 40 per cent. In the first place, ergot of 
wheat is comparatively a scarce article. It might also be mentioned 
in this connection that various authorities who have examined these 
ergots find that the wheat ergot is probably as efficient as rye ergot. 
In fact, the wheat ergot seems to retain its active properties longer 
than the rye ergot. 

VANILLA BEAN, ADULTERATED. 

Henri Lecomte (Bull. des. Sc. Pharmacology 190 1) notes that 
the presence or absence of a crystalline coating on the vanilla 
bean is no indication of its quality. According to this author, the 
Mexican vanilla beans, which are classed among the best, are always 
without these crystals. He further states that the crystalline 
appearance is frequently an artificial covering produced by the addi- 
tion of benzoic acid. This adulteration can easily be detected by 
determining the melting point of the crystalline coat. The character 
of the crystals can be detected by dissolving a trace of phloroglucin 
in alcohol on a watch-glass, adding an equal volume of hydrochloric 
acid; then introducing, by means of a slender glass rod, one or more 
of the minute crystals from the vanilla pod into the mixture, and a 
beautiful red color will be produced, if it is vanillin, whereas benzoic 
acid crystals will leave the mixture colorless. 

IMITATION PEPPER. 

Artificial pepper has been found in the Switzerland market. These 
artificial pepper corns are slightly smaller than the genuine berries, 



142 



Recent Drug Adulterations. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm 
I March, 1902. 



and somewhat heavier than water. In water they quickly disinte- 
grate, dissolving in part ; the remaining portion subsides in the form 
of powder. One variety consisted, for the most part, of starch 
mixed with soluble binding material. Another variety appeared to 
come from an olive-oil industry, where the residue, which appears 
in commerce as " sansa," was utilized. The surface of the black 
berries was covered by means of sand-colored black. Both varieties 
manifest a burning taste, which was due to the admixture of a little 
paprika. — Schweiz. Wochenschr. f. Chem.u. Pharm., 39, 1901. 

BEESWAX. 

As usual, beeswax has contributed its quota of samples, more or 
less adulterated, as the following results will show: 





Melting 


Specific Gravity 


Acid 


Tether 


Kind. 


Point. 


at 15 C. 


No. 


No. 


White . . 


. 64 C. 


0*926 


6-2 


66-6 


Yellow . 


. 64 c. 


0-938 


I2'9 


60 9 


Yellow . 


• 55° C. 


0-9138 


10-9 


22'6 



The above data clearly indicate that the samples examined were 
liberally adulterated with ceresin, although this is not the only adul- 
terant added, as is clearly seen by the ratio that exists between the 
acid and the ether numbers. Tallow or a similar substance, which 
will bring up the ether number and not the acid number, is mani- 
festly indicated by some of the above figures. 

OIL OF WORMWOOD. 

Quite a considerable quantity of this oil has been found adulter- 
ated, the usual diluent being turpentine. The following results 
were obtained while making an examination of a number of samples 
submitted : 



Solution of 1st 10 Per Cent. 

Specific Gravity Solution in 2 Vols. of Distillate in 2 Vols, of 

No. at 15 C. So Per Cent. Alcohol. 80 Per Cent. Alcohol. 

i 0-9128 insoluble. insoluble. 

2 0*9104 " • ' 

3 0*9362 soluble. soluble. 

4 0-9071 insoluble. insoluble. 

5 0*9262 soluble. soluble in 2-3 vol. 

6 0*9299 " 

7 0*9364 . " soluble. 

8 0-9112 insoluble. insoluble. 



The normal properties of oil of wormwood are : a somewhat viscid 
liquid of a dark-green color, odor unpleasant and taste somewhat 



Am Mi?ch,i902. rm "} Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 143 

bitter and persistent. Specific gravity, 0-925-0-955. On account 
of its dark color it is difficult to determine the optical rotation gen- 
erally. The oil itself is soluble to a clear solution in from two to 
four volumes of 80 per cent, alcohol. On submitting the oil to frac- 
tional distillation the first 10 per cent, of the distillate is soluble in 
two volumes of 80 per cent, alcohol. From the above data it can 
readily be seen that numbers 1, 2, 4 and 8 are deficient in a number 
of points, and careful investigation showed that these oils were liber- 
ally adulterated with oil of turpentine. The turpentine odor was 
even perceptible to the nose in several samples. 
Laboratory of Smith, Kline & French Co. 
Philadelphia. 



RECENT LITERATURE RELATING TO PHARMACY. 

estimation of phenols, with special reference to oil of cloves. 

Verley and Bolsing publish a paper [Berichte, 1901, 3354) on the 
determination of alcohols and phenols, especially in essential oils, 
by a method they have elaborated. In a second paper they deal 
with the special applicability of the process to oil of cloves for the 
determination of the eugenol. The principle of the process is the 
esterification of the alcohol of phenol with acetic anhydride, with 
the addition of pyridine, which serves to retain the acetic acid 
formed during the esterification, thus preventing the reverse process 
of hydrolysis going on. The actual details of the process are as 
follows : — 

One hundred and twenty grammes of acetic anhydride and 880 
grammes of pyridine are mixed, care being taken that no traces of 
water are present. No reaction takes place, but on the addition of 
water the anhydride is decomposed with the formation of pyridine 
acetate, which is easily saponified by alkali. The acetic value can 
thus be obtained for the mixtures. From 1 to 2 grammes of the 
substance to be examined is introduced into a flask holding about 
200 c.c., and 25 c.c. of the mixture of acetic anhydride and pyridine 
is added. It is then heated for fifteen minutes on a water-bath with- 
out a condenser, which appears to be unnecessary, and after cooling 
25 c.c. of water is added, and the free acetic acid titrated with potash, 
using phenolphtalein as indicator. 

A number of results are given, some being of almost theoretical 



144 Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. { Ar MSch, 5o!. rm ' 

accuracy, and some are very much lower than they should be. 
Whilst correct results may follow in some cases, careful investigation 
is needed betore the process can be said to be as accurate as the 
well-known acetylation method. This is well emphasized in the case 
of sandal oil and santalol. It is established that no pure sandal oil 
yields less than about 90 per cent, of santalol, and that pure santalol 
yields results agreeing with over 100 per cent., rather than under; 
but the new process gives only 81 per cent, for the oil, and 95 per 
cent, for the pure alcohol. 

The second of the papers deals with Umney's and Thoms's pro- 
cesses for the determination of eugenol in oil of cloves. It is pointed 
out (as is well known) that the use of 10-per-cent. alkali causes some 
of the non-phenolic constituents of the oil to be absorbed, but that 
better results are obtained by the use of 3 to 4 per cent, alkali. 
Indeed, oils prepared by mixing known quantities of eugenol and 
terpenes gave results within i to 2 per cent., and very reliable results 
may usually be obtained by the absorption-process with dilute alkali. 
Three samples were prepared from pure eugenol and pure sesqui- 
terpenes of 85 per cent., 90 per cent., and 95 per cent, strength. 
The three results in each case are as follows : 

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. 

Actual eugenol value 85*0 90*0 95*0 

Acetic pyridine method ......... 84*4 89^5 95*9 

Absorption process (dilute) 85*3 90*0 95*0 

Thoms's process . 81-5 87*2 91*4 

Two samples of normal clove oil also gave results in which the 
absorption and the esterification processes were in accord. Two 
other samples which were examined showed results in which 
Thoms's process was in very good agreement with the acetic-pyri- 
dine method ; whilst Umney's process gave far too high figures — as 
much as 95 per cent., against 80 per cent, by the other two processes. 
The figures appear to us most unsatisfactory and unconvincing ; but 
the authors sum up their conclusions as follows : — (1) The esterifica- 
tion-process with acetic anhydride and pyridine serves to determine 
the eugenol in oil of cloves so long as no other phenol or alcohol is 
assumed to be present. (2) Umney's method can lead to most 
erratic conclusions, except when the clove oil is one whose physical 
characters are quite normal throughout. (3) Thoms's process gives 
too low results when the oil contains a high amount of nonphenolic 
constituents. — Chemist and Druggist, Dec, 1901, p. 1053. 



AO Mirch,f902. rm '} Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 145 

EXAMINATION OF THE ALBUMINOUS CONSTITUENTS IN URINE. 

In a paper in the Pharmaceutische Post (1901, p. 753) is given a 
scheme by Portes and Desmoulieres for the examination of the 
albuminous constituents in urine, as follows : 

Thirty c.c. of well- filtered 1 urine is acidified by adding a few drops 
of concentrated acetic acid (3 to 4 drops); shake well and allow to 
stand. 

A, Sediment. 2 

a. Soluble in cone, acetic acid (Nucleoalbumin). 

Control reaction : Urine -f- 3 volumes of water is divided into two 
test-tubes, one of which may serve as a comparison. The one tube 
upon being acidified with acetic acid becomes perceptibly cloudy, 
due to a precipitation of the pseudo-mucins. 

If a copious precipitate appears it must be collected, washed 
and dissolved in weak sodium hydrate solution, from which it is 
again precipitated by adding a saturated solution of magnesium 
sulphate. In this last precipitate phosphorus will be looked for 
after calcining with potassium nitrate and soda (by the aid of the 
nitro-molybdate reaction). 

b. Insoluble in concentrated acetic acid (Mucin 3 ). 

Control reaction : Hydrochloric acid and nitric acid added in small 
amount precipitates the mucin, which is soluble in an excess of acid 
solution. Monosodium phosphate also accomplishes the same end. 
Mucin contains no phosphorus. 

B. The solution 4 is treated with 4 drops of trichloracetic acid 6 
heated to boiling one-half minute : 

I. Precipitate : To 50 c.c. urine (freed from nucleoalbumin and 
mucin 4 by precipitation in the cold with acetic acid), which should 
be neutralized 6 and filtered, add a saturated solution of magnesium 
sulphate. 

a. In the warm an insoluble precipitate (Globulin). 

1 If the urine contains blood there remains upon the filter the coagulum of 
fibrin. The urine is strained through linen and the coagulum is washed with 
water. This coagulum is insoluble in pure water but soluble in sodium fluoride 

■ 1 : 100 or in sodium chloride 10 : 100. 

2 In many urines are found precipitates of urates and uric acid which are 
not floculent but possess a crystalline form readily discernible under the 
microscope. 

8 According to Leidie the mucin of a decomposed urine which shows an 
ammoniacal fermentation is also a nucleoalbumin ; what has been identified in 



146 Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. { Am ^ch,^ > 9of ^m • 

Control reaction : It is precipitated by a stream of C0 2 and by a 
concentrated sodium chloride solution and ammonium sulphate. 

N 

b. Solution. When acidified with 2 or 3 drops of acetic acid — 

and boiled, a precipitate is produced. 

1. Soluble when a drop of crystallizable acetic acid is added 
[Albumine (acetosoluble)]. 

Control reaction : It is thoroughly precipitated by adding ammo- 
nium sulphate in excess. Trichloracetic acid precipitates the same 
out of the acetic acid solution. 

2. Insoluble when a drop of glacial acetic acid is added (Serin). 
Control reaction : Precipitated by adding ammonium sulphate in 

excess and by concentrated mineral acids. 

Ii. Solution. The bulk of the precipitate can be separated from 
the boiled solution by allowing it to cool. 

c. Precipitate, soluble in warm alkali which in the cold is insoluble 
(Albumose). 

Control reaction: Will be precipitated by ammonium sulphate in 
excess. Hydrochloric acid added to the urine gives a precipitate in 
the cold which disappears upon heating and reappears after cooling. 
With acetic acid — tannin the albumose is precipitated. The double 
iodides of potassium and mercury, as well as picric acid, give with 
the urine a voluminous precipitate soluble upon heating. 

D. If a precipitate be present or not, 20 c. c. of the urine are taken, 
to which is added, with vigorous shaking, crystallized ammonium 
sulphate to saturation ; allow to settle and filter. To the filtrate is 
added 2 or 3 drops of very dilute copper sulphate solution, after 



such urines as pyrin is nothing other than an alkaline albuminate, produced by 
the action of ammonia upon the albuminous material (that is, the pus). An 
unfermented urine containing pus does not show the characteristics of 
mucins or pyrins (precipitated with acetic acid). 

4 If the mass of nucleoalbumin or mucin is small, then the addition of acetic 
acid produces a uniform cloudiness that lasts after the filtration. The precipi- 
tation of the flocculi can be hastened by a dilution with one or two volumes of 
water ; after a few hours it is filtered and in this manner a clear fluid is obtained, 
and in which the other albuminous constituents can be looked for. 

5 The trichloracetic acid also precipitated the alkaloids, yet the precipitate 
disappeared upon dilution with water, by heating, by adding alcohol, and by 
an excess of this acid. 

6 It 19 neutralized with potassium or sodium hydrate until a rose color appears 
upon the addition of phenolphtalein. 



^ m M J arch,T902. rm '} Re cent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 147 

which soda is added in slight excess, producing a violet color 
(Peptone). 

Control reaction : The filtrate from the urine saturated with 
ammonium sulphate is diluted with equal volumes of water and 
acetic-acid-tannin, which forms a precipitate. 

W. S. Weakley. 

THE IDENTIFICATION OF TYPHOID BACILLI. 

Hayaschikawa found, Apoth.-Zeit., 1901, p. 734, that by the use of 
urine gelatine nutrient media, 1 he was able to dintinguish a colony 
of typhoid bacilli from a colony of the common colon bacilli with 
which the typhoid bacilli are often mixed, and which are often mis- 
taken one for the other, especially in inexperienced hands. These 
investigations were carried out with a 3-3 per cent, urine gelatin 
and the bacilli were grown at a temperature of 22 C. The urine 
gelatin media must not be too old, the temperature must be uni- 
form, and the colonies must not be planted too closely together to 
get the characteristic frayed margin of the deeper colonies of these 
two bacilli. 

A discrimination, however, can be made between these two 
bacilli as follows : First, by the size, for the typhoid colonies in the 
same stage of development are from one-fourth to one-half times 
smaller than the colon colonies. Secondly, by the color, for the 
typhoid colony remains a clear yellow for about forty-five hours, 
whilst the colon colony appears much darker. Thirdly, by the 
nature of these thread-like appendages 2 constituting the frayed 
margin ; with the typhoid colonies these threads are much longer, 
more delicate and more twisted than in the colon colonies in which 
they appear shorter, more quickly thickened, plaited and are less 
strongly twisted. 



1 Sometimes a crystal formation interferes with this thread-like formation, and, 
as a remedy, the urates and phosphates should be separated before the urine 
is added to the gelatin. The writer proceeds as follows : Allow the urates to 
separate by cooling the fresh and normal urine, filter, make alkaline with a 
concentrated sodium hydrate solution and allow to stand twenty-four hours to 
permit the phosphates to separate. The last procedure is not absolutely 
necessary, as it has been shown that the phosphates do not usually precipitate 
in a slightly alkaline mixture. 

8 In the usual 3*3 per cent, meat water nutrient gelatin this thread-formation 
ie not so marked. 



148 



Editorial Notes and Comments. 



/ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t March, 1902, 



In the 6 per cent, urine gelatine which melts at 28 the fraying 
is not as clearly marked as in the 3-3 per cent. The time for the 
examination of the colonies is between twenty and forty hours. 
From the fortieth hour, the frayed character becomes obliterated 
and makes observation difficult. W. S. W. 

NEW REMEDIES OF ICjOI. 1 

Tyratol — See Thymatol. 

Tyrosal — Antipyrine-salicylacetate. 

Urea Quinate — See Urol. 

Uresin — Urotropin-lithium citrate. Solvent for gravel. (Do not 
confound with urosin-lithium quinate). 

Urol — Urea Quinate. Used in gout and gravel (both urinary 
and renal). 

Urosteril — Preparation containing extract of pichi pichi. Anti- 
gonorrhoic. 

Urotropin-Lithium Citrate — See Uresin. 
Uzane — Dental anesthetic. 

Vegetaline — A kind of butter prepared from cocoanut. 
Vioform — Iodochloroxyquinoline. Succedaneum for iodoform. 
Voandzou — Glycine subterranea. The seeds are highly nutrient. 
Xanol — Sodium-caffeine salicylate. Diuretic. 
Xeranthemum Annuum — A Compositse recommended as a car- 
diac tonic. 

Xylopia ^Ethiopica — Ethiopian pepper. Macerated fruits are 
used as an embrocation; the decoction is used in bowel complaints; 
fruit also anthelmintic and aphrodisiac. 

Zomol — Nutrient prepared from meat. 

EDITORIAL NOTES AND COMMENTS. 
A Memorial to Dr. Charts Rick. 
In the January issue of this Journal attention was directed to a 
movement which had for its object the marking of the grave of Dr. 
Charles Rice with a suitable monument. Since that time a commu- 
nication has been received from Joseph P. Remington, the Chairman 
of the Committee of Revision of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, from 
which the following extract is taken : 



1 Merck's Report, January, 1902. 



Am. Jour. Phar 1 
March, 1902. / 



Editorial Notes and Comments. 



149 



" The Board of Trustees and Committee of Revision of the United 
States Pharmacopceial Convention have inaugurated a movement to 
erect a monument and prepare a volume containing a portrait, with 
a sketch of the life and labors of their late beloved Chairman, Dr. 
Charles Rice. A memorial fund has been started by the committee 
and an appropriation made. As soon as the movement began, it 
became evident that the many friends of Dr. Rice throughout the 
country would be glad to make contributions." ..." Mr. 
Samuel A. D. Sheppard, the well-known Treasurer of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association, has consented to act as chairman of 
the fund, and he will receive all subscriptions." 

It is not necessary to urge this matter unduly, as we believe that it 
is only necessary for the friends of Dr. Rice to know of this move- 
ment in order for them to contribute to the proposed fund. 

THE CHEMISTRY OF IONS. 

In a summary on the " Dissociating Power of Different Solvents," 
H« C. Jones (Amer. Chem. Jour. y 1901, 249) says: 

(1) That with the exception of hydrogen dioxide water is the 
strongest ionizer. Next to this comes formic acid. Of the more 
common solvents, methyl alcohol dissociates to a much greater 
degree than ethyl alcohol. Indeed it is true, in general, that in an 
homologous series of solvents the lesser members have the greater dis- 
sociating pozver. 

(2) The dissociating power of a solvent appears to be a function 
of all the physical or chemical properties of a substance and not of 
any one function. 

(3) The results of a great many experiments tend to show the 
chemical inertness of molecules. Most, if not all, chemical reac- 
tions are reactions between ions, and molecules as such do not enter 
into the reactions at all. As the reactions proceed, and the ions 
already present are used up, the molecules are gradually dissociated 
and furnish new ions, which then enter into the reaction. The 
chemistry of atoms and molecules has thus given place to the chemistry 
of ions. 

PENNSYLVANIA HOSPITAL. 

The sesqui-centennial, 150th, annual report of the Pennsylvania 
Hospital shows the hospital to be well equipped for the care of the 
sick and injured, and its managers devising ways for administering 



Editorial Notes and Comments. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t March, 1902. 



to those (as those afflicted with senile dementia) who do not seem 
to have been considered as proper cases for " homes " and hospitals. 
It is interesting to note that Frederick Fraley, one of Philadelphia's 
best known public-spirited men, presided at the 150th annual meet- 
ing of the contributors. Since that time he has departed this life, 
having contributed for years his support, presence, and influence to 
the perpetuation of scientific educational and organized beneficent 
work in the city of Philadelphia. 

HUMAN AND BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS. 

In Pediatrics, August 15, 1901, appears the following resume of 
this subject: 

" Koch's views in regard to the non-transmissibility of bovine 
tuberculosis to man, as set forth in his address delivered before a 
General Meeting ot the British Congress on Tuberculosis, have by 
this time become pretty generally familiar throughout the lay and 
medical worlds. He has stated fairly positively what cannot be 
demonstrated except indirectly. The indirect demonstration, how- 
ever, he regards as fairly conclusive, as he says: "It is well known 
that the milk and butter consumed in great cities very often contain 
large quantities of the bacilli of bovine tuberculosis in a living con- 
dition, as the numerous infection experiments with such dairy pro- 
ducts on animals have proved. Most of the inhabitants of such 
cities daily consume such living and perfectly healthy virulent bacilli 
of bovine tuberculosis, and unintentionally carry out the experiment 
which we are not at liberty to make. If the bacilli of bovine tuber- 
culosis were able to infect human beings many cases of tuberculosis 
caused by the consumption of alimenta containing tubercle bacilli 
could occur among the inhabitants of great cities, especially the 
children." He holds that tuberculosis can only be assumed with 
certainty to be caused by alimenta when the intestine suffers first. 
Only twice does he remember having seen primary tuberculosis of 
the intestine. He cites statistics to prove how exceedingly rare this 
affection is, and does not think it at all necessary to have to assume 
infection by the bacillus of bovine tuberculosis to explain the few 
cases of primary intestinal tuberculosis that do occur. He also 
considers that he has conclusively proved by experiment that human 
tuberculosis cannot be transmitted to animals. These propositions 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
March, 1902. J 



Editorial Notes and Comments. 



are not new but have never before been so positively enunciated by 
an authority on this disease. 

" In an address before the Canadian Medical Association in August, 
1899, Professor Adami called attention to how scanty the evidence 
was to prove the transmission of animal tuberculosis to man. He 
also stated that human tubercle bacilli when inoculated into cattle 
would produce only local and transient effects. In a paper read 
before the British Medical Association, August, 1899 {Pediatrics, 
Vol. VIII, No. 8, 1899) Dr. George F. Still, after analyzing 269 
necropsies on tuberculous children under twelve years of age, con- 
cluded that the commonest channel of infection with tuberculosis in 
childhood is through the lung; that infection through the intestine 
is less common in infancy than in later childhood ; that milk, there- 
fore, is not the usual source of tuberculosis in childhood, perhaps 
due to precautions taken in boiling and sterilizing ; that inhalation 
is the commonest mode of infection in the tuberculosis of childhood 
and especially infancy, etc. So it is evident that medical thought 
has been tending in this direction for some time. This is a subject 
of vast import and nowhere can the adage 'festina lente ' be more 
fittingly applied." 

On the other hand, in the introduction to his admirable paper on 
the " Relation of Bovine Tuberculosis to Public Health," Salmon, 
the chief of the Bureau of Animal Industry, says: 

" In treating of the communication of tuberculosis from cattle to 
man, it is first shown that the statement that human tuberculosis is 
not communicable to cattle is unwarranted by the evidence, since 
both Martin in England, and Chauveau in France have obtained 
positive infection and extensive disease by feeding to cattle tuber- 
cular material from human sources. It is further shown that the 
human and bovine diseases cannot be entirely different, because 
tuberculin produced from human bacilli causes reaction in bovine 
tuberculosis. Another argument used in this connection is that the 
whole list of diseases which affect a wide range of animal life, being 
communicable between widely separated species of animals, there is 
no other disease which is not also communicable to man. The 
inference is, therefore, that as bovine tuberculosis is communicable 
to a large number of species and to widely separated forms of" ani- 
mal life, it is also communicable to man. 

" As more direct evidence, there are cited cases to establish — 



152 



Editorial Notes and Comments . 



f Am. Jour Pharm. 
1 Xarch, 1902. 



" (i) The accidental infection of man by inoculation with bovine 
bacilli. 

" (2) The infection of man by consuming the milk of tuberculous 
cows. 

"To corroborate this evidence statistics are presented proving the 
occurrence with mankind of a large number of cases of intestinal 
and other abdominal forms of tuberculosis, particularly in England 
and Scotland. It is shown that there is no relation between the 
total number of cases of tuberculosis and the cases of abdominal 
tuberculosis in various countries, and the conclusion is drawn that 
the primary abdominal tuberculosis probably is not caused entirely 
by infection from other causes of human tuberculosis. It is also 
shown from statistics of postmortem examinations carefully made 
by competent persons that in some parts of the world at least there 
is a considerable proportion of cases of tuberculosis in man in which 
the infection occurred through the intestine. 

" These lines of evidence are clearly opposed to the principal 
assertion made in the paper read by Koch at the British Congress 
on Tuberculosis this year. But this is not the worst aspect of 
the case, since the evidence of Delepine and Still indicates that 
there are many more cases of intestinal tuberculosis in children than 
are actually discovered or recognized. More than this, it is shown 
on the evidence of such competent witnesses as Woodhead, St. Clair 
Thompson, and Lord Lister that infection through the medium ot 
the food may not necessarily be accompanied by disease of the 
intestines. The organs first attacked after feeding on tubercular 
material may be the mesenteric glands and liver, or even the bron- 
chial and mediastinal glands and the lungs. While, therefore, the 
facts show that the intestines are sometimes the first organs attacked 
after tubercular infection is taken into the digestive organs through 
the mouth, they also show that the number of cases of primary 
intestinal infection is no indication of the number of cases in which 
the infection has been carried by the food." 

In commenting upon the above, the editors of the Bulletin issued 
by the Delaware State Board of Health say : "In our praiseworthy 
agitation of a pure milk law we must not forget that milk may 
contain substances far more destructive to life than the usual 
adulterations. Even formaldehyd sinks into insignificance when 
compared with tubercle bacilli and pus-forming organisms." 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
March, 1902. J 



Reviezvs — Pharmaceu tical Meeting. 



153 



REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

A very timely "Treatise on Smallpox" is announced for publi- 
cation early in April by J. B. Lippincott Company. It is written by 
Dr. George Henry Fox, Professor of Dermatology in the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons, New York City, with the collaboration of 
Drs. S. Dana Hubbard, Sigmund Pollitzer, and John H. Huddleston, 
all of whom are officials of the Health Department of New York 
City, and have had unusual opportunities lor the study and treat- 
ment of this disease during the present epidemic. 

The work is to be in atlas form, similar to Fox's " Photographic 
Atlas of Skin Diseases," published by the same house. A strong 
feature of the work will be its illustrations, reproduced from recent 
photographs, the major portion of which will be so colored as to give a 
very faithful representation of typical cases of variola in the successive 
stages of the disease ; also unusual phases of variola, vaccinia, vari- 
cella, and diseases with which smallpox is liable to be confounded. 
These illustrations number thirty-seven and will be grouped into 
ten colored plates, 9^x10^ inches, and six black-and-white photo- 
graphic plates. 

The names of Dr. Fox and his associates assure the excellence 
of the work, in which will be described the symptoms, course of the 
disease, characteristic points of diagnosis, and most approved 
methods of treatment. 



PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

The fifth of the series of pharmaceutical meetings of the Phila- 
delphia College of Pharmacy, for 1 901-1902 was held on Tuesday, 
February 18th. Mr. James T. Shinn, Treasurer of the College, 
presided. 

The first speaker was Prof. Edgar F. Smith, Professor of Chem- 
istry and Vice-Provost of the University of Pennsylvania, who read 
a valuable paper on " The Basis of Atomic Weights." He reviewed 
the work of Dalton, the philosopher, and of Berzelius, the eminent 
experimenter, who enriched science in every field he investigated. 
The former is known chiefly because he promulgated the doctrine 
that the weight of the hydrogen atom equals 1. Berzelius devel- 
oped methods of research, and he chose oxygen as a standard for 



154 Pharmaceutical Meeting. { Am Mirch.mt. rm - 

comparison, as most elements form oxides or compounds with 
oxygen. 

Professor Smith referred to some of the difficulties in determining 
atomic weights, and illustrated the same with the work which he 
and his students have been carrying on for a number of years in 
the Harrison Chemical Laboratory, particularly on palladium and 
tungsten. 

Berzelius gave the value of 100 to oxygen, but this is no longer 
retained. Three systems have been used in calculating the molec- 
ular weights of organic compounds: (i) H = I ; C = 12; O = 
16 : (2) H = i-oo8 ; C= 12 ; O = 16 : (3) H = 1 ; C == 1 1-91 ; 
O == 15*88. The speaker showed in a few instances what great 
differences would result in the calculation of the molecular weights 
of oxalic acid, or the sugar C 12 H 22 O u with the three systems. 
Furthermore, inasmuch as the great work of Beilstein, in which 
over 70,000 organic compounds are described, is based on the first 
of these systems, it would mean a recalculation of all these com- 
pounds, for, as Morley has shown, if H == 1, then oxygen equals 
15-88, and if oxygen equals 16, then hydrogen equals 1-008. 

Professor Smith referred to the labors of the committee of the 
German Chemical Society, and compared the international and 
didactic tables published by them. He then gave some of the 
arguments in favor of the standard that hydrogen equals I as fol- 
lows: (1) It is the original Daltonian standard ; (2) it is the most 
natural basis, because hydrogen is the lightest atom known and is 
the standard for determining the densities of gases and valence ; (3) 
if oxygen is made the standard, then all vapor densities must be 
changed; (4) with the physicist hydrogen is the standard; (5) 
hydrogen has a uniform rate of expansion ; (6) the difficulty of 
teaching that H = 1-008. 

The following are some of the features in favor of the standard 
oxygen equals 1 6-oo: (1) Few elements can be compared directly 
with hydrogen, of all the elements known, but seven or eight have 
had their atomic weights compared directly with oxygen; (2) with 
oxygen as the standard the atomic weights of a very large number 
of the elements are whole numbers, as is seen in a comparison of 
the international (O = 16-00), and the didactic (H = 1) tables; (3) 
this is of very material importance in making calculations in quan- 
titative analysis; and (4) must be less burdensome to the memory ; 



Ara Mi?ch.fm rm -} Pharmaceutical Meeting. 155 

(5) all the organic compounds given in Beilstein are based on the 
standard O = 16; (6) all the actual workers in making atomic 
weight determinations prefer oxygen as the basis. Professor Smith 
referred to the fact that other elements had been proposed as the 
standard for comparison, viz., carbon, silver and iodine, but stated 
that oxygen had met the demands for comparison. He also stated 
that it is possible that if carbon were taken as the standard that it 
would meet the various objections of the adherents of the two 
other standards. In conclusion, Professor Smith said that one 
writer claimed that if we accept hydrogen as the standard, then we 
must put ourselves back one century and must wait fifty years to 
be where we are to-day. 

The paper was discussed by Professors Remington and Sadtler, 
Mr. Shinn and Mr. Wilbert. The latter suggested that inasmuch 
as all the continental countries had adopted the standard oxygen 
equals 16, that it would be well if the U.S.P. could do likewise. 

The next paper was on "Adulteration of Drugs and Foods," 
by Dr. Albert Robin, Delaware State Board of Health. The 
paper was discussed by Messrs. Boring, Lowe, Shinn, Miller, 
Poley and others. Dr. Miller alluded to the fact that Americans are 
not the only people who are gullible in the respect of taking patent 
medicines, but that these are sold extensively in all the principal 
cities of Europe which he had visited recently. Mr. Poley spoke of 
the inconsistency of people taking the labels on patent medicines, 
for gospel, when they would not accept the check of a man unless 
they knew something of his character or standing. 

The last paper was by Mr. Wilbert on " Dose Measures and 
Measured Doses." (See page 120). The paper was discussed by 
Messrs. Lowe, Boring, Wiegand, Shinn, and others. 

In answer to Dr. Lowe's remarks on the methods of engraving 
graduates, Mr. Wilbert said: It must be remembered that medicine 
glasses are not graduated with the same care. As indicated in the 
paper, medicine-glasses are, as a rule, graduated correctly at but one 
point, and the intervening graduations are filled in usually accord- 
ing to rule of thumb. This point is well illustrated by tables 
2 and 3 of the paper. Medicine-glasses that are graduated by 
means of a block pattern occasionally suffer from the same 
cause ; in one lot that Mr. Wilbert had seen, the measure was 
evidently measured at the teaspoonful quantity, and the block sub- 



1 5 6 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I March, 1902. 



sequently divided for the teaspoonful quantities with little or no 
regard for the actual capacity of the glass. 

Mr. Wilbert called particular attention to the fact that all of 
these glasses are absolutely unreliable, for one reason or another, 
for measuring teaspoonful quantities of medicine containing active 
or poisonous ingredients. 

The variation of spoons is due largely to the fact that a compara- 
tively large quantity of liquid may be heaped up on a full spoon; for 
instance, a teaspoon that, when rilled to the brim, holds but 5 c.c, 
will, when heaped with a liquid having the viscosity of water, read- 
ily hold 8 c.c. ; the dessertspoon can be made to hold nearly 14 
c.c. and the tablespoon nearly 19 c.c. 

While drops are admittedly uncertain quantities, it is possible to 
have a dropper that will be much more accurate and reliable than 
the proposed standard dropper now before the Pharmacopceial 
Revision Committee. In reference to minim measures, would it 
not be more in keeping with pharmaceutical standards, he said, 
if we should advocate a measure graduated in the metric system. 
Personally, he thinks that any factor that would advance the intro- 
duction or use of the metric system would be of advantage. 

Mr. Wiegand alluded to another form of graduate measure which 
commends itself to the careful pharmacist when dispensing active 
remedies, viz., the measure shaped like a Theban vase and prolonged 
at the upper end into a narrow neck, upon which the capacity is 
marked. This avoids the variation which a wide surface renders 
almost inevitable in rapid work. 

The following provisional program has been arranged for the next 
meeting on Tuesday, March 18th : 

Liquid Soaps for Surgical and Toilet Purposes. By M. I. Wilbert, 
Apothecary at the German Hospital, Philadelphia. 

Deodorized Opium Preparations. By Albert E. Ebert, Chicago. 

The Spread of Tuberculosis by Coughing. By Dr. L. Napoleon, 
Boston. 

Ricin Soap. By Frederick T. Gordon. H. K. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



APRIL, 1902. 



ON THE MANUFACTURE OF DEODORIZED OPIUM AND 

TINCTURE. 

By Albert E. Ebkrt, of Chicago. 

It is now about thirty-five years since the writer first recorded in 
the American Journal of Pharmacy his observations on the process 
of manufacturing deodorized opium and its tincture. It may not 
be out of place briefly to review some of the facts pertaining to the 
history of this subject, as well as to recall the suggestions that have 
been made for improving the official process and make known the 
medical properties of the preparations. 

During the 20's a liquid preparation of opium made its appear- 
ance in England under the name of " Liquor Opii Sedativus," 
manufactured by R. Battley, of Front Street, London. The claim 
set forth by the originator was that the preparation represented all 
the beneficial and wholesome and none of the noxious properties of 
the drug. Possibly this claim and suitable representations of its 
superiority over the existing official liquid preparations of opium 
soon made it a popular remedy with the medical profession of Eng- 
land and this country at that period. Although the method o\ 
making the preparation was kept secret, yet it was known that the 
odorous, resinous and some of the other principles of opium had 
been abstracted from it. 

Dr. Thomson, an eminent authority and writer on therapeutics of 
that period, states that the opium was exhausted with dilute acetic 
acid, the liquid filtered and evaporated to a dry extract, which was 
again dissolved in water, and wine or alcohol added in sufficient 

(i57) 



158 



Deodorized Opium and Tincture. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 April, 1902. 



quantity to preserve the preparation, which was then made up to 
the strength of laudanum. 

Another writer of that period gives the following formula : Make 
an aqueous extract of opium from the crude drug, and take of this 



Dissolve the extract in the boiling water ; allow to cool ; add the 
alcohol ; let stand for twenty-four hours ; filter through paper and 
add enough water to measure 20 ounces. 

M. Robiquet, of Paris, he who named narcotine, proposed a new 
mode of preparing an extract of opium in the Journal de Physi- 
ologic Experimental for January, 1821, as follows : 

Make a solution of the crude opium in cold water in the same 
way as if the aqueous extract were to be prepared ; filter and evap- 
orate the solution to the consistency of a thick syrup ; shake this 
repeatedly with ether ; decant the ether and evaporate the solution 
of opium to the consistency of an extract. 

In the year 1828, Dr. Robert Hare, Professor of Chemistry in 
the University of Pennsylvania, suggested the use of ether in the 
process of preparing laudanum, and by its use removing the objec- 
tionable principles contained in this official preparation. 

Early in the 30's there appeared on the American market a prep- 
aration entitled " McMunn's Elixir of Opium." This, like Battley's, 
was a secret and a proprietary remedy, and by being extensively 
advertised, soon became a well-known nostrum, much used by the 
medical profession, and its popularity has continued to the present 
time. Although it has no merit of originality — for it was subse- 
quently ascertained that the process for its manufacture was that 
suggested and published by Professor Hare— yet it has flourished, 
nevertheless, and prospered, while the original discoverer received 
no pecuniary reward and little credit — another illustration of how 
quackery succeeds at the expense of honorable scientific work. 
Augustine Duhamel, in the American Journal of Pharmacy, 1846, 
commenting on McMunn's Elixir of Opium, stated that an equally 
good and efficient liquid preparation of opium could be obtained by 
exhausting the opium with cold water. He laid special stress upon 
the fact that the noxious principle, narcotine, being very insoluble in 
cold water, was, with the resin, caoutchouc and ligneous matter, not 



Extract of opium 
Boiling water 
Alcohol .... 



750 grains. 
16 ounces. 



4 ounces. 



Am A J p O rn;l902! ^m ■} Deodorized Opium and Tincture. 159 

taken up or dissolved by the solvent. Dr. Carson, then the editor 
of this publication, in a footnote, calls attention to the fact that the 
prevailing opinions regarding the medical properties of narcotine 
were at variance, some authorities claiming for it poisonous proper- 
ties; others asserting that it had hardly any toxic properties, if not 
being entirely inert ; while still others claimed for it stimulant tonic 
characteristics. 

We next reach the contribution of Eugene Dupuy, of New York 
City, in the American Journal of Pharmacy for July, 1851, 
entitled, " On a Substitute for McMunn's Elixir of Opium." The 
process advanced consisted in the use of cold water in extracting 
the opium, and in all essential features was similar to the formula 
of Duhamel. A footnote to this paper by the editor, Prof. William 
Procter, Jr., is very comprehensive, and in summing up he says : 

"In glancing over the long list of the constituents of opium with 
the view of singling out those to which the unpleasant effect of 
laudanum may be attributed, perhaps none are more open to sus- 
picion than the odorous principle, resin, acid extractive, thebaine, 
and perhaps codeine and 7iarcotine to some extent, although 
O'Shaughnessy and others have shown that it is extremely doubtful 
that the latter {narcotine) possesses any disturbing quality of the 
kind." Further on he says: " Landerer, on page 251 of this 
number of the Journal, speaks of the nauseating and other un- 
pleasant effects produced by the exhalations from poppy planta- 
tions during the collection of opium. May not the odorous prin- 
ciple have something to do with this effect, and may not the removal 
or loss of this in the so-called denarcotized laudanum and in old opium 
pills be at least partially the reason of their diminished tendency to 
produce nausea and headache ?" He continues by saying : " Pro- 
fessor Redwood considers the 'sedative liquor of Battley' to be an 
aqueous solution of opium evaporated to dryness to rid it of the 
odorous and acid resin, re-dissolved in water, and a small portion 
of spirit added to give it permanence." 

Next in order we come to Dr. E. R. Squibb's contribution which 
was published in the American Journal of Pharmacy for March, 
i860. It is entitled, " Opium as a Therapeutic Agent." In this 
paper the doctor calls attention to the inefficiency of morphine 
and its salts fully to represent the medical properties of opium, and 
gives a formula for a liquid preparation of the drug which should 



160 Deodorized Opium and Tincture. { Am Ap°rii r ;im rra ' 

more fully meet the requirement. He entitles the preparation, 
" Liquor Opii Compositus." The process of manufacture is based 
on the extraction of opium with water, the infusion concentrated 
by evaporation, the product precipitated with alcohol, which sep- 
arates the albumen, gum and extractive matter; the clear alcoholic 
liquid is now evaporated to a syrupy consistency, shaken with 
ether, the ether separated, and to the purified residue alcohol, com- 
pound spirit of ether and water are added sufficient to bring to the 
strength of tincture of opium. Later on the Hoffman's anodyne 
was replaced by acetic ether. 

About the year 1863 the fifth decennial revision of the United 
States Pharmacopoeia was issued, and now for the first time there 
was furnished an authoritative formula and process to supersede 
the unofficial and official preparations of opium, which had been 
considered objectionable on account, either of being proprietary, or 
that of containing noxious properties, thereby excluding their use 
in some conditions of disease or the idiosyncrasy of the individual. 
The adopted formula was undoubtedly constructed and furnished 
by Professor Procter, and the new galenical was hailed with con- 
siderable satisfaction by professional workers. 

The writer at this time was employed by Professor Parrish as his 
assistant in his School ot Practical Pharmacy, Eighth and Arch 
Streets, Philadelphia, and during the course of instruction in the 
years of 1863 and 1864 each group of students prepared one pint 
of this deodorized tincture of opium. The numerous operations 
which took place there by different persons brought out early 
what seemed objectionable in the process, the most serious difficulty 
being the separation of the ether from the concentrated infusion 
after shaking together ; the second objection was the expense of 
the ether treatment. We had soon collected several gallons of 
ethereal solution, which we tried to purify by distillation, but did 
not succeed in doing so owing to the danger of fire. The accumula- 
tion, which itself was a fire risk, was, after a number of efforts to 
utilize it, thrown away. 

On returning to Chicago the writer became associated with the 
house of E. H. Sargent, manufacturing chemist, and here again the 
problem presented itself to him — how to recover the ether without 
distillation? He finally discovered that the substances which had 
been taken up by the ether from the aqueous solution of opium 



Am Aprli;wo2 arm '} Deodorized Opium and Tincture. 161 

would, by the addition of a caustic alkali, be again thrown out of 
solution ; and in the paper he contributed on the preparation of 
deodorized tincture of opium, and published in the American Jour- 
nal of Pharmacy for May, 1867, he gave the following directions: 

" Take of common caustic potash one troy ounce ; place it in one 
pint of the ethereal solution, having previously added two fluid 
ounces of water, and agitate; let stand, and when separated decant 
the ether, which wash by shaking with distilled water ; allow to 
separate ; decant again the ether and keep the same for future use 
in the manufacture of the preparation." There was no other loss 
than a certain percentage of waste of ether in the operation of puri- 
fication. 

On examining the substance that had separated from the ethereal 
solution by the addition of caustic alkali, the writer found it to 
consist largely of gummy and resinous substances, which were 
strongly impregnated with the peculiar odor of opium. On treat- 
ing this precipitated mass with petroleum benzin, he found that 
nearly all was taken up by the solvent, excepting some dark color- 
ing matter and a crystalline body which, on further examination, 
he satisfied himself was largely composed of ?iarcotine. This feat- 
ure led to the thought that, as benzin was an equally good solvent 
tor what was considered the noxious substances and did not dis- 
solve the crystallizable principles of the opium, it was superior to 
ether even aside from its economical advantages. 

On putting the above to a test, the writer satisfied himself that his 
reasoning was in a practical direction, and, after some experimenta- 
tion, a formula was devised for preparing deodorized tincture of 
opium in which formula petroleum benzin was substituted for ether. 
Also, a formula was given for preparing deodorized opium, petro- 
leum benzin being used as the purifying agent. The paper also 
contained the suggestion that the writer believed it to be a mis- 
take to remove the narcotine from any of the preparations of opium. 

In the American Journal of Pharmacy for February, 1883, R. 
Rother contributed a paper on a new process of preparing deodor- 
ized tincture of opium, the process being based on the use of a mix- 
ture of petrolatum (vaseline) and spermaceti for removing the odor- 
ous and resinous matters from the aqueous solution of opium. 

In the August number of the same publication George W. Sloan 
called attention to the fact that in following the process of Mr. 



l62 



Deodorized Opium and lincture. { 



Am. .Tour. Pharm. 



April, 1902. 



Rother about half of the morphine contained in the opium was lost 
to the finished tincture. In the December number of the same 
volume Mr. Rother makes a reply in which he states that he 
believes the loss of morphine to be due to a fault in the directions 
given by him in extracting the opium, and not to the mixture of 
fats for deodorizing. 

Next in order, a paper was contributed to the Druggists' Circular 
for April, 1887, by C. E. Federer, in which a process is recom- 
mended for preparing deodorized tincture of opium by exhausting 
the opium with hot water and reducing the temperature of the 
aqueous solution to the freezing point. This has the serious objec- 
tion that, while it separates the resinous, fatty and oily matter and 
narcotine, it also throws out of solution a large per cent, of the 
morphine. 

We come now to a period in our review where the committee on 
revision of the United States Pharmacopoeia takes up the subject 
for research and delegates Prof. E. L. Patch to investigate the sup- 
posed advantages that benzin has over ether in the removal of 
mrcotine, etc. The wording of the instructions for the inquiry was 
unfortunate, as there has never been any claim made by those who 
had recommended the use of benzin that it would remove the nar- 
cotine, but on the other hand, the claim was that benzin would not 
extract the morphine or the narcotine, and that ether would take 
out some of the former and nearly all of the latter in the process of 
preparing deodorized opium. Professor Patch, following the in- 
struction, made a very careful investigation of the subject as sub- 
mitted, and reported the result at the Baltimore meeting of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association, 1898, and published in the 
proceedings, Vol. XLVI, p. 373, from which we copy: 

" Comparison. — Lots of 100 grams of No. 40 opium, assaying 
16 1 per cent, morphine, washed respectively with 1,400 c.c. of 
benzinum and ether gave the following results : 



Weight of extracted and dried opium 91*00 80*500 



Benzin. 



Ether. 



Weight of morphine and dried opium 
Weight of morphine lost in washing 
Weight of narcotine lost in washing 



none 



15*05 



14-580 
•015 
4425 



" Conclusion. — Benzinum, or petroleum ether, is not adapted for 
use in washinp narcotine, etc., from opium in making deodorized 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1902. 



Deodorized Opium and Tincture. 



163 



tincture, on account of its uncertain character, its low range of sol- 
vent power and its disagreeable odor." 

We have now come to the last contribution of our review. It 
was presented at a pharmaceutical meeting of the Philadelphia Col- 
lege of Pharmacy in November, 1900, and was printed in the 
December number of the American Journal of Pharmacy for that 
year. It is entitled, " An Improved Process for the Preparation of 
Deodorized Tincture of Opium," by Frederick T. Gordon, and is 
based upon the substitution of paraffin for ether in removing the 
noxious principles from the preparation. 

We will now comment upon the reviewed processes. During 
the 70's, in making a lot of deodorized tincture of opium, an emul- 
sification took place, which was so persistent that it baffled our 
efforts to effect a separation of the benzin from the concentrated 
solution of opium. Mr. R. Rother, who was at the time in the 
employ of the writer, suggested the addition of melted vaseline to 
the emulsified solution. This happy thought of Mr. Rother, which 
speedily produced the separation desired, led to further experimen- 
tation with this fat. However, it soon became apparent that when- 
ever vaseline was employed in the process, it was always at a loss 
of the morphine salt, and its use was therefore discontinued. A 
more satisfactory method which we found to prevent the emulsion 
is to concentrate the opium infusion to but one-half of its bulk 
and shake with the benzin, when it will separate readily. 

Some time later, when Mr. Rother had gone into business on his 
own account, he published the paper advising the mixture of vase- 
line and spermaceti, a trial of which at the time and experiments 
since with other fats have convinced the writer that, if any part of 
the morphine is in the free alkaloidal state, it will be taken up and 
lost in the process of deodorization when such mediums are employed. 

On the publication of Mr. Gordon's article recommending paraffin 
for this purpose, the writer made trials with three different lots of 
opium, the solutions of which were assayed each time just previous 
to treatment with the paraffin and after such treatment, three 
assays being made in each case. The results of this process were : 




Before. After. 

12*91 9-24 

13-87 8- 5 8 

13-14 8-40 



showing an average loss of 4-65 per cent, of morphine. 



1 64 Deodorized Opium and Tincture. { Am ^i; 5osf rrn - 

We will now consider and analyze Professor Patch's investiga- 
tions. His objections to the use of benzin are : First, that it does 
not remove narcotine ; second, its uncertain character, its low range 
of solvent power and its disagreeable odor. 

In answer to the first objection that the benzin does not remove 
the narcotine: This, in the writer's opinion, is the very reason 
why benzin should be used, for he believes that narcotine should 
not be extracted, as it is not a noxious, but a most beneficial prin- 
ciple of opium ; it is not narcotic, but a pure stimulant tonic, and 
is the very principle which prevents the depression that always 
occurs when morphine is administered alone. The writer has at 
different times administered to himself narcotine which he has pre- 
pared and knew to be perfectly free from any of the other principles 
contained in opium. This pure narcotine he has taken in doses of 
from one to three grains, every hour, until a dozen or more doses 
were taken, and the effect has always been that of a stimulant 
tonic, free from any narcotism. 

To the second objection of Professor Patch, the uncertain charac- 
ter of benzin, its low range of solvent power and its disagreeable 
odor, we have the following to offer : 

The benzin of the United States Pharmacopoeia, as to its official 
title, is unfortunate, for the reason that the on!y articles that are 
obtainable in the market under the name of benzin are the napthas 
of low specific gravity, ranging from 0-798 to 0-723, very impure, 
having a strong and disagreeable odor, and principally used in the 
arts for painting. The Pharmacopoeia defines benzin as a transpar- 
ent, colorless, diffusive liquid, of a strong, characteristic odor, 
slightly resembling that of petroleum, but much less disagreeable, 
and having a neutral reaction, specific gravity 0-670 to 0-675. 

The only products that meet the requirement of the Pharmaco- 
poeia are the best of the higher gravities of gasolines, which are 
known in the market as 87 and 88° Baume, the specific gravity of 
which ranges from 0-650 to 0-645. The existing difficulty of obtain, 
ing these* light products is that they are not on sale in the market 
in less quantities than barrel packages. This condition of things 
would be changed if a demand were made, for the wholesale drug 
trade would then keep these grades for sale, as they do now a 
gasoline of 67 Baume (sp. gr. 0-7 1 6), known as stove gasoline, 
which is, however, not of such quality and purity as to fit it for use 
in the deodorization of opium. 



Am X J p ° r , n r ; 1 P ^ rm -} Deodorized Opium and Tincture. 165 

In our long experience with these high-grade gasolines on opium 
we have never met the objection of a disagreeable odor remaining 
in the finished product. In making inquiries among manufacturers 
who employ these petroleum ethers in extracting oils, fats, resins, 
etc., from drugs, we find that our experience is borne out. We 
hope that the committee on the revision of the Pharmacopoeia will 
give an official name to these lighter products of petroleum of light 
specific gravity, by which name they can be secured in the market. 
The present name, benzin, when called for, does not bring the 
product which the Pharmacopoeia demands. 

Referring to Professor Patch's table of comparison, we find that 
ether extracts about ]/ 2 per cent, more morphine than is extracted 
by benzin ; that ether removes, if not all, nearly all the narcotine, 
while benzin takes up hardly any. As Professor Patch has no other 
solvent to suggest, and has tried others, we must still adhere to our 
position that benzin is the best medium for deodorization. 

The remaining processes and formulas that have been suggested 
and which have been reviewed in this paper may be classed under 
two headings. The first class includes those by which the opium 
is extracted by cold water, the infusion evaporated to the consist- 
ency of a dry extract, and this dissolved again in water and alcohol 
added. When thus prepared such products are but aqueous extracts 
of opium to which sufficient alcohol has been added to preserve 
them. They can possess no other medicinal value or merit over 
the dry extract than that of being liquid, and but serve to add 
to the already large number of preparations that overburden the 
stock of the drug store. 

The second class are the concentrated aqueous infusions, treated 
with ether to remove the noxious principles which may have been 
taken up in a very slight degree by the solvent power of the cold 
water used in exhausting the opium. These possess nothing of 
merit over the first class except it be the added expense due to the 
ether treatment. The change in the process in the last revision of 
the United States Pharmacopoeia is somewhat in the right line, for 
it directs the use of hot water for exhausting the opium, by which 
process all of the morphine, codeine and the greater part of the 
narcotine are brought into solution; however, the ether treatment 
vitiates much of the good arising from the hot-water treatment by 
removing the narcotine. The term, narcotine, is a misnomer, as the 



1 66 Deodorized Opium and Tincture. { Am A^;ml Tm - 

principle is entirely destitute of narcotic properties. When taken 
into the system it performs the functions of a powerful tonic, and is 
the very principle contained in opium that will prevent the depres- 
sion which follows the administration of the morphine alone. All 
medical authorities agree that opium increases the temperature 
from the start, producing a pleasant, warming effect, while morphine 
lowers the temperature. Opium increases the pulse and morphine 
decreases it. Dr. Squibb, in his paper on " Opium as a Therapeu- 
tic Agent," before referred to, says: 

" Observers have found that there are certain good effects 
obtained or certain unpleasant consequences avoided, more fre- 
quently by the use of the natural combination, while all agree that 
the whole* therapeutic power and influence of opium cannot be 
obtained by any salt of morphine." Did not Dr. Squibb make the 
addition of Hoffman's anodyne to his liquor opii co7?ipositus — aside 
from its power of preserving the preparation — for the stimulating 
and antispasmodic qualities that the compound spirit of ether pos- 
sesses ? We believe he did so. 

As early as January, 182 1, in the Journal de Physiologie Experi- 
mentale, Mr. Robiquet, commenting on his new process for making 
an extract of opium, says that the nauseating principles of opium 
exercise no beneficial effects on the general economy, but that it is 
an established fact that the good effects are the result of the 
action of properties peculiar to the two principles recently discov- 
ered in opium — narcotine and morphine. He further says : " The 
results of Dr. Magendie's experiments confirm this view, as narco- 
tine acts as a stimulant substance, while morphine is the real ano- 
dyne which induces calm sleep." 

The writer of the present paper goes further, and says that he 
firmly believes narcotine to be a most valuable remedial agent in 
the treatment of the habits of opium, alcohol and tobacco using ; 
and while he is not in a position to claim that it is a specific, yet 
his limited observation in the administration of this remedy has 
been of the most encouraging character. Results of the most 
beneficial character have been obtained. The action of narcotine 
seems to do away with the craving and the prostration which 
usually follow deprivation from the usual dose of opium, etc., used by 
the habitue. We have seen unusually good effects from the 
administration to these unfortunates of narcotine in grain doses 



Am Aprii;^o2 arm *} Deodorized Opium and Tincture. 167 

every hour, continuing until from 30 to 60 doses have been admin- 
istered. 

During the time which has elapsed since the writer first became 
interested in what was originally considered to be an ideal liquid 
preparation of opium, he has been ever watchful for any suggestions 
for the improvement of the official process, for he has had a convic- 
tion that the preparation, when made by the official process, does 
not represent the full medical properties of the drug. In his paper 
upon this subject thirty-five years ago, the writer suggested as an 
improvement of the official process, aside from the matter of cheap- 
ness, the substitution of benzin for ether, upon the ground that 
benzin did not, while ether did, remove narcotine from the prep- 
aration. He has always believed and has many times said, both 
verbally and in print, that it is a mistake to remove from the 
deodorized tincture of opium the principle, narcotine. With this in 
view he has, in preparing the deodorized tincture as well as the 
simple tincture of opium, used every effort to extract and retain in 
the liquid preparation the narcotine of the drug. The process he 
has found most satisfactory to accomplish this purpose is the follow- 
ing : 

Slice the moist opium, place it in a glass, stone or porcelain dish, 
and by means of a water bath macerate the opium with four parts 
of hot water for about twelve hours, or until the mass is thoroughly 
disintegrated. Pour this upon a colander and with stirring and 
pressure of the hands drain off the liquid. Return the still warm 
residue to the dish, pour upon it two parts of hot water, macerate 
again for several hours, keeping up the heat by means of the water 
bath. Again transfer to colander, press and drain off the liquid 
as before, repeating the operation of maceration with two parts of 
hot water and finish as in the other previous proceedings. Mix the 
liquid obtained by the different operations together, pass through a 
cloth strainer and commence to concentrate by evaporation to half 
the bulk of the water employed for extraction. Now take one part 
of diluted acetic acid and pour this upon the opium residue, macer- 
ate by water bath as in above operations for several hours and then 
place the acid-treated magma upon a coarse cloth strainer and with 
pressure drain off the liquid. Evaporate this solution to a dry con- 
sistency by the heat of a water bath. 

Add this dry extractive matter to the watery liquid which is 



1 68 Deodorized Opium and Tincture. { Am ^;^i lm 

being evaporated, and when concentration of it has reached four 
parts by measure let it cool, and add to it an equal volume of gaso- 
line ; let stand for twelve hours; separate the gasoline and pass the 
opium solution through a paper filter and evaporate to half its bulk. 
Now make a morphine assay and add sufficient diluted alcohol to 
make the finished liquid opium have a morphine strength of 24 
grains to the fluid ounce. A liquid preparation of opium having 
this morphine strength is to be found in the price-lists of the manu- 
facturers of fluid extracts under different titles. It is recommended 
by them for preparing easily paregoric, laudanum, deodorized tinct- 
ure and other liquid preparations of opium, and is said to have a 
ready sale. 

For years the writer has kept this concentrated liquid opium as a 
stock preparation. He has found that when made more concen- 
trated than four parts by measure to one part by weight of opium 
used, there will be a separation of crystalline matter, whi;h, on 
examination, will be found to be largely narcotine. When the opium 
is exhausted only by hot water the average quantity of narcotine 
extracted is about three per cent. ; when acetic acid is employed as 
above directed the amount of narcotine extracted averages from 
five to eight per cent. 

We have found that hydrochloric acid is the better solvent for 
narcotine, but have employed acetic acid, as the excess of acetic 
acid is driven off in evaporating the infusion to a dry state. We 
have also employed citric and tartaric acids, but they were not 
satisfactory, as we were unable to adjust the quantity necessary to 
be used for the purpose. 

The writer does not favor a concentrated liquid opium as an 
official preparation. It is only an additional expense and a danger 
risk to the pharmacist. We prefer a granular opium which has 
been freed from its objectionable noxious principles with gasoline. 
The process that the writer has used is as follows : 

The moist opium, by means of a pair of shears, is cut into slices ; 
these are laid on a cloth, which is put into a sieve and set in a warm 
place to dry. When dry it should be grated. Machines that 
answer this purpose may be had in the market at a cost of about a 
dollar. We have found that if the size of the granular powder is 
from No. 10 to 20 it is fine enough. Now take a glass funnel 
double the size of the quantity of opium to be operated upon, cork 



Am A P °r U ii;i902! rm '} Spread of Tuberculosis. 169 

up tightly the lower end of the stem, but so that the cork can be 
removed when desirable, and place in the funnel a plain, folded 
double filter and put the granular opium on the same ; press down 
slightly and pour upon the opium sufficient gasoline to cover it. 
To prevent evaporation of the gasoline, cover the top of the funnel; 
let stand over night ; then withdraw cork from bottom of funnel, 
allowing liquid to run into container. Repeat the operation, pour- 
ing on gasoline until the solvent takes up no more color from the 
opium. Now remove the filter containing the opium from the 
funnel, and spread the opium out to dry, using gentle heat if 
desired. The gasoline solution extracts from the opium from 2 to 
3 per cent, of matter consisting largely of caoutchouc, wax, resin, 
oily matter, etc., the extracted mass having the strong, peculiar 
odor characteristic of natural opium. 

Reverting again to the granular opium thus purified : The proc- 
ess employed in making the liquid preparations from this purified 
opium is the same as that used in making it from the crude drug. 
By this means preparations will be secured having all the beneficial 
and none of the noxious properties of the drug. We therefore 
recommend that the next pharmacopoeia insert as a new prepara- 
tion granular opium treated with gasoline. We further recommend 
that the pharmacopoeia give a high-grade gasoline a name that will 
not cause it to be confused in the market with benzin ; we also 
recommend that narcotine be made official as a medicinal agent. 

In closing this paper we would recommend that when morphine 
is prescribed, narcotine be added to offset the depressing effects of 
the former. 



THE SPREAD OF TUBERCULOSIS BY COUGHING. 

By Lt. Napoleon Boston, A.M., M.D. 
Bacteriologist to Philadelphia Hospital ; Demonstrator in charge Clinical 
Laboratories of the Medico-Chirurgical College. 

In view of the popular opinion now prevalent throughout the 
civilized world that tuberculosis is a disease dependent, in most 
part, upon certain tendencies transmitted from parent to offspring, 
it becomes the duty of every one working along these lines to show 
that tuberculosis is but rarely inherited, but that it is a disease 
capable of transmission by infected persons to those previously 
healthy, by contact or by association. It may in like manner be 



170 



Spread of Tuberculosis. 



Am. Jour. Pharm 
April. 1902. 



transmitted by man to domestic animals ; while infected animals in 
turn infect other animals with which they are brought in contact. 
Man is probably rarely infected by animals, except through the use 
of milk and meats. 

A series of investigations made upon fifty inmates of the Phila- 
delphia Hospital, all of whom were suffering from tuberculosis of 
either the lungs or throat, showed that such persons emitted a fine 
microscopic spray, in the acts of coughing, sneezing, talking, laugh- 
ing and clearing of their throats; and such spray, when collected 
for microscopic study, was found to contain tubercle bacilli in 75 
per cent, of the cases. Sprays collected during coughing always 
contained many bacilli. 

Method of Collecting Sptay. — This was accomplished by means of 
a mask which was made from German silver wire, one piece of 
which is molded to fit the face, resting on the nose, cheeks and 
chin. To obviate any irritation to the patient, this portion was 
covered by a piece of rubber tubing. Suspended from this wire is 
a second oblong portion provided with two lateral grooves, which 
serve to accommodate two microscope slides. When the mask is 
in position the slides are held directly in front of the mouth and 
nose, at a point 3 inches distant from the lips. The mask is held 
in position by an elastic band which passes above the ears and over 
the occiput. 

Patients were allowed to wear the mask with the clean slides in 
position for from one to one and one-half hours during the 
day when they are apt to cough least, and were instructed to 
remove it during a paroxysm of coughing. It was never worn dur- 
ing the morning or evening ; the object being not to collect on the 
slide the spray produced by vigorous coughing, but to determine 
whether or not consumptives always emitted a fine spray that was 
in any way dangerous to the health of their associates. 

Microscopic Study. — Specimens were fixed and stained by carbol- 
fuchsin and Gabbett's acid blue solution. Of the specimens col- 
lected from fifty patients, those from forty-nine were found to con- 
tain bacteria, the diplococcus and the streptococcus being the most 
constant; yet bacilli and clusters of cocci were not unusual. A 
single minute droplet often contained organisms of each class. 

Of these fifty specimens, thirty-eight were found to contain tuber- 
cle bacilli in variable numbers, four to six bacilli being the smallest 



Am. Jour. Prjarrn. 
April, 1902. 



Spread of Tuberculosis. 



171 



number found in any specimen ; and many of the specimens under 
a one-twelfth oil immersion lens showed fields of bacilli too numer- 
ous to be counted. 

Among other findings were large and small squamous epithelium, 
and occasionally very small epithelial cells more or less intimately 
connected with thick mucus and leucocytes. The tubercle bacilli 
were commonly associated with these elements, but were occasion- 
ally found singly or a number of bacilli without any other elements 
in the field. 

Conditions Influencing the Spray. — From patients showing tuber- 
cular laryngitis and from those who talked loudly, or who were fre- 
quently clearing their throats, the most spray was found. In 
patients very weak, speaking only in a whisper, scarcely any spray 
collected on the slide, and this seldom contained any bacilli. Men 
wearing heavy mustaches ejected no spray on the slide until after 
the mustache was held from falling over the mouth. Coughing 
with the mouth open must necessarily favor the production of the 
spray. The detection of the bacilli in these fine droplets of the 
spray was greatly facilitated by the use of a low-power lens for the 
purpose ot locating such droplets; after which a one-twelfth oil-im- 
mersion lens was used. Droplets not perceptible to the naked eye 
were often found in this manner, and such particles not infrequently 
contained tubercle bacilli, and at times in great numbers. 

Hygiene. — The above detailed observations prove conclusively 
that persons suffering from consumption are constantly contaminat- 
ing the air about them with tubercle bacilli, which are perpetually 
emitted in connection with this spray. This spray may remain float- 
ing in the air of a room for hours, and may alight on the furniture, 
carpets, etc., but whenever agitated it rises from such articles in the 
form of dust, again polluting the air of the room. Persons entering 
the room of a consumptive must, therefore, take into their lungs 
with each inspiration a variable number of tubercle bacilli, depend- 
ing entirely upon the degree of contamination of the air in that 
room. If the person breathes with the mouth open the bacilli may 
enter the throat and be swallowed. In this manner infection takes 
place through the alimentary tract. The taking of food is liable to 
excite coughing in consumptives, and for this reason it is indiscreet 
for healthy persons to dine at the same table with them, for the 
spray collects on the food to be eaten by all. 



172 



Liquid Soaps. 



Am. Jour, Pharm. 
April, 1902. 



Since tuberculosis is a disease so common amongst cooks and 
bakers, I am inclined to believe that much of our bread and pastry 
is polluted in this manner; but fortunately for us, these foods are 
later heated to a degree sufficient to kill the tubercle bacilli. 

In the light of our present knowledge it appears reasonable to 
presume that most cases of " so-called " inherited tuberculosis 
develop in persons who contracted the disease by constant expos- 
ure to the bacilli in this manner while the diseased parent was 
living. Such infection is usually combated by the child and held in 
abeyance until during later life, when, from some cause or other, the 
general vitality is reduced and this previously inert nucleus of infec- 
tion is permitted to develop with flaming rapidity. 



LIQUID SOAPS FOR SURGICAL AND TOILET PURPOSES. 

By M. I. W113ERT, 
Apothecary at the German Hospital, Philadelphia. 

Fashions change ! This truism holds good even with medicines 
and medicinal preparations. About two years ago we reported 
through the American Journal of Pharmacy a number of formulas 
for preparations of soap. Among these was one for a liquid anti- 
septic soap that had been in use at the German Hospital for several 
years, as a substitute for antiseptic cake soaps in the operating- 
room, and was also used in place of the ordinary green or soft-soap 
in preparing the patient for operation. 

But as a thing is good only so long as there is nothing better to 
take its place, we found that the popularity of our antiseptic soap 
had been suddenly eclipsed by the supposed advantages of a com- 
mercial liquid soap that had been purchased for trial and comparison. 

One of the apparent advantages, and probably the greatest, was 
the fact that a copious lather was readily produced, with very little 
exertion ; this, it was thought, would facilitate the removal of dirt 
and microorganisms by mechanical means, the theory being that 
the particles of dirt would be picked up by the foaming bubbles of 
soap and carried away from their natural lodging-places ; enveloped 
in the resulting mass of lather, they would readily be washed away 
in the subsequent rinsing in clear water. 

The new soap was also distinctly alkaline. This was thought to be 
an advantage in loosening or liberating the dead epithelial cells, and 



Am. Jour. Pharrn. 
April, 1902. 



Liquid Soaps. 



173 



thus facilitate, not alone their removal but also the removal of any 
microorganisms that may have found shelter under or along their 
edges. 

Theoretically this soap was very good, and practically it did all 
that was claimed for it. The free alkali that was present, while 
strong, did not appear to be particularly injurious, and the soap 
could be used repeatedly without any material injury to the skin. 

The great objection, from our point of view, was the price ; and 
while it was not to be expected that the manufacturers of such an 
article would devise a formula and spend large sums of money 
advertising the finished product without expecting some very mate- 
rial returns in the shape of profit, nevertheless, we felt that we had. 
the right to get together something that would answer our purpose 
as well, at less cost. 

The formula that we finally determined on is a solution of a soda 
soap in dilute alcohol. Probably the only advantage that soda 
would have to offer in place of potash is the saving in price — soda 
being about 50 per cent, stronger as an alkali, and costing, pound 
for pound, about half as much. 

The formula now used is as follows : 



Cottonseed oil . 300 

Alcohol 300 

Water , ... 325 

Sodium hydrate 45 

Potassium carbonate 10 

Ether .15 

Carbolic acid 25 



The necessary technic of the formula is very simple. To the oil 
contained in a bottle of sufficient size, add 100 c.c. of water and 
200 c.c. of alcohol; add the sodium hydrate and shake, or stir occa- 
sionally until saponification has taken place, then add the remaining 
portions of the alcohol, and the potassium carbonate dissolved in 
the water ; lastly, add the carbolic acid and the ether and mix or 
shake well. 

Keep in well-corked vials to prevent evaporation of the alcohol. 
It is advisable to keep the soap at a temperature not below 10° or 
12° C, so as to prevent solidification, although this does no perma- 
nent harm, as the soap will liquefy again if placed in a warm place 
for an hour or more. The soap obtained by this process is a light 
yellow liquid, with a not unpleasant ethereal odor, and a distinctly 



174 



Liquid Soaps. 



Am. Jour. Ptaarm. 
April, 1902. 



alkaline reaction. A few drops poured in the palm of the hand, 
after previous wetting, will give, with very slight rubbing, a copious 
lather that stands up well for a considerable length of time. 

Its advantage, in surgical practice particularly, depends on its 
detergent action. The theory of this detergent action was men- 
tioned above, and we need not repeat it here. 

For washing instruments after an operation, the use of liquid 
soap is more economical and requires less work than the ordinary 
hard or sand-soap, and has the great additional advantage, over the 
latter especially, that it does not injure the soft plating on the 
handles of the instruments, nor would it effect the cutting edges of 
the knives and scissors as would the gritty particles of sand. 

Besides the advantages that such a preparation has for the needs 
of the surgeon and physician, as a cleansing agent and antiseptic, 
a modification of the same formula has uses that are entirely for- 
eign to those at the bedside or the operating room. 

Using the same formula, but omitting the ether and carbolic acid, 
and substituting for them a few drops of an essential oil, like oil of 
rose geranium or oil of bergamot, we will have an excellent substi- 
tute for cake toilet soaps that are so extensively used at the present 
time. This aromatic soap solution has advantages in various direc- 
tions. To facilitate the production of a copious lather in washing 
it has no equal ; as a substitute for shaving soaps or shaving creams, 
it should fill a proverbial long-felt want. All that is necessary is to 
place a few drops of the liquid soap in a shaving mug, wet the 
brush with water and agitate, or stir it about with the soap ; in the 
course of but a few seconds we will have a copious and permanent 
lather that answers our purpose very well. 

As a detergent for shampooing it is excellent, for the same 
reasons that it answers as a shaving soap. A small quantity of the 
soap makes a copious lather that removes and retains dandruff as 
well as the grease and dirt that usually accumulates on the hair 
and scalp. 

In cases where more than one person uses, or is expected to use 
the same soap, as in public lavatories, there is always more or less 
danger of transmitting various loathsome and more or less disagree- 
able skin diseases from one to the other. This danger could be 
entirely overcome by using a liquid soap, protected as this would 
be by a glass vial. In addition to its being protected from contact 



Aai X J p °;! 1 r ;^ h 2 arn) -} Fluid Extract of Nux Vomica. 175 

contamination, this soap is also protected from any possible con- 
tamination by means of dirt or organisms floating about in the air. 

Aside from this possible use as a toilet article, this soap can also 
be used to advantage at the prescription counter. You all know 
how difficult and sometimes disagreeable it is to wash a graduate 
or bottle in which we have had a fixed oil or resinous material. 
With the aid of a few drops of this soap it should become a pleas- 
ure, as the copious lather that is readily produced takes up and 
retains the particles of oil and allows the graduate or bottle to be 
cleansed with a minimum of labor. Another use is in washing the 
hands after handling odorous, or highly colored substances ; but a 
practical trial is worth more than pages of advice, so let me suggest 
to you — try it for yourself. 



FLUID EXTRACT OF NUX VOMICA. 

By Ferdinand A. Sieker. 

The U. S. Pharmacopoeia of 1890 directs the extract of nux 
vomica to be deprived of oil with ether. The fluid extract is directed 
to be prepared by exhausting the powdered drug with a menstruum 
consisting of alcohol, water and acetic acid, but no directions are 
given for depriving this preparation of oil. The fluid extract when 
thus prepared becomes turbid after standing for some time, owing to 
the separation of a little oil. Ordinary filtration does not remedy 
this defect, because all of the oil cannot be separated in this manner. 

About one year ago the writer published 1 a method for separating 
the oil from the powdered extract of nux vomica by means of par- 
affin. The same method has recently been applied to the fluid 
extract. An attempt was first made to separate the oil direct from 
the fluid extract by warming it to the melting point of the paraffin, 
agitating and allowing it to cool, but the result was not satisfactory. 
Experiments made with a number of other fluid extracts have shown 
that oil cannot be directly extracted with paraffin from an alcoholic 
or hydro-alcoholic solvent. 

In the next experiment the aqueous solution of extract which 
resulted after recovering the alcohol from the percolate of the drug 
was warmed and treated with paraffin. The details of the process 
are as follows : 



1 Pharmaceutical Review, Vol. 19, No. 2, 1901. 



ij6 



Fluid Extract of Nux Vomica. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1902. 



One thousand parts of ground drug were practically exhausted 
by percolation with the U. S. P. menstruum for fluid extract of nux 
vomica, the alcohol was recovered by distillation and the residue 
diluted with water to 500 parts. Forty parts of paraffin were added 
and the mixture heated to 70 or 8o c C. and briskly stirred for half 
an hour. It was then set aside for twenty-four hours in a place 
where it cooled slowly so that the paraffin had a chance to rise to 
the top before congealing. The congealed paraffin and what it car- 
ried with it was separated and the aqueous liquid was then treated in 
the same manner with thirty parts of paraffin. The paraffin, etc., 
that was separated was warmed and stirred with sixty parts of water 
acidulated with acetic acid and then set aside to cool, when the 
liquid was separated and added to the more concentrated solution of 
extract. The mixed solutions were strained through a closely woven 
but comparatively thin muslin. The aqueous solution was carefully 
evaporated to about 403 parts and the percentage of extractive 
determined by drying 10 grammes at 100° C. The amount of 
extractive was deducted from the total weight of the solution, which 
gave the amount of water present. For every 1000 grammes of 
water present in the solution 3000 c.c. of alcohol was added. The 
percentage of total alkaloids was then determined and the prepara- 
tion diluted with a mixture consisting of one volume of water and 
three volumes of alcohol until 100 c.e. represented 1-5 gramme of 
total alkaloids. 

After settling, a perfectly clear fluid extract resulted. Its odor 
was not as disagreeable as when prepared in the ordinary way. A 
tincture prepared from it had a pale color in comparison with a 
tincture prepared from the powdered extract. This tincture which 
was first clear soon became turbid, but after standing for a few days 
became perfectly bright except for a little sediment. 

Twenty-five cubic-centimeters of the fluid extract was evaporated, 
the extract dissolved in water acidulated with sulphuric acid, and 
then shaken with benzine and later with ether. The benzine 
removed 0-0130 gramme or 052 of 1 per cent, of fat. The ether 
removed 0*0230 gramme or 092 of 1 per cent, of resin. 

Laboratory of Lehn & Fink, New York. 



• 



Am. .Fonr. Pharru. 
April, 1902. 



Drugs and Food Products. 



177 



ADULTERATION OF DRUGS AND FOOD PRODUCTS. 1 

By Albert Robin, M.D., 
Pathologist and Bacteriologist of the Delaware State Board of Health, 

Newark, Del. 

There is hardly a subject of such vital importance, so far-reaching 
in its effects on our health and pocket-books, so much in need of 
careful consideration and yet so little considered, as the one before 
us. Occasionally we see a startling statement made by some of our 
newspapers ; at times we hear of an adulteration-law enacted by a 
wise State, but on the whole there prevails a general indifference, 
which implies only one thing, namely, the desire of the people, and 
the most intelligent among them, to be, as Wiley forcibly puts it, 
" cheated, fooled, bamboozled, cajoled, deceived, pettifogged, hypno- 
tized, manicured and chiropedized." How else would you explain the 
seeming anomaly in the fact that a few unscrupulous men produce 
and sell to the unsuspecting consumer stuff which we would not 
give to our dogs for fear of making them either sick or feeble ? And 
this is done in a country with an average of general education 
superior to any other in the world. What becomes of the knowledge 
of physiology imbibed at the expense of great effort at our public 
schools ? Were not we taught that sand and terra alba are indi. 
gestible, not being acted upon by the juices of the stomach or intes- 
tines ? that alum, copper, lead and other minerals are not food-stuffs, 
to say the least ? Suppose we give a schoolboy the following 
problem: If you pay for half a pound of coffee 10 cents, how much 
do you pay for one pound ? Why, 20 cents, of course, answers the 
smart Johnny. But John pays 20 cents for a pound-package of 
coffee containing only half a pound of the genuine bean and the rest 
chicory, grains of corn, wheat, rye, roots and seeds of dandelion f 
mangel wurzel, turnips, beans, peas — any or all of them — and fully 
believes that he is getting a pound of coffee for 20 cents, and that the 
manufacturer is in business for his health, while he, John, reaps the 
benefit of this health-measure. What becomes of the common 
sense and sound judgment of the usually alert and intelligent John ? 
Suppose he reasons thus: <( Do we ever get anything for nothing ? 
or is the manufacturer of the coffee I buy at such a low price a 

: Address delivered at the last Annual Meeting of the Delaware Phar- 
maceutical Association, and read by invitation at the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy Pharmaceutical Meeting, February 18, 1902. 



178 Drugs and Food Products. 

philanthropist ? How does it come that it is so cheap ? Evidently, 
there is something in my coffee which increases the bulk and thus 
cheapens the product. Why is the maple syrup I buy so extraordi- 
narily cheap? Evidently, there is not much maple syrup in it." 
You are right, John, the maple syrup you buy at the bargain counter 
is composed entirely of cane-sugar and starch flavored with extract 
of hickory bark. Your jellies have never inhaled the flavor of the 
natural fruit from which they are claimed to be made ; your honey 
has never been manufactured by the industrious bee; your li pure 
refined lard " is but a mixture of lard stearine and cottonseed oil ; 
in short, a great deal you eat and drink is altogether different from 
what it is claimed to be and what you buy it for. As a witty poet, 
quoted by Wiley, puts it : 

" Placid I am, content, serene. 
I take my slab of gypsum bread, 
And chunks of oleomargarine 
Upon its tasteless sides I spread. 
The egg I eat was never laid 
By any cackling, feathered hen ; 
But from the I^ord knows what, 'tis made 
In Newark by unfeathered men. 
I wash my simple breakfast down 
With fragrant chickory so cheap, 
Or with the best black tea in town — 
Dried willow leaves — I calmly sleep." 

Even a " guarantee" on the label is no assurance of purity of the 
product, as the following case illustrates : 

The "Boston Baking Powder" is put up in cans having on the 
bottom the following label : " All grocers are authorized to guar- 
antee bread, cake, pastry, and all other products made wherein our 
powder is used free from alum, lime, ammonia, terra alba, rochelle 
salts or anything injurious as a result of its use." " As a matter of 
fact," remarks the analyst of the Massachusetts State Board of 
Health (31 Annual Report) "this brand of powder contains 
alum, calcium sulphate (terra alba) and ammonia. The label is 
somewhat ingenious, for it will be noticed that grocers are not 
authorized to guarantee the powder to be free from these products, 
but what they do guarantee is that bread, cake and pastry made 
from this powder are free therefrom. This statement is partially 
true in that the alum present in the baking powder ceases to be 
alum when found in the bread, having been transformed into 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1902. 



Drugs and Food Products. 



179 



aluminium hydrate, and . . . the ammonia is driven off by the 
process of baking." 

Time will not permit me to enter into details about the various 
sophistications of foods and food products. The following list from 
Battershall will give you an adequate idea of the common adultera- 
tions. As to the uncommon adulterants, they include such palatable 
substances as sawdust, horseliver, oak bark, colored earths, factory 
sweepings, brick-dust, and numerous others which the ingenuity ot 
the manufacturer suggests, and which baffle all efforts at detection, 
owing to their uncommonness. 

The regular list, then, includes : 



Bakers' chemicals 



Bread and flour 



Butter 



Canned foods 



Cheese 



Starch, 
Alum, 
r Other meals, 
\ Alum. 
r Water, 

I Coloring matter, 
' Oleomargarine and other fats. 

Metallic poisons, 
f Lard, 

I Oleomargarine, 
i Cottonseed oil, 
[ Metallic salts, 
f Sugar, 

Cocoa and chocolate J starch, 

I Flour, 
f Chickory, 
I Peas, 

Coffee <j Rye, 

Corn, 

Coloring matter, 
j- Starch-sugar, 
Starch, 

Artificial essences, 
} Poisonous pigments, 

Terra alba, 
I Plaster-of-Paris. 

Honey J Glucose syrup, 

Cane-sugar. 



Confectionery 



Malt liquors 



p Artificial glucose, 
j Bitters, 

1 Sodium bicarbonate, 
I Salt. 



Milk J Water > 

\ Removal of fat. 



Olive oil 



1 80 Drugs and Food Products. { Am A J P °rn r ;i9rc? rm 

Flour, 

Mustard \ Turmeric, 

Cayenne pepper. 
Cottonseed oil, 
Other oils. 

Pepper Various ground meals. 

Pickles Salts of copper. 

( Pepper dust, 

Spices \ Starch, 

y Flour, 
f Water, 

Spirits J Fus el-oil, 

j Aromatic ether, 

Burnt sugar. 

Sugar Starch-sugar. 

Exhausted tea-leaves, 
Foreign leaves, 
Indigo, 

T ea -j Prussian blue, 

I Gypsum, 
I Soapstone, 
I Sand. 

Vinegar r Water, 

\ Sulphuric acid, 
f Water, 

Wine J S P irits > 

j Coal-tar and vegetable colors, 



Factitious imitations. 



Truly, a list to suit the most capricious taste. It almost seems 
that after consuming such food one could go on sword-swallowing 
with impunity. 

In a recent report of the Illinois State Food Commission (1899- 
1900) we find the following table of adulterations detected during 
the year : 

Number Number 
Article of Food. Analyzed. Adulterated. 

Baking powder 44 44 

Butter , . . 49 36 

Catsup 47 45 

Cider (apple) 3 1 

Cider (orange) 1 1 

Coffee .... 15 o 

Condensed milk (bulk) 4 1 

Condensed milk (cans) , 22 4 

Cream of tartar 11 2 

Honey • * 22 9 

Jellies, jams, etc 13 9 



ir^'iX"™"} Drugs and Food Products. 181 

Lemon extracts 34 2 7 

Milk 29 5 

Olive oil 25 13 

Sugar (granulated) 1 1 

Vanilla extract 26 20 

Vinegar 360 192 

Total 7 12 412 



Of 61 samples of milk purchased of milk dealers in the city of 
Wilmington and examined by the Delaware State Board of Health 
Laboratory, 39 contained formalin, 12 were skimmed, 3 were 
watered, 5 were skimmed and watered, and 2 were suspicious. 

The superficial observer will probably conclude that adulteration 
is accidental and irregular ; |that it depends entirely on the honesty 
and business integrity of the individual manufacturer. This is far 
from being the case. Sophistication is an economic factor in the 
struggle for trade. Cheaper products are demanded by the poor 
and cheaper products are supplied ; but as the only way to cheapen 
them is to sophisticate, adulteration is practised as a bona fide busi- 
ness measure. As a result, we have fraud reduced to a system; 
fraud not regulated by conscience or principles ; fraud from which 
the otherwise honest man does not shrink, but, nevertheless, fraud 
which robs the poor man of the money he earns by the sweat of his 
brow. 

This fact has been clearly brought out by the Senate Committee 
appointed to investigate the extent and nature of adulteration of 
foods (Senate Report, Vol. 3, No. 516). "The adulteration of pre- 
pared or manufactured foods," says the committee, "is very exten- 
sively practised, and in many cases to the great discredit of our 
manufacturers. It is only fair to say, however, that a large propor- 
tion of the American manufacturers who are engaged in adulterating 
food-products do so in order to meet competition, and it is the 
expression of those gentlemen to say, ' We would be glad to get 
out of the business of adulterating. We would like to quit putting 
this stuff in coffee, and would be willing to brand our syrups for 
what they are, but our competitors get a trade advantage which we 
cannot surrender.' " 

This position, however, cannot be maintained with regard to 
drugs. Here, evidently, the price to the consumer does not enter 
into consideration, the prices being, as they mostly are, altogether 



182 



Drugs and Food Products. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1902. 



out of proportion to the original cost. Neither does competition, 
in so far as the retail price of the drugs is concerned, compel the 
druggist to reduce the cost which may be said to be fairly uniform 
with a liberal margin for wholesale fluctuations. 

Adulterations of drugs, therefore, is nothing less than an abom- 
inable fraud which ought to put to shame any self-respecting man 
practising it. This fraud, like a double-edged sword, cuts in two 
directions: (i) By it money is obtained under false pretense, alike 
from rich and poor, an offence which in other walks of life is pun- 
ished by law ; and (2) human life or health is frequently placed at 
stake for the gain of a few paltry dollars. There is still a third 
aspect to this evil : It retards the progress of materia medica in the 
proportion as the physician fails to achieve the desired effect, and, 
not suspecting the genuineness of the drug he uses, does not believe 
in its virtues. The reason for the sophistication of drugs is to be 
sought in the cloak of mystery with which medicine has been 
wrapped up from time immemorial. The sick know naught of the 
drugs they are made to take, nor do they care to know. Medicine 
to them is still a black art, and what they want is charms, being 
altogether indifferent as to whether these are made of scraps of 
paper, worthless herbs or roots or plain sugar. The physician, on 
the other hand, has been in the past so deeply entangled in the web 
of polypharmacy that one or two worthless or adulterated drugs 
made little difference among two or three dozen others. His was 
truly a shotgun prescription : if one shot missed the mark the 
others might hit it. From these dark ages of polypharmacy the 
physician emerged into the fruitless age of proprietary medicine, an 
age so remarkably barren of results and so inimical to scientific 
progress ! In the proprietary medicine we have the same shotgun, 
only the loading is done by somebody else, the physician pulling the 
trigger. He even does not know how many shots are in the barrel 
or what they are made of. What does " eudoria " stand for ? For 
nothing. All we know is that it is a wonderful combination of rem- 
edies, possessing extraordinary virtues not to be found in any of the 
drugs mentioned in the Pharmacopoeia or the National Formulary. 
This remarkable panacea stops diarrhea and moves the bowels, 
relieves pain, cures headache, dizziness, dropsy, influenza, rheuma- 
tism and all other ills human flesh is heir to. " Doctor," proclaims 
the illustrious inventor of the miraculous panacea, " why bother 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
April, 1902. J 



Drugs and Food Products, 



183 



your head about the thousand and one drugs of your materia 
medica ? Why be troubled about their composition, properties, 
physiological effects and incompatibilities when ' eudoria ' does it 
all, and all you need remember is the name ? Of course, you will 
be particular to specify ' The Fraud Pharmacal Company,' for, you 
see, there are worthless substitutes on the market," And the 
wise physician goes on using " eudoria." His patients get well 
with or in spite of it, and by the end of his professional 
life he finds in his mind a blank with the meaningless word 
" eudoria " inscribed on it. Under these circumstances we can well 
understand why sophistication of drugs is so universally practised. 
Fortunately, the medical profession is gradually recovering from the 
mental stupor into which it was thrown by the " Fraud Pharmacal 
Co." and the like. The Pharmacopoeia is taken off the dusty shelves 
and carefully looked over; the materia medica is again looked into 
inquiringly; the physician no longer "puts a drug of which he 
knows little into a stomach of which he knows less." The dawn of 
scientific medicine is upon us and, pari passu, the searchlight of rigid 
inquiry is thrown upon the composition of drugs and their adulter- 
ations. What is revealed will be seen from the few facts which time 
and space allow me to mention — it would require a volume to cite 
them all. 

Before I take up the various sophistications commonly prac- 
tised I will quote Hassal's definition of adulteration: "It con- 
sists in the intentional addition to an article, for the purpose of gain 
or deception, of any substance or substances the presence of which 
is not acknowledged in the name under which the article is sold." 
This definition is somewhat incomplete, for it does not include the 
substitution of an article of an inferior quality. Thus we find that 
in the case of vegetable drugs, herbs of inferior quality are sold, 
although there is no actual addition of substances different in name 
or appearance from the one asked for. In looking over the reports 
of the several State Boards of Health which have investigated the 
subject, we find 1 that cinchona has been found very variable in 
quality ; that a large quantity of poor bark has been frequently on 
the market; that worthless bark has been often offered for true 
calissaya and red bark. Wild cherry has been seldom of prime 



Supplement 6, National Board of Health Bulletin. 



1 84 Drugs and Food Products. { AQ1 A T p ° r l ? 1 r ; 1 ^ rm 

quality, being frequently adulterated with sassafras bark. Bella- 
donna is often of bad quality, having become deteriorated. Hyoscya- 
mus has been found to contain 8 per cent, of impurities, such as bay 
leaves, straw, feathers, oak, stone, branches from unknown plants, 
etc. Aconite is often moldy, partially or entirely exhausted and 
redried. Sarsaparilla is adulterated with clay, foreign roots and 
dirt. The following admixtures were actually found in some samples : 
Nut galls, mastic stems, bay, belladonna and digitalis leaves, paper, 
bark, straw, ipecac and may-apple. Copaiba has been found to con- 
tain 6 to 8 per cent, of fat oil. There is also a factitious copaiba 
composed of linseed oil, castor oil, turpentine and sufficient copaiba 
to give odor. Opium has been found to contain 20 per cent, of 
foreign matter, chiefly lead. Clay, wax, cherry gum, extract of 
licorice and fused colophony have been detected in the gum, while 
occasionally the entire gum is composed of clay and cow's dung« 
The powdered drug is frequently adulterated to the extent of 50 
per cent., starch being the usual adulterant. Ginger is adulterated 
with lime. Hydrastis with beet-root, serpentaria, cypripedium, san- 
guinaria, may-apple. Powdered rhubarb with turmeric. Powdered 
capsicum with red lead, vermilion, venitian red, brick-dust, ground 
rice, turmeric, mustard husks, cornstarch, wheat and horseradish. 
Mustard with cornstarch, potato starch, turmeric and capsicum. 
Asafetida, with stone, sand, and other foreign substances. Gum 
arable, with marble-dust, sand, dextrin. Castor-oil, withwhale oil, 
lard oil and croton oil. Olive oil, with paraffin oils, cottonseed oil, 
oil of benne, nut oil. Sulphur, with gypsum (50 per cent.), sulphate 
of calcium. Tartaric acid, with sulphate of sodium and alum. 
Ammeniiwi carbonate has been found to be made from ammonia, 
glue and bicarbonate of soda. Subnitrate of bismuth often contains 
phosphate of calcium ; calcium carbonate, burnt bones ; iron by hydro- 
gen, charcoal ; bichloride of mercury, common salt ; bitartrate of pot- 
ash, calcium carbonate, farinaceous matter, calcium sulphate, corn- 
starch ; potassium iodide, bromide of potash. 

It may be remarked that by purchasing the drugs from reliable 
firms, the above-mentioned adulterations are not likely to be found. 
This is no doubt true, but unfortunately, druggists are often tempted 
by the low prices at which drugs are offered by some unscrupulous 
wholesalers. That this is frequently the case we gather irom the 
fact that samples purchased from various druggists at random do 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1902. 



Drugs and Food Products. 



i8 5 



show either adulterations or inferior quality. Thus, in a recent 
report of the New York State Board of Health we find that the fol- 
lowing drugs were found adulterated : 



Name of Drug-. 



No of Samples 
Analyzed.. 



Seneca root .... 
Virginia snake root 
Sarsaparilla root . . 
Digitalis leaves . . 
Spanish saffron . . 

Myrrh 

White wax 

Oil of cocoa . . . . 
^Quince seeds . . . . 

Lupulin 

Arrow root 

Ipecac, powdered 
Jalap " 
Orris 

Rhubarb " 
Mustard 



No. Found 
Adulterated. 



23 


5 


21 




23 




22 


10 


20 




21 


6 


17 


6 


r 9 


6 


13 


7 


18 


7 


20 


8 


22 


10 


22 


8 


T 9 


9 


23 


6 


24 


12 



to (deteriorated) 



During a single year the Massachusetts State Board of Health 
detected the following adulterated drugs: 

Acidum tannicum : Ten samples examined ; five found to con- 
tain resin or foreign gums. 

^Ether: Two samples examined; both contained too much alcohol. 

Aqua ammonia fortior: One sample; too weak. 

Bismuth subnitrate : Ten samples analyzed ; five contained car- 
bonate. 

Calx chlorata : All of the samples analyzed found below standard. 1 
Diabetic flour: Thirteen samples analyzed; only three, the pro- 
duct of one manufacturer, were found free from starch. 

Extractum glycyrrhiza : Nine samples examined ; all found to 
contain cornstarch. 



*A number of samples analyzed by the Delaware State Board of Health Lab- 
oratory contained only from 5 to 12 per cent, of available chlorin. 



i86 



Drugs and Food Products. 



Am. Jour. Pharm 
April, 1902. 



Ferri et quininae citras : Eight samples examined ; two contained 
insufficient quinine. 

Glycerin: Twenty-nine samples examined for arsenic; twenty 
were found to contain from traces to 002 in 25 grammes of sample. 

Limonis succus : Twelve samples analyzed ; all adulterated or 
impure. 

Oil of lemon : Six samples analyzed ; five contained oil of turpen- 
tine. 

Olive oil : Fifty samples examined ; thirteen consisted wholly or 
in part of cottonseed oil. 

Potassium bitartras : Of twenty-one samples, two were adulterated 
with cornstarch, gypsum and acid phosphate of lime. 

Sulphur prsecipitatum : Of fifteen samples, ten contained calcium 
sulphate. 

Tr. Opii : Of thirty-nine samples, thirty-four were found below 
the standard. 

The last, of course, indicates that the crude opium from which 
the tincture was made, was not of standard strength. 

During the fifteen years, from 1883 to 1897, tn - e Massachusetts 
State Board of Health examined a large number of samples of drugs 
with the following results : 



Year. 


No. of Samples 
Analyzed. 


No. Found 
Adulterated. 


Percentage. 


1883 • • 




603 


246 


40-8 


1884 




682 


251 


36-8 


1885 . 




1,007 


436 


43'3 


1886 




888 


425 


47-8 ' 


1887 




550 


150 


27 3 


1888 




862 


228 


26*4 


1889 




600 


97 


162 






400 


75 


187 






424 


72 


17-0 






487 


175 


35"9 


i«93 • 




327 


99 


30*3 


1894 . 




487 


103 


33*5 


1895 . 




544 


332 


6ro 


1896 




565 


254 


50'3 


1897 . 




8,366 


3,303 


35'9 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
April, 1902. f 



Drugs and Food Products. 



i8 7 



Thus we have an average of adulteration of 34-74 per cent. This 
is in a State which enjoys a pure food and drug law well conceived 
and admirably executed. What takes place in the States less for- 
tunate you can well imagine. In our own State of Delaware, Pro- 
fessor Penny, the chemist of the Delaware College Agricultural 
Experiment Station, while analyzing a patent medicine for the 
cure of hog cholera, made the startling discovery that powdered 
antimony, which was supposed to enter into the composition of this 
i( cure " (copied bodily from a formula published by the Bureau of 
Animal Industry), as well as samples labeled " antimony sulphide," 
in the possession of the station, contained no antimony at all. He 
then obtained samples of antimony from various druggists of Wil- 
mington and other parts of the State, as well as New York, Pennsyl- 
vania, New England and the Southern States. The result was that 
out of forty-one samples sold by the general retail drug trade, only 
seven were found to be unadulterated commercial antimony sul- 
phide ; one contained a small quantity of the salt mixed with coal 
dust, and thirty-three were entirely free from antimony in any form. 
Those examined more completely were mixtures of carbon, as coal 
dust, sometimes a little charcoal or graphite, with chalk and sand. 
Subsequent to this experience the Experiment Station of Nebraska 
published the account of a similar experience. Pretty hard on the 
hog (or the owner) ! Professor Penny also analyzed, by request of 
Dr. Black, a number of samples of gluten bread for diabetics, claimed 
to be free from starch. The latter, however, was found in every 
sample in the proportion of 50 to 75 per cent. 

There is still another form of sophistication, and that is in the sale 
of worthless remedies proclaimed to possess marked therapeutic vir- 
tues. Many of the so-called proprietary remedies belong to this 
class. Even remedies, the approximate composition of which is 
stated, and which are purported to be an improvement on the U. S. P. 
or the National Formulary, frequently possess no medicinal virtues. 
The various preparations of pepsin may be cited as an example. I had 
occasion to examine a number of samples of the various elixirs and 
other combinations of pepsin. Several of these proved practically 
inert when tested by the egg-albumen test. A gentleman, whose 
authority in the matter I consider unquestionable, writes me that 
" A good many years ago an eminent chemist and physician stated 
that he had found by assay wines of pepsin to be practically inert. 



i88 



Drugs and Food Products. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1902. 



"Unfortunately," continues the writer, " the condition of affairs in 
the applied chemistry of the digestive ferments is such that obvi- 
ously incompatible and inert preparations are persistently offered, 
the peculiar physiological nature and relations of these ferments 
being either ignored, or not at all well understood. If you take up 
the diastasic enzyme, for instance, you will find products which are 
represented to contain diastase and « ptyalin ' in solution with other 
ferments, to be devoid of starch-converting power. Elixirs of 4 pep- 
sin and bismuth' are quite generally manufactured and used, and 
are even found in « formularies,' whilst the fact remains that bismuth 
in solution destroys pepsin, that no permanent solution (elixir or 
other) can be made which contains pepsin in conjunction with 
ammonio-citrate of bismuth in any form in which it is commonly 
used in these prescriptions." In the case of manufactured drugs, 
such as fluid extracts, pills, tablets, etc., we find that, through no 
fault of the manufacturer, the drug or combination of drugs 
deteriorates in time and becomes either deficient in its physiologic 
activity or entirely worthless. Organic matter, especially alkaloids, 
are bound to deteriorate on keeping, and even if no visible changes 
take place, owing to some special form of preservation, certain 
intrinsic changes undoubtedly do occur. Is there any one here who 
will affirm that a preserved pear or peach tastes exactly like the 
fresh fruit ? Every one of you has observed the changes, even visi- 
ble to the naked eye, which take place in your fluid extracts and 
tinctures. As to pills and tablets, they are often mere mummies 
of the original drug. They have been driven through boards 
and passed uninjured the alimentary tract, and I am sure that many 
of them bear the same relation to the fresh drug as the Indian 
mummy at the Washington Museum does to the original Indian. 
" A ready-made pill — to coin a new definition — is a powdered drug 
embalmed in sugar and so coated as to remain impervious. It may 
be used in time of war instead of bullets." Many of the official pills 
have been found deficient in alkaloidal strength. Thus, the New 
York State Board of Health found that quinine pills, stated to con- 
tain 2 grains, only had vf, 9, 1-3, r6, 1-8 ; 3-grain pills showed 2> 
2-5, 17, 27, 2-5 ; 5 grains 3-4, 4-4, 4-5 and 2-4. 

My paper will not be complete without mentioning still another 
form of sophistication which is really a simple fraud. I allude to 
patent medicines. I may state, without fear of contradiction, that 



Drugs and Food Products. 189 

patent medicines are one of the greatest evils this country is afflicted 
with. They demoralize the people by engendering a constant dread 
of disease, so-called, pathophobia. They are responsible for the 
pernicious system of self-medication for imaginary or real ills ; they 
frequently ruin health and jeopardize life ; they divide the people at 
large into two classes : a larger one, composed of fools, and a smaller, 
made up of sharps who live by their wits at the expense of the fools 
— in short, the patent-medicine vender is nothing but a parasite of 
the worst kind, and the welfare of the social organism depends 
solely on the absence or presence of parasitic growths. Here are a 
few facts which could be multiplied ad infinitum did time permit : A 
package of " kaskine," a much-vaunted remedy, sold at $1 an ounce, 
was found by the Massachusetts Board of Health to consist of 
nothing more or less than granulated sugar. A package of malt 
tablets, for the cure of dyspepsia, was found to be simply sugar 
lozenges colored by ferric oxide. A sample of " go to sleep " was 
found to consist essentially of sulphonal, a drug to be used only by 
the recommendation and under the supervision of a physician. 
Besides being poisonous, its continuous use defeats the very purpose 
for which it is intended. Hypnotics, as a rule, are dangerous when 
used indiscriminately by the laity. A sample of so-called " Boston 
drug," for the cure of drunkenness, consisted essentially of milk 
sugar, 9 parts, and ammonium chloride, 1 part. " Quince lotion " 
was found to contain borax and oil of bergamot (borax, as you well 
know, is the synonym for quince seed). Many of the patent medi- 
cines, however, are not harmless frauds but dangerous missiles. It 
is as though a highway robber extorted your money and then sent a 
bullet into your head as an expression of gratitude. Thus a " skin 
success ointment " was found to be composed of red oxide of mer- 
cury. Most of the face lotions contain enormous quantities of 
corrosive sublimate, 8 gra. per ounce having been found in one 
sample and 147 grs. per ounce in another (Mrs. McCorrison's 
Famous Diamond Face Lotion). All of the vaunted sarsaparillas, 
the innocent purifiers of the simpleton's blood, contain iodide of 
potash in large proportions. Church's was found to contain 2-25 
per cent.; Leavitt's, 2-17 per cent. ; Myrick's, 212 per cent. ; Matti- 
son's, 2 per cent.; Dana's, 1-17 per cent., and so on through the 
entire list, down to 32 per cent. (Hood's contains 75 per cent.). 
"The sale of such an article," says the Report of the Massachusetts 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1902. 



190 



Drugs and Food Products. 



m. Jour. Pharm. 
April 1902. 



Board of Health of 1892, " in unlimited quantities by druggists, 
grocers and others is censurable. More than this, the method of its 
sale is dishonest, since the unwary purchaser is led to believe that 
he is purchasing a harmless vegetable remedy, namely, sarsaparilla. 
It may be seriously questioned whether the blood of persons who 
take iodide of potassium continuously is not decidedly impoverished, 
instead of being purified, as is claimed by the manufacturers. It is 
not uncommon to find persons who have used continuously, six, 
eight, or ten pint-bottles of one of these preparations. . . . The 
pale, sallow complexion of the habitual user of the < sarsaparilla 
iodides ' is, unfortunately, too often met with, wherever these reme- 
dies are freely advertised and sold." Most, if not all, of the cold 
cures contain cocaine in considerable quantities, and many a case 
of cocaine habit may be laid to the doors of the manufacturers of 
these panaceas. Of course, you will not wonder that all the opium 
cures contain morphine, for their success is certainly marvelous. 
Why take opium, with all the disadvantages and difficulties con- 
nected with its purchase, when one can buy something just as good 
(whatever that maybe) in the shape of an " opium cure," The 
so-called Keeley's Double Chloride of Gold Cure was found to con- 
tain not a trace of gold (it is too expensive !). Nor will it surprise 
you to learn that many tonics, " recommended especially for the 
inebriates," contain alcohol in large amounts. Such an one is 
Parker's Tonic, ''purely vegetable," which was found to contain 
41*6 per cent, of alcohol by volume. Another is Whiskol, " a non- 
intoxicating stimulant, whisky without its sting," containing 28-2 
per cent.; and Colden's Liquid Beef Tonic, " recommended for treat- 
ment of alcohol habit," 26-5 per cent. It may also be comforting 
to our total abstainers and to the many reverend gentlemen, whose 
flourishing signatures are to be found appended to very laudatory 
testimonials, to learn that the sixty-one samples of the more widely 
used tonics examined by the Massachusetts Board of Health con- 
tained alcohol in various proportions. I will cite only a few of the 
more prominent: 



Alcohol, 
Per cent. 



Liebig Company's Cocoa Beef Tonic 

Schenck's Seaweed Tonic, " entirely harmlesss " 

Atwood's Quinine Tonic Bitters 

Boker's Stomach Bitters ...... 

Burdock Blood Bitters 



23 '2 
I9'5 
29*0 
42*6 
25*2 



i O ri] r j90 h 2 arm -} Drugs and Food Products. 191 

Copp's White Mountain Bitters, " not an alcoholic beverage " . . 6*o 

(It should be noticed that this "tonic" contains more alcohol 
than the strongest beer.) 

Drake's Plantation Bitters 33*2 

Green's Nervura . 17*2 

Hoofland's German Bitters, "entirely vegetable and free from 

alcoholic stimulant" 25*6 

Hostetter's Stomach Bitters 44*3 

Kaufmann's Sulphur Bitters, " contains no alcohol " 20*5 

(As a matter of fact no sulphur was found in this preparation.) 

Paine's Celery Compound . 2i'o 

Walker's Vinegar Bitters, " contains no spirit" 61 

Warner's Safe Tonic Bitters 357 

Ayer'3 Sarsaparilla . . . 26*2 

Hood's " , . i8'8 

Dana's " 13.5 

And so on. 



You will observe that the dose recommended on the labels is 
from a teaspoonful to a wineglassful from one to four times a day, 
"increased as needed." What a perversion of justice! Some poor 
wretch will be sent to the workhouse for selling a little whisky to a 
few friends, without a license, and men like the "tonic" manufac- 
turers, who sell cheap whisky by the thousands of gallons, go scott- 
free and accumulate millions from their nefarious business. 

That the various " hair tonics " contain dangerous proportions of 
lead will be somewhat more unpleasant news to our "belles" 
who improve on nature by those " innocent " remedies, or endeavor 
to restore their faded charms. Here are a few of them : 

Per Cent, of Lead. 



Renown Hair Restorer contains i*86 

Mrs. Allen's Hair Restorer contains 2*30 

Hall's Hair Renewer contains - 175 

Wood's Hair Restorative contains 1-59 

King's Vegetable Ambrosia contains 1*51 

Parker's Hair Balsam contains 2-32 



That these people are not indicted and prosecuted for wholesale 
poisoning is a mystery to me! But such is our free country. 
" What fools ye mortals be." 

Now what should be the duty of the druggist in the matter of 
adulteration ? His duty is clear. As a citizen and a consumer he 
should put forward his best efforts to secure laws which would at 
least punish, if not prevent, wholesale fraud. As to drugs, he is 
evidently to be on the offensive rather than the defensive. His 



192 



Drugs and Food Products, 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ April, 1902, 



training in the pharmaceutical college and in the drug store should 
enable him to recognize the grosser forms of adulterations and 
impurities and put him on his guard against the imposition of dis- 
honest dealers. The statement is frequently made that the special 
training which the druggist is compelled to acquire is far above the 
requirements of his profession ; in other words, it is useless. This 
is far from being the case. Unless the profession of the druggist is 
understood to be merely that of a tradesman, the training he 
receives is barely sufficient to meet the requirements. Every drug- 
gist should be able to assay his own drugs and detect adulterations 
and impurities. This is not hard to do if one follows the directions 
of the Pharmacopoeia. " But," I will be asked, " of what use is this 
when the physicians dispense their own tablets, and all the druggist 
is called upon to do is to pour out So-and-So's elixir, cordial, or 
other preparation from a pint into a three-ounce bottle and label it 
according to the physician's directions? This is unfortunately true, 
but it is only the druggist's fault. The manufacturers usurped the 
prescription trade by first catching the eye and ear of the physician 
and then sending the druggist on a fool's errand to help them gain 
a firm footing in the physician's office. If the druggists spent one- 
tenth as much time, money and energy as the manufacturer, there 
would not be a single pill or tablet in the physician's office, and the 
old custom of dispensing freshly prepared remedies would again be 
in vogue to the great benefit of both physician and patient. Why 
not acquaint the doctors of your neighborhood that capsules freshly 
made from the dry powder are superior to pills ; that powders are 
more certain in their action than tablets, and solutions more reliable 
than either pills or tablets ? Why not make use of the information 
concerning the deterioration of drugs, especially alkaloids, when 
dried and incorporated with an excipient ? Why not send a neatly 
printed circular to the physicians of your neighborhood, advising 
them, for instance, of the fact that the New York State Board of 
Health found quinine pills to be deficient in alkaloidal strength and 
that, therefore, with their permission, you will dispense capsules which 
are sure to contain a definite amount of the fresh drug ? Why not 
send to the doctors samples of the various officinal elixirs which 
you prepared, showing that you can make as elegant preparations as 
the manufacturers? Why not experiment with the various drugs, 
the taste or smell of which is objectionable, with a view of render- 



Am. Join-. Pharm. 
April, 1S02. 



Drugs and Food Products. 



193 



ing them palatable, and, having found the desired combination, notify 
your physicians of the fact and send them a sample ? Why not have 
a label on every bottle or package, stating that the purity of the 
contents is guaranteed, and be able to stand by your guarantee? 

With regard to patent medicine I will, at the risk of laying myself 
open to criticism, make the following assertion : A druggist who 
keeps patent medicines countenances a crime, and one who recom- 
mends them to the customers without knowing their composition is 
a party to a crime. It is bad enough to be compelled by the iron 
rules of trade and competition to handle these at times dangerous 
concoctions, but when the question is asked by the customer, Do you 
think Paine's Celery Compound is good for my nerves ? the answer 
should invariably be, either " I do not know " or, if you do know, 
that this remedy contains 21 per cent, alcohol. " Mr. Smith, do you 
think that Mrs. Allen's Hair Restorer will be good for my hair?" 
" I do not know, madam. All I know is, that it contains 2-30 per cent, 
of lead, and is therefore dangerous." How are you to know these 
facts ? Simply enough : They are published in the various reports 
of the boards of health, which have the pure food and drug laws, 
and in the pharmaceutical journals, and it should be incumbent upon 
your committee on drug adulterations to collect these data and pro- 
duce them at your annual meetings. To replace the worthless or 
dangerous remedies which you cannot recommend, put up some of 
your own, stating on the label the exact composition. Never mind 
about giving away the secret. You will gain the confidence and 
respect of your customers, who will rather deal with an honest man 
than with one who may at any time be accused of being a cheat, 
without being able to defend himself. Besides, if your remedy is 
secret, why is it superior to the patent medicines which have " testi- 
monials ? " 

This, gentlemen, should be your ideal — strive for it, work for it. 
Take out the education of the public in matters pertaining to drugs 
from the hands of the unscrupulous patent-medicine vender, and that 
of the physicians from the hands of the manufacturer. Awaken from 
the lethargy into which you may have allowed yourself to fall. Make 
the best of your ability and special preparations, and above all make 
of yourself an important and useful factor in the life of the com- 
munity. It remains with you either to remain grocers and con- 
fectioners or to raise yourself to the dignity of a pharmaceutical 
chemist. 



194 



a- and ft-Encaine. 



Am. Jonr. Pharm. 
April, 1902. 



THE IDENTIFICATION AND PROPERTIES OF a- AND 

/9-EUCAINE. 1 

By Charles Lathrop Parsons. 

Two new alkaloids under the names a-eucaine and ^9-eucaine have 
recently been offered to the medical and dental profession for use 
as a local anesthetic. There is scarcely a reference to either in 
any strictly chemical journal, but their use and physiological prop- 
erties have been very fully discussed in medical and pharmaceutical 
publications. Although they are proprietary drugs, the fact that 
/9-eucaine is so often substituted for cocaine, in dental preparations, 
hay-fever remedies, and other proprietary medicine, makes it highly 
desirable that their distinctive properties be carefully studied and 
that methods be found for their identification and separation from 
cocaine and other alkaloids. It was owing to the fact that I was 
called upon to analyze a special dental preparation containing 
cocaine that my attention was first called to the existence of the 
alkaloid, and I was greatly handicapped by the silence of chemical 
literature upon the subject. 

«-Eucaine was first obtained by George Merling 2 by synthesis 
from triacetonamine through triacetonamincyanhydrin to triace- 
tonalkamincarbonic acid, which, by the action of benzoyl chloride 
and subsequent action of methyl iodide in caustic potash solution, 
becomes w-methylbenzoyltetramethyl-^-oxypiperidincarbonic acid 
methylester or " a-eucaine." This, when treated with hydrochloric 
acid, acts like other alkaloids forming a hydrochloride, in which 
form it is prepared and sold. 

^-Eucaine was discovered by Albrecht Schmidt and George Mer- 
ling 8 and was obtained by purifying the vinyldiacetonalkamine of 
Fischer 4 and substituting a benzoyl group for the hydrogen atom of 
the hydroxyl. Thus "/?-eucaine " or benzoylvinyldiacetonalkamine, 
is also an alkaloid which, when treated with hydrochloric acid, 
forms the hydrochloride. 

It will be seen from the structural formulas of a- and /?-eucaine 
that they have a close relation to cocaine and to tropacocaine. It 



1 Read at the Denver meeting of the American Chemical Society, August 
29, 1901, and reprinted from the Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc, 1901, p. 885. 
s Apoth. Ztg. (1896), p. 293, 418, 448. 

3 Virchow'8 Archives /.path. Anat. und Phys. (1896,) vol. 145. 

4 Ber. d. chem Ges., 17, 1894. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
April, 1902. J 



a- and fi-Eucaine. 



195 



a-Bucaine. 

C e H 6 COO X// COOCH. 
C 



H 



H 

CH, 



CH, 



C 



N 



C 



/ U 



11 



/3-rXucaine. 

C fl H 5 COO x M 



H 



H 



CH. 



CH. 



C 



c 



H 

H 
H 

CH 8 



N 



ca 



H 



was this close chemical connection which led to the belief that they 
would show similar anesthetic properties. 

It is not the purpose of this paper to enter into a discussion of 
the physiological and therapeutic effects of the eucaines, but it is 
not out of place to state that the chief claims of their superiority 
over cocaine are that they are far safer to use, that they cause no 
excitation of the heart's action, that /9-eucaine, especially, is some 
four or five times less toxic, that they have equal analgesic power 
with cocaine, that they do not decompose by boiling, and their 
hydrochlorides can hence be easily sterilized, and that their solu- 
tions will keep for an indefinite time without decomposition. The 
quite extended use of /9-eucaine would seem to show that many of 
these claims have been substantiated. It would be well to add that 
a-eucaine has at times an irritating action or smarting effect of its 
own before anesthesia sets in, which has rendered its acceptance 
and use somewhat doubtful. It is claimed that this is absent with 
ft eucaine, or at least is no more often the case than with cocaine. 
/9-eucaine is the one that is almost exclusively used, and the firm 
which manufactures both furnishes only /9-eucaine when " eucaine" 
alone is called for. Accordingly, almost all preparations on the 
market consisting in part of eucaine contain /9-eucaine hydrochloride, 
and the question of analysis would generally be a distinction between 
this salt and cocaine. 

To establish means of identification of eucaine, all the well-known 
reactions of the alkaloids have been tried, and I have endeavored to 
find new ones applicable to this particular case. 

In general the properties of the eucaine alkaloids follow those of 



196 



a- and fi-Eucaine . 



Am. .Tour. Pharm. 
April, 1902. 



the strychnine group, and especially do they very closely resemble 
cocaine. The bases themselves are readily soluble in benzine, 
chloroform, ether, chloroform-ether, petroleum-ether or gasoline, 
and amyl alcohol. They can be easily extracted from their salts by 
rendering their solutions in water slightly alkaline with ammonia 
and shaking out with any of the above solvents. This extraction is, 
however, most rapidly accomplished with light petroleum distillates 
or with ether. a-Eucaine m-lts at 103 , /9-eucaine at 91 °, and 
cocaine at 98 °. In following out any scheme of analysis of the 
alkaloids they will probably always be found where cocaine would 
be expected, and their identification becomes essentially a separation 
from each other and cocaine, a- and /9-eucaine are sold in the form 
of their hydrochlorides, and it is upon this salt that most of the tests 
for their identification should be made. As usually prepared, a- 
and /9-eucaine hydrochlorides are white powders, identical in appear- 
ance. They are, however, easily crystallizable. 

a-Eucaine hydrochloride melts at about 200 C. and decomposes 
at the same time. It is soluble at ordinary temperature in about 
ten times its weight of water, solubility varying with temperature. 
It is more soluble in hot water, from which it crystallizes out to an 
approximately 10 per cent, solution on cooling. It is soluble in 
about its own weight of alcohol, 10 grammes requiring from 8 to 9 
grammes of alcohol for solution. It is but slightly soluble in ether or 
olive oil, but glycerol dissolves it much the same as water. 

/9-Eucaine hydrochloride melts at 268 C. with decomposition. 
At ordinary temperatures it is soluble in water to the extent of 
about 3 per cent., but is more than twice as soluble in hot water, 
from which most of the excess crystallizes slowly after cooling. Its 
solubility in alcohol is greater than in water, or about 1 1 per cent., 
varying somewhat with the temperature. This comparative insolu- 
bility is one of its chief characteristics, especially differing from 
cocaine hydrochloride, which dissolves in less than its own weight of 
either water or alcohol. It is almost insoluble in ether or olive oil. 

REACTIONS IN WHICH THE HYDROCHLORIDES OF a-EUCAINE, /9-EUCAINE 
AND COCAINE ACT ALIKE. 

Mayer's reagent gives with either a- or /9-eucaine a light yellow- 
ish amorphous precipitate. 

Wagner's reagent gives a voluminous reddish brown precipitate 
even in dilute solutions. 



Am ^™n;ml rm -)> a- and $-Eucaine. 197 

Tannic acid (1 : 10) gives no precipitate or only a very slight 
transparent flocculency. 

Picric acid (1 : 100) yields a fine lemon-yellow precipitate in solu- 
tions stronger than 1 per cent., which is soluble in acids, but in 
dilute solutions yields no precipitate. Even in moderately strong 
solutions the precipitate formed by the first drop or two of reagent 
redissolves. The precipitate with a-eucaine is more insoluble than 
either of the others, and comes down, accordingly, in somewhat 
more dilute solutions. 

Iodine in alcohol yields a brown precipitate soluble in excess. 

Fr5hde's reagent (sulphomolybdic acid) gives no precipitate. 

Mercuric chloride | 1 : 20) gives no precipitate in dilute solution, 
but in moderately strong solutions gives a fine white precipitate, 
easily soluble in excess. 

Ferric chloride and potassium ferricyanide mixed give no pre- 
cipitate except a white one in strong solutions. Allen 1 states that 
cocaine gives a precipitate of Prussian blue, but I have not been 
able to obtain it. Ferric chloride is stated by some authors to turn 
red on boiling one or- two drops of a dilute solution with cocaine* 
owing to the formation of benzoate of iron. But as it also turns 
red with either of the eucaines or simply with distilled water the 
reaction is of no value. It gives no precipitate even in strong solu- 
tion. 

Cadmium iodide gives a white precipitate. 

Potassium ferrocyanide gives in solution of about 10 per cent, 
a slight colorless gelatinous precipitate. A saturated solution of 
( 3-eucaine does not yield this precipitate probably because the solu- 
tion is too weak. 

Potassium ferricyanide gives a white precipitate in moderately 
strong solutions, which is more easily thrown down if solution is 
acid with hydrochloric acid. 

Potassium bromide, chloride, or bromate give no reaction. 

If a few drops of a solution of either of the hydrochlorides of a- 
or ( 5-eucaine or cocaine be acidified with strong nitric acid, evapo- 
rated to dryness in a watch-glass, and treated with one or two 
drops of a solution of alcoholic potash, a very characteristic odor of 
benzoic ethyl ester is obtained. This reaction would probably also 
be given with other alkaloids containing the benzoyl group. 



1 "' Commercial Organic Analysis," Vol. Ill, Part II, p. 275. 



198 a- and $-Eucaine. { Kx& 'l^\\\^ m ' 

REACTIONS CHARACTERISTIC OF a-EUCAINE SALTS. 

Potassium iodide (i : 10) gives, in even moderately dilute solu- 
tions of a-eucaine hydrochloride, a white silky and glistening pre- 
cipitate. This precipitate has much the same appearance as the 
one obtained when stannous chloride is added to a cold dilute solu- 
tion of mercuric chloride. /3-Eucaine and cocaine give no reaction. 

Ammonia, even in dilute solution, precipitates the bases a- or 
^-eucaine or cocaine, but a-eucaine is almost insoluble in excess, in 
I per cent, solution the white precipitate is at once thrown down, 
and in the case of /3-eucaine or cocaine dissolves immediately on 
addition of about their own volume otlstrong ammonia. a-Eucaine, 
so precipitated, can be diluted at least ten times with strong 
ammonia without solution. In stronger solutions the difference 
still exists but is not so easily recognized. A 3 per cent, solution 
of /3-eucaine or cocaine requires about five times its own volume of 
ammonia to be dissolved, and stronger solutions much in propor- 
tion to the per cent, present. In other words a strong solution of 
ammonia will dissolve about one-half of one per cent, of the bases 
/9-eucaine or cocaine, while it will dissolve but a very small fraction 
of a per cent, of a-eucaine. In dilute solutions this is a very char- 
acteristic reaction for a-eucaine and strong solutions are, of course, 
very easily rendered dilute for the test. 

Potassium dichromate, in strong solution, added drop by drop to 
a 0'5 per cent, solution of a-eucaine, begins to throw down a fine 
lemon-yellow precipitate after addition of one or two drops. The 
precipitate is then much increased by one or two drops of strong 
hydrochloric acid, and is then quite insoluble, dissolving only after 
several times diluting the volume of the solution. With stronger 
solutions the precipitation takes place at once, the first drop giving 
a more and more permanent precipitate as the solution grows 
stronger. The precipitate is notably insoluble in either water or 
hydrochloric acid. More dilute solutions either show no precipitate 
or only after addition of hydrochloric acid. Cocaine, 1 per cent, 
solution, is not precipitated by potassium dichromate, but the addi- 
tion of one or two drops of concentrated hydrochloric acid throws 
down a yellow precipitate easily soluble in very slight excess of 
hydrochloric acid or on dilution ot the solution with water. Weaker 
solutions do not precipitate, while stronger solutions precipitate at 
once. The precipitate is, however, easily soluble as before. ,9-Eu- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April. 1902. 



a- and fi-Eucaine. 



199 



cainc acts like cocaine. The precipitate in all cases is lemon-yellow. 
The a-eucaine precipitate is quite crystalline. All three may throw 
down a small amount of a yellow colloidal precipitate which sticks 
to the side of the test-tube and dissolves but slowly, although this 
in no wise interferes with the test, and does not take place if rea- 
gents are added slowly. While this test depends upon the very 
much greater insolubility of the a-eucaine salt, the non-precipita- 
tion in dilute solutions of a certain strength until after the addition 
of hydrochloric acid is quite characteristic for all. The correct 
strength is about 0-5 per cent, solution of a-eucaine and about I per 
cent, for /9-eucaine and cocaine. In the case of cocaine and /3-eucaine, 
the test may be conveniently applied by precipitating a stronger 
solution than I per cent, with potassium dichromate solution, dilut- 
ing carefully with water until precipitate just dissolves. On addi- 
tion of a drop of concentrated hydrochloric acid the precipitate will 
at once re-form. This cannot be done with a-eucaine, for precipitate 
once formed it is difficult to get it to dissolve at all. 
Chromic acid (1 : 20) acts similarly to the dichromate. 

REACTIONS OF COCAINE DISTINGUISHING IT FROM EITHER a- OR 
/3-EUCAINE OR FROM BOTH. 

If a small amount of cocaine hydrochloride be rubbed up with 
dry mercurous chloride (calomel), and then moistened with alcohol, 
it rapidly turns to a grayish black. a-Eucaine hydrochloride 
becomes slowly a dark gray. /3-Eucaine hydrochloride is not 
affected. 

Platinic chloride throws down slowly a yellow crystalline pre- 
cipitate from a I per cent, solution of cocaine hydrochloride which 
is insoluble in hydrochloric acid, a- and /?-eucaine hydrochloride 
in 1 per cent, solution are not altered. In stronger solutions all 
three hydrochlorides are immediately precipitated by platinic chlo- 
ride, but the cocaine precipitate is not soluble in hydrochloric acid, 
while the precipitates by either eucaine are at once dissolved. 

F. Giezel 1 has pointed out that the permanganate of cocaine is 
much more stable than that formed by most other alkaloids. This 
fact gives rise to one of its most distinguishing reactions. The test is 
applied upon a microscopic slide or in a small watch-glass. A drop 
of a solution of the hydrochloride is placed upon the glass and a 



1 Pharm. Ztg. y p. 132, 1886. 



200 



a- and fi-Eucaine. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
X April, 1902. 



very small drop of a solution of potassium permanganate is added. 
If the solution is strong enough for a precipitate to appear at once 
the change can be observed on the precipitate, but it is preferable to 
watch the change of color of the solution itself. With either of the 
eucaines the color almost immediately begins to change to brown r 
while with pure cocaine the original color holds generally for fully 
half an hour, but also eventually changes to brown. The cocaine 
precipitate examined under the microscope is a beautiful violet-red 
which also in time turns to brown. This is true of the eucaine pre- 
cipitates at first, but they rapidly change to brown. Excess of per- 
manganate should be avoided. 

Cocaine hydrochloride in solution, in either water or alcohol, 
polarizes light strongly to the left. Antrich 1 states that this is the 
best test for the purity of the salt. According to this authority for 
aqueous solution S d = — 52-2 and for solution in alcohol of 09355 
sp. gr., S d = — 68-o6. A solution of the hydrochlorides of cither a- 
or ^9-eucaine does not polarize light. 

Cocaine when used in the eye almost always causes mydriasis, 
^9-Eucaine does not dilate the pupil. 

REACTIONS CHARACTERISTIC Or ^-EUCAINE HYDROCHLORIDE. 

The chief characteristic property of ^-eucaine hydrochloride is 
its comparative insolubility in water and alcohol, and it is readily 
distinguished from cocaine by this property. A small test sample 
of cocaine hydrochloride, if moistened with its own volume of alco- 
hol or water, dissolves at once, while /3-eucaine hydrochloride is little 
affected. In making the test, however, where weighed quantities 
are not used, it should be remembered that even ^-eucaine is soluble 
to the extent of 11 per cent, in alcohol, and a too large amount of 
the solvent should not be used. Just enough to moisten is all that is 
necessary to dissolve cocaine or a eucaine hydrochloride. 

No chemical reactions of a positive character have been found 
characteristic of ,9-eucaine, but the results with permanganate, mer- 
curous chloride, platinic chloride, and polarized light, will identify 
cocaine, while the tests with potassium iodide, potassium chromate 
and ammonia will distinguish it from a-eucaine. These with the 
other reactions noted will serve to separate it from other alkaloids. 

( To be concluded. ) 



1 Ber. d. chem. Ges. y 20, 310. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1902. 



j Correspondence — Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



201 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



Assouan, Upper Egypt, January 2ist. 



To the Editor of the American Journal of Pharmacy : 

Through the kindness of Daoud Takla, American Consul, I have 
had opportunity of inspecting the senna and gum arabic as they 
are bought by the merchants at this place, and of learning about 
their commercial history. According to the chief merchant — a most 
notable follower of the Prophet, over 6 feet tall, black as the dark- 
ness in the Mammoth Cave, dignified and courteous as becomes a 
man of his high local position — the trade, since the destruction of the 
hosts of the Mahdi, has become as active as it was before his mis- 
rule, with the difference that camels no longer bear their burdens 
into Assouan, having been superseded by the less picturesque but 
more practical railroad. The saving of cost to some one must be 
great, as from some districts nearly a whole year was formerly 
required for the transit. The gum arabic is bought of the natives 
by traveling merchants, sorted into three varieties, packed into 
large sacks made of palm leaf and sold to the merchants here, who 
hold it until notified by telegram from Cairo that the market is 
favorable, when they ship it down the Nile. I was told that the 
gum is gathered sometime during the months of January, February 
and March, each collector having vested rights in a certain portion 
of the forest. Long incisions are made vertically through the bark 
and the exuding gum allowed to harden before gathering ; in this 
way, the trees not being injured, the collections can go on year after 
year. It is affirmed that in Upper Egypt the gum arabic tree flour- 
ishes when watered, but fails to }'ield gum. The warehouses of the 
merchants of Assouan would hardly suffice in Philadelphia, being 
simply rectangles surrounded by walls about ten feet high, made of 
dried mud. In these roofless enclosures sacks or mats containing 
many thousands of pounds of the gum were piled one upon another. 
The finest variety of the gum is a very white, beautiful article. 



The sixth of the series of pharmaceutical meetings of the Philadel- 
phia College of Pharmacy for 1901-1902 was held on Tuesday, March 
1 8th. Mr. George M. Beringer, a member of the Board of Trustees, 
presided. The first paper was on ^Liquid Soaps for Surgical and 



Yours truly, 



H. C. Wood. 



PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 



202 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



Am. Jour. Pharra, 
April, 1902. 



Toilet Purposes," by M. I. Wilbert, apothecary at the German Hos- 
pital, Philadelphia, and was read in the absence of the author by 
Charles H. La Wall (see page 172). In connection with the paper, 
Mr. Wilbert sent several samples illustrating the preparations made 
by the process outlined by him, and also several other samples: one 
being a soft-soap made of cottonseed oil, according to the formula 
published in the American Journal of Pharmacy for May, 1900 
(Vol. 72, page 212), the only difference bein.* the substitution of 
cottonseed oil for the official linseed oil, on account of the difference 
in price; also a sample of "liquid soda soap," which differs from the 
formula given in the A. J. P. quoted above, by the substitution of 
olive oil for cottonseed oil. This was done to overcome any possi- 
ble objections to the use of this method for making the official Lini- 
mentum Saponis. During the very cold winter weather, soap 
liniment made from cottonseed-oil soap will sometimes gelatinize ; 
this is, of course, objectionable, and may be obviated by using olive 
oil, the chemical composition of which will allow it to remain limpid 
at much lower temperatures. The sample of " soap liniment " was 
made from the olive oil " liquid soda soap," according to the for- 
mula given in the paper quoted above. 

In the discussion that followed the reading of the paper, Mr. 
Beringer called attention to the fact that a number of years ago 
some of the French and German soaps were imported in liquid form, 
and that the antiseptic value of liquid soaps was becoming recog- 
nized and appreciated by physicians. Dr. Lowe suggested that 
Columbian spirit might be used in place of ethyl alcohol, and that 
oil of eucalyptus might be substituted for carbolic acid in the formula 
given. Dr. Boston said that he had found that microorganisms would 
grow in 3 to 5 per cent, solutions of carbolic acid. Mr. Beringer 
stated that they probably would not grow in solutions containing 
free alkali as in the soaps proposed by Mr. Wilbert. 

The next paper was on " The Spread of Tuberculosis by Cough- 
ing," by Dr. L. Napoleon Boston, well known for his pathological 
and sanitary work (see page 169). In discussing this paper, Dr. 
Lowe referred to the investigations of Dr. Flick, who some years 
ago showed conclusively that consumption was a contagious disease; 
and he furthermore believed that there should be a thorough disin- 
fection of homes where consumptives have lived. He also referred 
to the statement made by the late Dr. DaCosta, that if a patient has 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1902. 



PJiarmacentical Meeting. 



203 



a persistent cough and is losing weight it indicates consumption. 
Mr. Hancock asked why bakers and cooks, as stated in Dr. Boston's 
paper, were more subject to tuberculosis than others. Mr. England 
gave as the probable cause the handling of materials containing fine 
particles. He also alluded to the fact that the Government was 
instituting measures to prevent immigrants with tuberculosis from 
coming to this country. Mr. Hancock stated that in the work of 
the lapidary and others, who came constantly in contact with fine 
particles of metal or stone, that the fine particles might set up an 
irritation in the lungs and thus predispose the worker to consump- 
tion. Dr. Boston answered a number of the questions proposed by 
Mr. Beringer and others, stating some of the rules in medicine 
regarding tuberculous patients, and showed that the spread of 
tuberculosis was influenced by race considerations, the occupation of 
the individual and the age of the person. He referred to the admira- 
ble work by Doctors Flick and Anders on the contagiousness of 
tuberculosis, anal of Dr. Ravenal, who is of the opinion that tubercu- 
losis can be transmitted from animals to man. 

The next paper was : " On the Manufacture of Deodorized 
Opium and Tincture" (see page 157), by Mr. Albert E. Ebert, of 
Chicago, which was read on behalf of the author by Mr. Thomas S. 
Wiegand. 

Mr. Beringer said that the subject was one of great moment to 
physicians and pharmacists, and he thought that the paper of Mr. 
Ebert would revolutionize our ideas concerning the properties of 
the constituents of opium. In commenting upon Battley's sedative, 
Mr. Beringer stated that in this preparation there was no treatment 
for the removal of obnoxious principles other than repeated evapor- 
ation and solution, during which the' resinous matters carrying 
such principles were removed. Mr. Beringer further said, that while 
he agreed with Mr. Ebert that granulated opium should be made 
official, still he did not favor the use of gasoline in its preparation. 
He said that it was unfortunate that the U.S.P. did not introduce a 
commercial benzin, and also a purified benzin, giving a method for 
its preparation. He had for some years been making a purified ben- 
zin for his own uses, and said that he had found in some cases the 
use of a little benzin with ether in the extraction of certain drugs, 
as well as in the preparation of deodorized opium, prevented an 
emulsion that was so difficult otherwise to handle. Some years ago 



204 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t April, 1902. 



Mr. Beringer called attention (see this Journal, 1890, p. 6) to the 
properties of commercial benzin, and said that the presence of heavier 
oils and sulphurous compounds prevented the use of the article for 
making an agreeable and non-nauseating deodorized tincture of 
opium. In regard to the use of acetic acid in extracting the narco- 
tine as suggested by Dr. Ebert, Mr. Beringer thought that it did not 
form an acetate with narcotine, although its use might be advan- 
tageous in removing traces of morphine. Others discussing the 
paper were Messrs. La Wall, England and Kraemer. 

Mr. Wiegand commented upon the comprehensiveness of Mr. 
Ebert's paper and said that it should be attentively read by every 
one at all interested in the real progress of pharmacy. It is really 
a history of the subject and covers the ground most thoroughly, 
and with great fairness. The points and notes most worthy are : 
(1) the fact that an aqueous preparation of opium is preferable to 
a hydro-alcoholic one, because it leaves behind the fatty resinous 
caoutchouc matters which seem to be the most disturbing elements 
of the drug ; (2) the fact that a proper grade of benzin purified 
thoroughly will remove any of the remaining objectionable material, 
and has less solvent power over the morphin than ether; (3) the 
fact that narcotine is not a disturbing element, but on the contrary 
a stimulant tonic, counteracting the depressing effects that the ordi- 
nary preparations of opium produce ; (4) incidentally the necessity 
of a purer and better benzin, being directed by the pharmacopoeia 
and the well-advised caution against the concentrated liquid prepa- 
ration of opium for the short-cut way of making the galenical prepa- 
rations of opium. Mr. Wiegand moved that a vote of thanks be 
given Mr. Ebert for the valuable paper he had contributed. The 
motion was unanimously adopted. 

A paper by Ferdinand A. Sieker, New York City, on " Fluid 
Extract of Nux Vomica " (see page 175), was read by Mr. Freeman 
P. Stroup. 

Mr. England exhibited various samples of caseins, which are used 
in the arts and for food; also, a sample of sugar of milk (99-7 per 
cent, pure) and a milk powder for making a substitute for milk. 
Mr. Beringer called attention to the fact that the difficulty con- 
nected with the manufacture of sugar of milk in this country here- 
tofore has been the impurities in the water. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1902. 



Pharmaceutica I Meeting . 



205 



The discussion on " Modern Drug Methods," which had been 
postponed from a previous meeting, was introduced by Dr. Lowe, 
who referred to a method of recording prescriptions and the 
advantages of a Torsion balance for prescription work. Mr. Mcln- 
tyre referred to the differences in some of the modern stores in the 
different large cities which he had visited, and said that in each city, 
and, indeed, in different sections in the same city, different condi- 
tions prevailed, and these had to be dealt with accordingly. The 
modern drug store, as the one of former days, requires the constant 
supervision of the owner, and the pharmacist must be ready to 
supply those things asked for by the physician and the public. Mr. 
Beringer also spoke in a similar strain, and said that in each locality 
different methods must be pursued ; and that the business methods 
must be shaped according to the locality, irrespective of even what 
we may have as our ideal. Of course, after the confidence of physi- 
cians and the public is secured, then individual influences may be 
brought to bear. Mr. Beringer alluded to a method of keep ng a 
daily record of prescriptions which he had adopted, which included 
originals, renewals and the price of each. In regard to the subject 
of weighing medicines, Mr. Beringer said that he hoped that no 
pharmacist placed the substance on the scale-pan direct, and that 
he himself used different kinds of paper and glass crystals, depend- 
ing on the nature of the substance to be weighed. 

Mr. Wm. Vought, a representative of the Leitz microscope firm, 
called attention to the possibilities of the pharmacist doing bacterio- 
logical, pathological and other similar lines of work. He enumer- 
ated a number of instances showing that properly qualified persons, 
particularly in the West, had been successful in this direction, not 
only adding to their financial income, but also to their professional 
standing. He stated that an outlay of about $100 was sufficient for 
equipping a laboratory to carry on most of this work. 

At the next meeting there will be adiscusssion on the advisability 
of promulgating a definition for the term spoonful, and also on the 
metric equivalents of the same. The following circular has been 
gotten out, and those desiring to express an opinion on the questions 
contained therein are requested to send the same to either Mr. 
M. I. Wilbert, Apothecary to the German Hospital, Philadelphia, 
or to the Secretary of the Committee having these meetings in 
charge. 



206 Notes and News. { Am A P o rn r ;i902 arm " 

DEFINITION OF SPOONFUL. 

Would you be in favor of promulgating a definition for the term 
spoonful, with a view of obtaining more uniformity and greater 
-accuracy in the administration of liquid medicines ? 

If so, would you be in favor of adopting the definition as given in 
the French Codex ? This is as follows : A spoon is full when the 
liquid it contains comes up to, but does not show a curve above, the 
upper edge or rim of the bowl. 

For the benefit of those physicians who are using the metric 
system, it would appear advisable to adopt some acceptable equiva- 
lents for the approximate measures that are used in speaking of, or 
in measuring out, doses of liquid medicines. In the following table 
we have indicated : 

1. The exact equivalent in the metric system, of the tea, dessert 
and tablespoon as used in this country at the present time. 

2. The approximate equivalents as used by some practitioners. 

3. Proposed metric equivalents, based on the actual capacity of 
the spoons in use at the present time. 

Will you kindly indicate which of these you would favor ? 

Teaspoonful 3 "696 

Dessertspoonful 7 '393 

Tablespoon ful 14786 



2 


3 


4 


4 


5 


5 


8 


10 


10 


16 


15 


20 



NOTES AND NEWS. 

The Italian Pharmacopoeia is being revised, and we are informed by the 
Chem. and Drug, that it will contain, among other features, formulas for vet- 
erinary use, an official method for the analysis of surgical dressings, a method 
for the sterilization of solutions for hypodermic use, tables of poisons, anti- 
dotes, incompatibles and dangerous mixtures, and will make obligatory the 
use of a model pill excipient in cases where none is mentioned in the pre- 
scription. 

Metric System in the United States. — The report of the special com- 
mittee appointed by the Franklin Institute to consider the feasibility and 
advisability of the adoption of the metric system in the United States is as fol- 
lows: 

Whereas, It is desirable to obtain an international standard of weights and 
measures, also to simplify and regulate some of our existing standards; and 

Whereas, The metric system is commendable not only as a suitable inter- 
national standard, but also for facility of computation, convenience in memor- 
izing and simplicity of enumeration; 

Resolved, That the Franklin Institute approves of any movement which will 



Am. Jour. Pharrn. \ 
April, 1902. j" 



Notes and News. 



207 



promote the universal introduction of the metric system with the least confu- 
sion and expense. 

Resolved, That the national government should enact such laws as will 
ensure the adoption of the metric system of weights and measures as the sole 
standard in its various departments as rapidly as may be consistent with the 
public service. 

The Value oe a Coei,EGE Education. — R. T. Crane, of Chicago, recently- 
set out to discover by practical means what is the real value of a college educa- 
tion. He addressed inquiries to the presidents of a number of universities, to 
nearly 1,600 university graduates, and to 100 or more business men who have 
had large opportunities for observation. The testimony gathered thus from 
the most varied sources is brought together in book-form, and it includes many 
interesting expressions of opinion. No conclusion which is at all absolute 
is reached, and this must be reckoned to be impossible in the very nature 
of the case. Nevertheless, it is very satisfactory to know that some prog- 
ress has been made in the discussion of the old subject, for Mr. Crane 
seems to have found no one who really thinks, as some formerly did, that a 
college training is a hindrance to a young man. 

Commercialism and Medicine. — In an address at the formal opening of 
the Mercy Hospital Operating Amphitheatre, under the auspices of the Chi- 
cago Medical Society and Northwestern University, Dr. John B. Deaver, Phila- 
delphia, said: "A spirit of commercialism is one of the greatest enemies of a 
medical school. A large production at a cheap rate may be a good enough aim 
for a business house, but this spirit is fatal to a medical school. Too many 
schools seem to take pride in their large enrollment of students, forgetting at 
the same time that tea chers and clinical material are entirely inadequate for 
the proper instruction of so large a body of men." 

Licenses eor Nurses. — The question as to whether trained nurses should 
not be licensed and all others forbidden by law to practice came up at a recent 
meeting of a woman's club, according to the New York Everting Sun. One 
member opposed this proposition so vigorously that she was asked to take the 
floor and give the reason for her opposition. She declared that many young 
women took up nursing while better fitted for any other vocation on earth, 
while there were those, on the other hand, whose experience, acquired only 
through performing, gratuitously, services for neighbors and friends, showed 
such natural aptitudes that they were always in demand. She said such were 
often driven through force of circumstances to adopt the calling of a nurse, and 
would, if the license law were passed, be unjustly debarred. " Sensibility and 
fine feeling," said the woman, "are as necessary in caring for the sick and 
convalescent as training, and a woman not 'trained,' but with all the qualifi- 
cations of a nurse, was more valuable than a trained nurse without these nat- 
ural qualifications." The woman then illustrated her meaning by an anecdote. 
"The children's ward of a hospital in one of our Western cities had been given 
a globe of gold fish. The little patients took great pleasure in watching the 
fish darting in and out among the aquatic plants and seemed to forget for a 
time sickness and suffering. One of the nurses, wishing to use the table on 
which the globe of gold fish stood, put it on the radiator. A small patient 
called out in alarm that the fishes would be roasted. The nurse only laughed. 



208 



Notes and News. 



/Am. Jour Pharni. 
1 April, 1902. 



and left the globe where she had put it, and upon her return from dinner she 
saw the water was at the boiling point and the fish all dead." All agreed that 
the gentle offices of such a nurse could easily be dispensed with. 

A Portrait of Prof. Prescott.— At the supper and reunion that was held at 
the St. Louis meeting of the A. Ph. A. of the Alumni of the University of Michi- 
gan, a plan was formulated to procure a life-size oil portrait of Dr. A. B. Pres- 
cott and present it to the university. A committee was appointed consisting of 
Dr. A. B. Lyons, Chairman; A. B. Stevens, Treasurer, J. W. T. Knox, Secretary, 
and F. W. R. Perry and A. S. Parker, who have successfully arranged for this 
undertaking. The portrait has been made by Percy JLves, one of the best 
known of portrait artists, and is to be presented to the university during com- 
mencement week, the exact date not yet being determined. It is desired also 
to have a general reunion and banquet for the alumni on that occasion, and it 
is hoped that every alumnus of the pharmacy school will make a strong effort 
to be present. Some distinguished scientist will be invited to deliver the prin- 
cipal address of the occasion, and there will be a number of shorter addresses 
by alumni and others. 

A Banquet to Enno Sander. — On the occasion of his eightieth birthday 
the pharmaceutical friends of Dr. Sander tendered him a banquet in St. Louis. 
Mr. Albert E. Ebert, of Chicago, acted as toastmaster, and toasts were 
responded to by various members of the Faculty and alumni of the St. Louis 
College of Pharmacy, of which he is an ex-president, one of the founders, and 
was at one time a member of the Faculty. According to the American Drug- 
gist, Dr. Sander was born in Trinum, Anhalt, Germany. He took his Ph.D. 
degree in chemistry at Halle, in 1847, participated in the revolution of 1848, was 
captured and imprisoned, but subsequently pardoned. Coming to the L T nited 
States in 1850, he went to St. Louis in 1852, where he first taught school, and 
then engaged in the practice of pharmacy. In 1868 he began the manufacture 
of chemicals, and later took up artificial mineral waters, in which he has been 
very successful. In 1871 he was elected president of the American Pharma- 
ceutical Association, and for forty years consecutively has been treasurer of 
the St. Louis Academy of Sciences. 

American Chemists Honored. — Prof. Wolcott Gibbs, of Harvard, America's 
foremost chemist, was honored on February 22d by having conferred on him 
by the University of Pennsylvania the Doctorate of Laws ; Prof. Ira Remsen 
was installed as President of Johns Hopkins University at the twenty-fifth 
anniversary of the founding of that institution; the new Health Board of New 
York City made an important departure from precedent by creating a medical 
advisory board of twelve prominent physicians (who serve without pay), with 
Prof Charles F. Chandler, of Columbia University, at the head, with the title 
of Consulting Sanitarian. 

The American EeecTro-Chemicai, Society, which has just been organ- 
ized with nearly 300 members, will hold its first meeting in Philadelphia from 
April 3d-5th. 

The Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association will hold its annual 
meeting at Buena Vista Spring Hotel, June 24th, instead of June 17th, as pre- 
viously announced. 




EMIL SCHEFFER. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



MAY, ig02. 



EMIL SCHEFFER. 
By C. Lewis Diehx. 

As near as I can now remember, I became acquainted with Emil 
Scheffer in the autumn of 1866 — possibly in the spring of 1867. 
Some charitable or other popular entertainment was to be given, 
and part of the program consisted in certain chemical experiments 
which were to be exhibited by Prof. William Hailman, at that time 
at the head of the German-English Academy, who came to consult 
with me and to solicit my assistance. In the course of our conver- 
sation he mentioned that he had also been promised the co-opera- 
tion of Emil Scheffer, and when I remarked that I had not yet met 
that gentleman, he expressed his surprise that I should have been a 
resident ot Louisville for nearly two years without having become 
acquainted with a man so prominent in the profession of pharmacy 
and chemistry, and so kindly and lovable in disposition. I explained, 
that although well aware of the high professional reputation of Mr. 
Scheffer, he had been represented to me as being cold and unap- 
proachable in his disposition, and that therefore I had not sought 
an opportunity to become acquainted ; whereupon, assuring me that 
Scheffer had been misrepresented to me, and with evident indigna- 
tion at what he qualified as " base slander," he insisted that I 
should at once accompany him and become acquainted with a man 
whom he considered to be, and honored as one of nature's noble- 
men. Accordingly I met Emil Scheffer on that to me memorable 
day for the first time, and I may say that from that day to the Sun- 
day immediately preceding his death, which occurred on January 

(209) 




2IO 



Emil Scheffer. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1902. 



22d of this year, scarcely a week passed — unless prevented by 
absence from the city — during which we failed to meet in friendly 
intercourse and conversation, in the course of which I soon gained 
an insight into a mind as beautiful and simple as it was lofty and 
generous. An intimate friendship was thus cemented, and we 
confided to each other much that is ordinarily revealed only to 
those connected by ties of blood. It is, therefore, to me a welcome 
task as well as a sad duty when I respond to the request of the 
editor of the American Journal of Pharmacy to write a sketch of 
the life and career of my departed friend and colleague, in which I 
propose to give such details as have come to my personal knowl- 
edge, and that may be published with the sanction of the bereaved 
family. 

Emil Scheffer was the youngest of the seven children — three 
sons and four daughters — that blessed the union of Carl Ludwig 
Frederick Scheffer and Marie Maurer. He was born at Stuttgart, 
the capital city of Wurtemberg, on July 7, 1 821, but it was not 
allotted him to experience the loving care of a father, who died 
when Emil was scarcely two-and-one-half years old, during the 
month of December, 1823, in the prime of life, being barely forty- 
four years of age. With but a slender fortune remaining for her 
maintenance, one may well conceive of the straits the widow 
encountered in providing for and educating her seven children after 
the death of her husband. Fortunately, the education of the elder 
children, notably of the daughters, had been well advanced ; they 
had become proficient in the arts of drawing and painting, and of 
fine needlework, which now served them a good turn, so that, when 
in 1848 the good mother also closed her eyes in eternal sleep, they 
were able to eke out a comfortable existence as teachers of their 
respective arts and accomplishments — in fact, were so engaged 
until in their advanced age they were able to retire comfortably 
from active occupation. It was under conditions of adversity, then, 
that Emil Scheffer grew to manhood, but under the beneficent 
influence and loving care of a good mother and affectionate sisters. 
Of these he always spoke with touching tenderness, and when, at 
ages approaching and exceeding ninety years, all but one of the 
sisters were claimed by the Great Reaper, he mourned them as 
sincerely as though they had been his daily companions. His 



Am M°ay?lS)2 ai ' m -} Sckeffet. 211 

school-days began at the early age of five years — at first in Stutt- 
gart until 1829, then at Boeblingen until the spring of 1835, when 
he returned to Stuttgart, entering upon a brief course at the Poly- 
technical School. In the autumn of the same year, however, it was 
found expedient to select a vocation for him. His studious habits 
and inclination fitting him admirably for the profession of phar- 
macy, he was apprenticed to an apothecary in the renowned uni- 
versity town of Tuebingen where, under the most favorable condi- 
tions, he laid the foundation for the varied and vast fund of 
knowledge upon which depended the distinguished reputation he 
enjoyed in after years. 

Although we know Scheffer mainly as an accomplished chemist, 
his favorite pursuit, as he frequently assured me, was that of botany; 
and while not neglecting, as we may readily understand, the study 
of pharmacy, of chemistry, and of the physical sciences, pharma- 
cognosy and botany were to him the most attractive. He loved to 
speak of the numerous excursions he made into the fields and 
forests of his native Suabia, devoting his leisure hours to studying 
the rich and varied flora of his immediate surroundings, and extend- 
ing his botanical excursions during his annual vacations as far as 
the beautiful " Schwartzwald " and even to the magnificent Suabian 
Alps. 

Having completed his term of apprenticeship in 1840, and passed 
a highly creditable examination, Scheffer secured a position in Con- 
stance, where he remained two years, then in Zurich until 1844, and 
afterwards for short periods in Frankfort-on-the-Main and in Mann- 
heim-on-the-Rhine. Returning to Stuttgart in the spring of 1845, 
he again attended the Polytechnicum, preparatory to his finishing 
course at the University of Tuebingen, beginning in the autumn of 
the same year. Here he had opportunity to listen to and absorb 
the lectures of some of the most eminent German professors, 
among them the celebrated Gmelin, author of " Gmelin's Chem- 
istry," whose assistant he became and with whom he remained after 
passing his " State examination " until shortly before his departure 
for America, in the spring of 1849. 

The years 1848-49, it will be remembered, were years of turmoil 
throughout the continent of Europe. The revolution in France, 
which resulted in the dethronement of Louis Phillip, spread to 
Austria and the German States in general, and for a brief period 



212 



Emil ScJieffer. 



Am. Jour. Pharru. 
May, 1902, 



these were completely revolutionized. The reaction came, however, 
early in 1849, and Scheffer, who in common with the liberal intel- 
lects of his country had espoused the revolutionary cause, found his 
prospects for future advancement jeopardized to such a degree that 
he resolved to try his fortune in the United States, as so many of 
his friends were then about to do or had done before him — this step 
having become less regrettable because the ties that bound him to 
his native land had been loosened by the death of his mother. 

Leaving the port of Havre, May 30, 1849, Scheffer arrived in 
New York after a pleasant voyage of thirty days ; but finding no 
congenial position he continued his journey westward, arriving in 
Cincinnati early during the month of July, where he soon entered 
the employ of the late Charles Schmidt, at that period one of the 
most popular German pharmacists of that city. It is needless to say 
that he was soon recognized to be a pharmacist of more than ordi- 
nary accomplishments, his reputation becoming so widespread that 
when in the autumn of 1 850 the widow of Frederick William 
Kniess, of Louisville, needed a manager for the drug store left on 
her hands, her friends advised her to secure his services for that 
position. Accepting, he entered upon his duties on November 10, 
1850, and soon succeeded in developing and expanding the business 
so satisfactorily that the owner admitted him to a full partnership, 
the compact being sealed by the gift of her hand and heart on 
January 20, 1 852. This union with Olivia Kniess, nee Beckham, 
was blessed during the happy years that followed with the advent 
of six children — three sons and three daughters — Emil, August and 
Edward, Minnie, Olivia and Ida ; of these, five survive their parents, 
the second son, Dr. August Scheffer, being taken away in the bloom 
of early manhood, March 8, 1890, following his mother, whose death 
occurred in the month of August, 1889. 

Scheffer's drug store was located on the north side of Market 
street, between Floyd and Preston. In its appointments it was as 
simple and unpretentious as was its owner, but it was a store that, 
in contrast to most modern stores, would bear close inspection. 
Cleanliness and order, thorough and systematic, prevailed through- 
out. In the old-time shop bottles, the contents, as nearly conformable 
to the standard as could be demanded, were protected by caps con- 
structed during hours of leisure from card-board and silver paper; 



Am. 'our. Pharm. 
May, 1902. 



Emit ScJieffer. 



213 



the drawers were a pattern of orderliness both as to contents and 
condition; the prescription-counter, flanked on the side by a costly 
and accurate analytical balance, was spacious and appointed with 
every convenience that might facilitate and expedite the compound- 
ing and delivery of medicines. A good, well-ventilated cellar, the 
pink of orderliness and cleanliness, served for the storage of perish- 
able goods, while the stock of herbs, roots and barks was stored in 
a dry and lofty apartment over the store. To the immediate rear 
of the store was the laboratory, leading into a storeroom for the 
excess of unperishable stock ; and in a separate building, in the rear 
of all, was located a supplemental laboratory for processes of fusion, 
calcinations and operations evolving noxious or corrosive gases. 
These laboratories were not only well appointed in all respects for 
the preparation of galenicals and chemicals — organic as well as 
inorganic — but they were in daily use. And yet, when one 
approached the house, there was little to distinguish it from its 
equally humble neighbors, except, indeed, the cleanliness of the 
glass in the three double doors composing the front of the store. 

Equipped as explained, what wonder that SchefTer should have 
drawn his patrons from all parts of the city and from all classes. 
For many years he enjoyed the patronage of the wealthiest as well 
as of the humblest, and he secured and maintained the confidence 
and respect of the foremost physicians of his adopted home, who 
consulted him freely, and for whom he prepared many preparations 
and chemicals that, although now as common as cream of tartar or 
quinine, were during the third quarter of the past century unobtain- 
able or rarely found in the drug market. His general knowledge of 
technical operations also served to increase his popularity, for he 
was daily consulted by dyers, tanners, artificers and manufacturers 
in different lines requiring advice on chemical processes — all of 
which was given freely and gratuitously. Moreover, the complete- 
ness and variety of his stock, and his comprehensive knowledge, 
enabled him to supply his brother pharmacists with many medica- 
ments and preparations that were not profitably — or for other 
reasons — stocked by them, and he was quite as frequently consulted 
by them on questions with which they were unfamiliar. Implicit 
reliance was placed by the latter in all that came from Scheffer's 
drug store, a fact which was plainly demonstrated when, in 1882, 
he closed his drug business definitely. Conditions had undergone 



214 



Ernil Scheffer. 



Ana. .lour. Pharm. 
May 1902. 



a revolution during the thirty-two years of his incumbency; prepara- 
tions which, in the early years of his career were made by the 
pharmacists, were now supplied by manufacturers ; the older reme- 
dial agents gave way to new ones introduced ; and, to cap it all, the 
city had grown, so to speak, away from him, leaving but a corporal's 
guard of his former patrons. Under these circumstances he could 
not hope to get an adequate offer for his store as a whole, and he 
accordingly resolved to sell out in detail. Ordinarily, this would 
mean to sell at a sacrifice ; but when the sale was completed, he 
assured me that he had realized on all of his stock — offering only 
that which was of merchantable quality — a fair wholesale price, the 
stock and store-appurtenances being mainly purchased by the retail 
pharmacists of the city. 

Up to the year 1870, our knowledge of the proteolytic ferments 
was very imperfect, and with the exception of the impure products, 
called " pepsin," none of these ferments were employed in medi- 
cine. These pepsins were without exception produced from the 
inner coating of the stomach of herbivorous animals, the Ameri- 
can products from beef stomachs, the French pepsin from the stom- 
ach of the sheep — the latter being the kind of pepsin employed 
almost exclusively by American practitioners. Pepsin being admin- 
inistered for the purpose of restoring the impaired digestive func- 
tions of man, it occurred to Scheffer, when entrusted by one of his 
medical friends with the problem of preparing it in a liquid form, 
that the stomach of an omnivorous animal — that of the pig, for 
instance — would yield a preparation more closely representing the 
digestive principle in the stomach of omnivorous man than would 
a similar preparation made from the stomachs of herbivors. This 
course of reasoning led him to select the mucous membrane of the 
pig's stomach as the basis of his " liquid pepsin," his formula for its 
preparation being published by him to the world so soon as it had 
been determined to his satisfaction that this liquid possessed the 
expected activity. 

But Scheffer was not the man to rest satisfied with this achieve- 
ment. He realized that the crude methods recommended by the 
French authorities ior preparing " dry pepsin " — scraping off the 
mucous membrane from sheep's stomachs, extraction with water, 
clarification with lead acetate, removal of excess of lead salt by 



Am. Jour. Pljarru. 
May, 1902. 



Emil Scheffer. 



215 



sulph-hydric acid, concentration by the aid of moderate tempera- 
ture, etc. — involved so many possibilities of change, that a process 
of isolation and purification by the aid of less energetic agents was 
a desideratum. He remembered that his old professor, Gmelin, had 
pointed out during his lectures the facility with which albumen and 
allied bodies are thrown out of aqueous solution by common salt, 
and I remember well the exultation with which he demonstrated to 
me the fact that when a solution of pepsin is mixed with sufficient 
brine, a frothy scum gradually develops and rises to the surface, 
which scum on closer inspection proves to be composed of minute 
globules, and that these globules, when redissolved in water by the 
aid of a little hydrochloric acid, possess the digestive qualities of 
the original pepsin solution unimpaired. It remained only to find 
suitable methods of separating the pure pepsin and to reduce it to 
a dry condition and permanently active form. As is now well 
known, this is a very simple process, but it was not so simple a 
matter to achieve it initially, so that it was not until 1872 that 
Scheffer was able to communicate a process which has made his 
name famous throughout the civilized world. Briefly stated, this 
process consists in collecting the pepsin globules on straining cloths, 
expression under a powerful press, washing the press-cake with a 
little water to remove salt as much as possible, then triturating it in 
a mortar with milk-sugar so as to form a damp powder, which is 
completely dried in a current of air at the ordinary temperature 
and reduced to a fine powder. This is finally adjusted by the 
further addition of milk-sugar to such a strength that a stated 
quantity will effect the solution of a stated quantity of freshly 
coagulated egg-white in a definite quantity of acidulated water 
within a given period of time. 

In revealing his process for the manufacture of " saccharated 
pepsin " to the world, Scheffer has undoubtedly given the incentive 
to the more intelligent and comprehensive study of the proteolytic 
ferments, and these, in their turn, have encouraged the investigation 
and study of biological products in general. It is unquestionable, 
that with the advent of " Scheffer's pepsin " the use of pepsin in the 
practice of medicine secured a fast and permanent foothold, and it 
need not be told that hundreds of individuals have made a compe- 
tence by the manufacture of pepsin, or of its preparations — though 
none have been so generous, as was Scheffer, to make their methods 



2l6 



Emil Scheffer. 



Am. .Tour. Pharro.. 
May, 1902. 



c >mmon property. During the years of his experiments on pepsin 
he freely spoke with me both regarding the difficulties encountered 
and of his intention in the event of success. He never for a moment 
considered the propriety of withholding his process from the public;; 
and while my own views on this subject were in perfect accord with 
his, I do not think that he would have adopted a different course if 
he had never met me at all. To give a further insight into the 
lofty character of the man, I need perhaps only mention that after 
definitely relinquishing the manufacture of pepsin — which had 
drifted into the hands of the " pepton-pepsin " manufacturer — he 
absolutely declined to accept a highly lucrative offer made to him 
by a most responsible firm for the right to manufacture pepsin 
under his name. When speaking of this to me, he explained that 
he did not wish his name coupled with a product which, in all prob- 
ability, would eventually be " pepton-pepsin " — however honest the 
present intention of the applicant might be : that " pepton-pepsin " 
was more popular, because more easily prepared and apparently 
more powerlul. Its absolute superiority as a digestive agent over 
his precipitated pepsin he denied emphatically, and he died under 
the conviction that " absolute pepsin " can only be prepared by his 
own process, or by one essentially conforming to it. 

Naturally of a modest and retiring disposition, Scheffer's inter- 
course with his fellow pharmacists was chiefly limited to the courte- 
ous expedition of the demands made on him, and it was probably 
due to this natural reserve that he was, from some quarters at least, 
misrepresented as being cold and unapproachable. But his inti- 
mates knew better ; they valued him for his congenial and sympa- 
thetic disposition, the earnes u ness and sincerity of his character, and 
his loyalty to his friends; and these qualities manifested themselves 
eventually to the less intimate of his acquaintances, when, at the 
close of the sixties, the Louisville College of Pharmacy was called 
into existence. He had, in common with some of his professional 
friends, long deplored the absence of organization among his fellow 
pharmacists, and therefore entered with heart and soul into the 
scheme of organizing and maintaining a college and school of phar- 
macy ; becoming one of its founders, and serving it as one of its 
directors and professors, as treasurer and as president, during a 
period covering more than a score of years : director, continuously 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1902. 



Emit Scheffer. 



217 



from its organization in 1866 until 1889; president, from 1884 to 
1 888 ; treasurer during the year 1 888-1 889, and Professor of Materia 
Medica and Botany, continuously from 1 87 1 until the end of the 
school session of 1 883-1884. Burdened with the cares of an active 
business, his time largely occupied with analytical and other pro- 
fessional work, he yet found the time to attend to the arduous 
duties involved in these offices, and to attend to them thoroughly. 
However, this is history that can be more satisfactorily told in an 
historical sketch of the college, which the present memorial is not 
intended to be. Suffice it to say, that he saw the college grow 
from its weakly beginning to sturdy independence and usefulness, 
and that no one member of the college contributed so much time, 
intellect and substance towards paving the way to its final success 
as did Emil Scheffer. 

In 1872 Scheffer joined the American Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion, whose annual meetings he frequently attended, and whose 
proceedings he followed with lively interest, until, with advancing 
years, having relinquished his active business pursuits, he reluc- 
tantly severed his connection. He became a member of the Com- 
mittee of Revision of the Pharmacopoeia of the United States in 
1880, being selected to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of 
the late Dr. Edward R. Squibb, whose place he filled creditably for 
the remainder of the term, ending with the Convention of 1890. He 
likewise served his adopted State as one of its first Commissioners 
of Pharmacy, from 1874, when a law regulating the practice of phar- 
macy within the jurisdiction of Kentucky was placed upon its 
statutes, until 1882, and it goes without saying that he fulfilled his 
trust with absolute fidelity and to the advantage of the common- 
wealth. 

What Scheffer was to his family cannot be discussed without 
invading the sanctity of his home-life. It is sufficient for us to 
know that he is mourned by his children and grandchildren as only 
a good and affectionate parent can be mourned. And he was all 
that, as well as a good husband, brother and friend. He was also a 
good citizen ; and though he returned to the land of his childhood 
and early manhood on five different occasions, always accompanied 
by one or more members of his family, he did so because of his 
affectionate regard for his old sisters and brothers, and not because 
of disloyalty — even in thought — to the land of his adoption. 

IvOUISvihe, Ky., April, 1902. 



2iS Spoonful Doses. { Am Ma^"i9o\ arm ' 

SPOONFUL DOSES. 

A DEFINITION FOR, AND THEIR EQUIVALENTS. 

By M. I. WlXBERT, 
Apothecary at the German Hospital, Philadelphia. 

The subject of doses and their administration would strike one as 
being of more importance than the amount of thought that has 
been expended on it would appear to indicate. 

Volumes have been written on the standardization of drugs and 
their preparations, while little or no attention has been paid to how 
these standardized drugs and preparations are administered to the 
patient whose ills and affections they are intended to cure or relieve. 

In a paper published in the March number of the American 
Journal of Pharmacy the writer called attention to the difference 
that existed in the capacity of the various medicine measures that 
are in use at the present time. In the same paper attention was 
also directed to the variation that may be occasioned by the per- 
sonal equation of the nurse, or the person doing the measuring. 

That there should be at least a semblance of accuracy in the 
administration of liquid medicines will readily be admitted by all 
who have ever given the subject a reasonable amount of thought. 
This is the more apparent when we remember that there are, under 
the most favorable conditions, so many factors that may modify or 
change the effect that certain substances are likely to have on the 
animal organism, either in health or disease, that the matter of know- 
ing, approximately at least, what amount of a certain drug has 
brought about a particular change or result is not only of interest, 
but may be of vital importance, as it is only by analogy, or the 
careful study of the effects of corresponding doses on various indi- 
viduals, that we are able to make any scientific progress in the 
rational application and use of medicinal substances. 

Another interesting possibility is the fact that occasionally start- 
ling and sometimes serious effects are caused by drugs under certain 
conditions. Here again we see how important it may be, not only 
for the physician, and the patient directly interested, but also for 
others, to know exactly how much or how little of a drug has 
caused these unlooked-for or secondary effects. In this connection 
it should be remembered that instead of the patient having an idio- 
syncrasy or an abnormal toleration for a certain drug, it is always 



Am. Jour. Phariu. 
May, 1902. 



Spoonful Doses. 



219 



quite possible that he has been given either more or less than the 
intended quantity, and, as a result of this, has either not responded, 
or has responded in a way that was unexpected and startling. So 
that, if for no other reason than the scientific study of the incidental 
or unexpected effects of drugs, it would appear desirable that any 
abnormal variation from the intended quantity or dose should be 
guarded against and prevented, if possible. 

The reason why well-made liquid preparations are generally con- 
ceded to be more efficient, and consequently more desirable, than a 
corresponding amount of a dry drug or a solid extract, is found in the 
physiological necessity, that materials to be absorbed by the stom- 
ach or intestinal canal must be in a fluid or a semifluid state; and 
while it is true that under ordinary circumstances the stomach has 
the property of dissolving many otherwise refractory substances, it 
must also be remembered that in case of illness or disease, the 
whole gastro-intestinal tract is necessarily less active, and in many 
cases is debilitated to such an extent that it will not absorb or 
assimilate the plainest food, and certainly would not be in any con- 
dition to dissolve and absorb medicinal ingredients contained in a 
hard pill or bolus mixed up with a large amount of inert or perhaps 
irritating powder. 

The advantages of liquid preparations and their quality being 
acknowledged, it remains for us to inquire into the practicability of 
adjusting or improving the methods of measuring out and adminis- 
tering them. Modern practices appear to demand that liquid prepa- 
rations be not only elegant in appearance, pleasant to the taste and 
smell, but also concentrated to a degree that will allow a number of 
doses being carried about in a vial no larger than would be needed 
to contain a single dose of an old-time tea or infusion. 

By apparent, general consent, rather than by any carefully 
studied-out plan, doses have been adjusted to correspond, more or 
less closely, with the capacities of various household utensils, while 
from these in turn we have derived distinctive names for the various 
quantities, as teacupful, wineglassful, tablespoonful or teaspoonful 
doses. 

Our object in this particular paper is to call attention again to 
the desirability of recognizing the importance of correctly measur- 
ing these smaller doses, the evident reason, of course, being that 
mixtures that are to be given in tea or tablespoonful quantities are 



220 Spoonful Doses. { Am May'"i9o h 2 arm ' 

necessarily more potent than those given in larger amounts. This 
would indicate, of course, that the dose measures used should facili- 
tate, if possible, the accurate division of the mixture into the 
required number of doses. 

Spoons have been in use as medicine measures for such an 
extended period of time, and have established themselves so firmly 
in popular practice, that there are many people who would not think 
of using any other variety or kind of medicine measure. 

It may also be of interest to note that in many households a par- 
ticular spoon is sometimes set aside as the medicine spoon ; this is 
usually of sterling silver, and the continued use of such a spoon 
will sometimes develop associations and reminiscences that are 
likely to become highly prized or sacred. 

But even apart from any personal preference for or liking of a 
particular spoon, these household utensils are so common and their 
use as measures for various culinary purposes so firmly established, 
that it will be well-nigh impossible to displace them entirely by any 
substitute or contrivance that we may possibly find to offer. One 
other interesting and probably very important reason why spoons 
are preferred by many for measuring liquids, is the fact that they 
are more readily cleaned than are ordinary medicine glasses. This, 
while it appears to be but a trifling matter, nevertheless is one of 
considerable importance. 

This line of thought would naturally recall the oft-repeated asser- 
tion that spoons are extremely variable in size and capacity. 
Inquiry among a number of jewelers, silversmiths, and manulac- 
turers of spoons elicited the opinions that there had been little or no 
change in the actual capacity of the various spoons, and while they 
do vary in style or shape of bowl, the actual capacity of the bowl 
varies very little. As was pointed out to the writer, a wide or 
round bowl is usually quite shallow, while a narrow- pointed spoon 
is generally quite deep. 

These opinions were later confirmed by a number of additional 
measurements that were made of various makes and sizes of spoons. 
The results of these measurements correspond very closely with 
those given in the table on dose measures quoted above. These 
investigations also appear to confirm the suggested fact that in 
actual practice there is less variation in the capacity of spoons than 
in the glass medicine measures that are usually recommended, and 



Am, May r ;i902! irm '} Spoonful Doses. 221 

that the supposed variation is largely, if not entirely due to the dif- 
ference in the quantity that may be heaped on a spoon of a cer- 
tain shape. It will readily be seen that a wide shallow spoon will 
hold more above the rim than one that is narrow and deep, though 
the actual capacity of the bowl may not differ materially. 

The writer, however, does not want to put himself on record as 
advising the use of spoons in preference to an accurately graduated 
medicine measure. It is no doubt possible to construct a gradu- 
ated measure that will not only facilitate the accurate measuring 
out of the desired dose, but which at the same time may be used to 
dilute and to administer such doses to the patient. This desirable 
combination, however, is not available at the present time. 

With a view of bringing this question of doses and dose meas- 
ures to the attention of physicians and pharmacists, a limited num- 
ber of circular letters were sent out, asking for opinions on two 
different subjects — the first being in reference to the advisability 
of promulgating a definition for the term " spoonful," and in the 
event of this being acceptable, whether or not the definition as 
given in the French Codex would appear to cover the necessary 
points. This definition reads as follows : "A spoon is full when the 
liquid it contains comes up to but does not show a curve above the 
upper edge or rim of the bowl." 

The second question was in connection with the gradual, but 
nevertheless steady increase in the number of physicians using the 
metric system of weights and measures in their prescription writ- 
ing. At the present time there is no generally accepted equivalent 
for what is intended when the dose is indicated in a metric quan- 
tity, nor on the other hand, is there any accepted or generally 
understood quantity implied by the term teaspoonful, for instance, 
so that the conscientious pharmacist has no definite basis for esti- 
mating or controlling the dose of any active ingredients that may 
have been called for by the prescriber. 

Briefly, the questions were as follows : Should we advise the adop- 
tion and use of 4, 8 and 16 c.c. as the approximate equivalents for 
' the terms tea, dessert and tablespoonful respectively ? They would 
correspond nearly to the present equivalents, namely, 1, 2 and 4 
drams. 

Should we use and advocate the equivalents as 5, 10 and 15 c.c. 
on account of their being decimal quantities and corresponding 
almost exactly to the actual capacities of spoons in actual use ? 



222 



Spoonful Doses. 



Am. .lour. Pharm. 
May, 1902. 



Or, as an alternative, should we adopt the French equivalents, as 
given by some authorities: these are 5, 10 and 20 c.c. and preserve 
the relations 1,2, 4, as used in our present equivalents I, 2 and 4 
drams ? 

As might have been expected, the answers received show that 
there is considerable difference of opinion on the questions as stated. 
Let us take up, first, the question of promulgating a definition for 
the term spoonful. 

Of the first sixty answers received, four were negative, six were 
evasive or non-committal, and fifty were in favor of a definition, and 
were satisfied with that given by the French Codex. 

Of the four that objected to a definition, two objected to the use 
of spoons as medicine measures, and suggested, that in a matter so 
important as the administration of medicines should be, there would 
be no excuse for any one not being able to provide an accurately 
graduated medicine glass. 

Two others objected to a definition, feeling that it would be of 
no advantage, as the personal equation of the individual doing the 
measuring could not be eliminated by any known means of instruc- 
tion or demonstration. 

As will be seen, by far the greater number of answers were in 
favor of a definition, as tending to greater accuracy, if for no other 
reason than calling the attention of the physician to the possible 
variation in the quantity that a spoon will hold when even, or when 
heaping full. This single possibility would appear to be of sufficient 
importance to warrant the adoption or promulgation of such a defi- 
nition. For, as is urged, if once the physician's attention has been 
properly called to the possible variation in measured doses, he will, 
in important cases at least, call the attention of the nurse or patient 
to the necessity of exercising a certain amount of care in measuring 
out doses of active or important medicines. 

In answer to the question on the most desirable equivalents for 
the various spoons in metric quantities, the replies were as follows : 

Six suggested the use of 4, 8 and 16 c.c. as being in conformity with 
present practice and not necessitating the learning of a new set of 
equivalents or a new relation of these equivalents. 

Thirty-six were in favor of the equivalents 5, 10 and 15 c.c. as 
being in keeping with a decimal system of notation, and also because 
these quantities correspond very nearly with the actual capacities of 
spoons available at the present time. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.\ 
Ma j', 1902. J 



Spoonful Doses. 



223 



Eight for various reasons — chiefly for the sake of uniformity with 
the French — preferred the figures 5, 10 and 20. The argument that 
was advanced by several who were in favor of the latter equivalent 
was, that it would preserve the comparative relation of the equiva- 
lents for spoons as used at the present time, and that in addition it 
would correspond with the equivalents as used in France, so that if 
we should adopt the same in this country we would follow out the 
lines of adopting some universally used equivalents. 

The available data at the writer's command does not allow him to 
make any definite statement as to the practices or equivalents that 
are used in the various European countries. As is well known, both 
in this country as well as in England, the equivalents for tea, dessert 
and tablespoon, are I, 2 and 4 drams, respectively. In Germany, 
however, where the various galenical preparations are made entirely 
by weight, the prescriptions are also compounded in the same way. 
The resulting doses, however, are usually measured out in spoonful 
quantities, and the equivalents, according to which the apothecary is 
directed to estimate the maximum doses of active or poisonous 
drugs, are as follows : 

Teaspoonful, from 3 to 5 grammes. 

Children's spoonful, from 6 to 8 grammes. 

Tablespoonful, from 10 to 15 grammes. 

It will be noted that these equivalents do not at all correspond 
with those supposedly in use in France. 

In reference to the latter country, both the United States Dis- 
pensatory and Dorvault's L'Ofiicine give 5, 10 and 20 c.c. as the 
approximate equivalents for the various spoons. 

The late Professor Maisch, in a table of equivalents published in 
the National Dispensatory, gives 5, 10 and 15 c.c. as the equivalents 
used in France for tea, dessert and tablespoonful. An attempt on 
the part of the writer to trace the origin of this particular table did 
not result very satisfactory. The sole surviving editor of the recent 
edition of that work, in answer to a letter of inquiry, stated that he 
was not acquainted with the source of the quotation but felt sure 
that it was verihed, as its author was acknowledged to have been 
most careful and conscientious with all quotations. 

The proposition to use 4, 8, and 16 c.c. as the metric equiva- 
lents for the various sizes of spoons can hardly be called a happy 
one, owing to the fact that square numbers do not fit in well with 



224 



Chamois Skins. 



Am. Jour. Pharm 
May, 1902. 



decimals ; and that if we wish to popularize the metric system 
in this country, we must simplify it so as to induce people to think 
in metric quantities, as it is practically impossible to think of quan- 
tities in one system of weights and measures and then transpose 
them into another with any appreciable amount of facility or satis- 
faction. For these reasons it would appear desirable to use equiva- 
lents that not only differ from those generally accepted but also fit 
in better with a decimal system of notation. 

To sum up, then, the proofs and arguments that have been 
advanced would seem to indicate, that so long as doses of medicines 
are referred to as being spoonful quantities, spoons will be largely 
used as medicine measures. If spoons are used to measure out doses 
of active medicines, it would appear that we should, at least, make 
some effort to secure greater accuracy and uniformity in the quanti- 
ties that are likely to be administered. For this purpose the adop- 
tion of a descriptive definition, indicating the approximate amount 
that is intended by the term spoonful, would appear to offer some 
possibility of securing the desired results. 

As regards the proposed equivalents for tea, dessert, and table- 
spoonful it would appear to be desirable that we adopt quantities 
that will fit in well with the system of notation used in the metric 
system of weights and measures ; and here again, if doses are to be 
referred to as being spoonful quantities, these quantities should 
conform as nearly as possible with the actual capacities of the spoons 
that they are supposed to represent. 



CHAMOIS SKINS. 

THEIR PREPARATION FOR THE MARKET AND THEIR COMMERCIAL 

VARIETIES. 

By Charges C. Drueding. 

In presenting this article the writer will endeavor to place before 
you a plain, intelligible treatise on this subject, as he understands 
it from his experience of manufacture, or tanning rather, during an 
experience of about eighteen years. 

The name chamois skin is rather a misnomer ; it originates from 
the chamois animal, the zoological name being Rupricapra Targus. 
This animal inhabits the European Alps and Caucasian Mountains 
and resembies a goat or deer. These animals are very shy, and 



Am. Jour. Hharin. 
May, 1902. 



Chamois Skins. 



225 



hunters will follow them for days over dangerous mountain passes 
until they finally bring their prey at bay. 

The animal is about the size of a goat or deer ; of a dark chestnut- 
brown color, with the exception of the forehead, the sides of the lower 
joints and the muzzle, which are white. Its horns, rising above the 
eyes, are black, smooth and straight for two-thirds of their length, 
when they suddenly curve backward. Their hoofs are admirably 
adapted to avail themselves of little roughnesses or projections on 
the mountain sides, or icy glaciers. It has long, thick and coarse 
hair. 

What is known in the market as chamois skin is really an oil- 
tanned sheep or lamb-skin lining. The supply of skins from the 



chamois animal is very limited; enough could not be obtained in a 
year to supply the United States for more than a single day. 

The writer made special inquiry on a recent visit to Switzerland 
about the annual crop of this class of skins. From all that he could 
learn, about five thousand to six thousand skins would be a fair 
average yearly crop. 

The accompanying wood-cut is a good representation of the 
chamois animal. I will also submit a specimen of one of the skins 
of the chamois tanned in oil. This I know to be a genuine chamois 
skin. 

This skin is heavier than the skin of the sheep or lamb, also 




Rupricapra Targus (Chamois). 



226 



Chamois Skins. 



j Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I May, 1902. 



much coarser. For strength and durability this skin is preferable, 
but for ordinary use and appearance the oil-tanned sheep-skin lining 
would, in most instances, be preferred. 

To manufacture sheep or iamb skins into chamois leather the first 
step necessary is to remove the wool, which is accomplished either 
by painting the skin on the inside with a solution of sodium sul- 
phite or by immersion in milk of lime. 

By the former method the wool is loosened in a few hours ; by the 
latter method it will require several days. 

When the wool is loose, it is pulled off either by hand or scraped 
off with a dull instrument. 

The skin is now again immersed in milk of lime, to swell it. It 
is then cleaned (beamed, as the trade calls it), to remove all fleshy 
particles that may adhere to it. 

It is now ready for splitting. I wish to explain here that a 
chamois skin is really only the half of a skin. The outside, that is, 
that part of the skin next to the wool, known as the grain side, is 
not suitable for chamois leather, and is used for other purposes, 
mostly for hat linings, book covers, etc. 

In former times, when skins were prepared for oil tannage, this 
part of the skin was cut away with a suitable knife and thus lost. 

In our days the skin is cut through the centre (split), thus pro- 
ducing two skins from one — the outside, called grain or skiver, and 
the inside, called lining or flesher. 

The splitting is accomplished on machines specially constructed 
for this purpose. It consists of an endless knife, the edge of which 
is constantly grinding to keep it sharp, the skin being passed 
through rollers against the sharp edge of the knife. These machines 
require very delicate adjustment to produce good results. 

The accompanying specimen split half-way through will illustrate 
this process ; about one-half of the skin is still the whole skin, and 
the other half being divided into skiver and lining. 

This specimen had to be dried so as to preserve it. It will also 
illustrate what a raw skin looks like. 

The lining or flesher is now ready for tanning. This is accom- 
plished by sprinkling it with oil, cod-fish oil of good quality. It is 
important that this oil should be thoroughly incorporated into the 
skin. For this purpose a quantity of the skins are placed into what 
are known as fulling stocks, which twist and turn the skins in every 
direction, and distribute the oil evenly. 



Am. Jour. Pbarru. 
May, 1902. 



Chamois Skins. 



227 



After sufficient milling the skins are partly dried and the process 
of sprinkling, milling and drying is repeated again and again until 
they are full of oil, and all the moisture is dried out. 

They are now allowed to hang sufficiently long to thoroughly 
tan them at a temperature of about 100°. 

The process after this is very simple. The oil is removed by 
pressure and the balance washed out by saponification ; after this 
they are dried and they are then ready for finishing. 

The oil, by the way, is recovered, by decomposing the soap solu- 
tion with an acid and separating. 

It is sold to manufacturers of other leather, it being useful to 
make them pliable, etc. 

The finishing is done mostly by pressing the skin against revolv- 
ing wheels, covered with emery or flint to remove all adhering sub- 
stances and to present a finely finished surface. 

We now have the finished chamois leather ready for the trim- 
ming and sorting room, where it is cut into suitable sizes and 
packed for the market. 

Of late years a trimmed skin, that is, skins of even sizes, are pre- 
ferred by the trade. For this reason most manufacturers, at least 
most American manufacturers, cut their skins over patterns so as 
to produce uniform sizes. 

In former years, when England and France supplied the United 
States market, the skins in the same package would vary in size 
and shape, thus lacking uniformity. 

It is true by cutting uniform sizes there is necessarily some waste, 
but this is reduced to a minimum, when all small pieces are again 
utilized, by manufacturing them into watch pockets and other small 
articles which find a ready sale. 

The principal uses for chamois skins are for cleaning purposes. 
They will absorb moisture readily and give a high polish to glass, 
furniture and other highly polished surfaces. 

A good chamois can be used either wet or dry. Quantities are 
also used for chest protectors, chamois vests, and even underclothes 
are made out of them for cold climates, also in the manufacture of 
other leather goods, such as purses, etc. Ladies use them for 
fancy work. 

They can be made in all colors ; formerly colors were mostly 
produced by applying to the surface of the skin different colored 



228 



Cliamois Skins. 



Am. Jour. Pbarrn. 
May, 1902. 



pigments, which adhere to the leather. This produces an unsatis- 
factory article, however, as it will always dust more or less. 

Of late years, however, manufacturers have succeeded in produc- 
ing fine colors with aniline, which are more satisfactory ; some speci- 
mens of colored chamois are here shown. 

By incorporating a small quantity of ferric oxide, very finely 
powdered, an excellent polishing chamois is produced for silver- 
ware, etc. 

A good quality of chamois skin is generally of a yellow or light 
yellow color, which, when freshly cut, should show a dark yellow 
color. This is a characteristic test of oil tannage. The absence of 
this color is generally an indication that the skin is tanned by a 
different method. 

A good quality of oil leather should also absorb moisture readily. 
This test is readily applied by dropping a few drops of water on 
the skin ; it should absorb it readily. If these drops roll about on 
the skin without absorption, it is almost a sure indication that it is 
not oil tanned. 

For some purposes a very light straw-colored chamois is de- 
manded by the trade. These are produced by bleaching with sul- 
phur. The skins, slightly damp, are hung in an air-tight room in 
which a small quantity of sulphur is burned, producing a light 
straw-colored product of bright color. It rather weakens the skin, 
however, and also incorporates some sulphur, which is objectionable 
when used in connection with silverware. 

These bleached goods should not be used for wrapping silver, as 
they are apt to tarnish it by producing sulphide. 

The market affords a number of different brands of chamois 
skins. The principal ones are the American goods, the English 
and the French goods. 

The American goods of late years have largely crowded out the 
imported goods, and are even now getting quite a foothold in 
Europe. Large quantities are now being exported principally to 
Germany, where they find a ready market. The English goods are 
generally of good quality and tannage. They come in both colors, 
yellow and white, the latter color being produced by bleaching. 

They are trimmed and sorted mostly in irregular shapes and 
sizes ; the French goods mostly of a dark yellow color, in large 
sizes. One variety, Bruts, are heavy skins finished on one side 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1902. 



Chamois Skins. 



229 



only. This is purposely done, so that they absorb large quantities 
of water, thus making them suitable for stable work, carriage wash- 
ing, etc. Another variety of French goods is the double dressed. 
These also come in large sizes only. They are very similar to the 
Bruts, with the difference that they are finished on both sides, mak- 
ing them thin like ordinary goods. 

Another variety produced by American makers is what is 
known as steel-colored goods. These are not oil tanned goods. They 
are chrome leather, produced by tanning with chrome. This pro- 
duces a bluish-gray-colored leather. They are very strong, and for 
this reason will bear more abuse than the oil-tanned goods. They 
may be washed with nearly boiling water without much danger of 
injuring them. These are preferred by some for this reason. Some 
are also sold on account of color for fancy work, etc. 

Most manufacturers sort these skins into three qualities — first 
quality, second quality, and third quality, and prices are regulated 
accordingly. The first quality should be almost free from stitches, 
soft and nearly perfect. The second quality are rejects from the 
firsts on account of too much stitching, harsh spots and other 
imperfections. 

The third quality are again rejects from the second quality. 

The drug trade, for the sake of retaining the public opinion that 
only the best quality of everything is obtainable in a drug store, 
should handle only the first quality of goods. 

Chamois skins are largely sold by the drug trade. Spring and 
fall are the best seasons to display them in the stores. A very 
attractive window display can be made with these goods. 

Care should be taken, however, when used for this purpose, not 
to expose to sunlight, as this will very quickly bleach them, and 
thus render them unsightly. This does not deteriorate the quality 
in any other way, however. 

A glass case filled with the goods, placed so that they can be 
seen, will keep them clean, and help to remind a woman when she 
enters the store that a chamois is needed in her household, and wll 
assist materially to help sell the goods. Some druggists will keep 
them hidden in boxes or drawers, and produce them only when 
called for, with the inevitable result that their sales will be very 
limited. 

A good quality chamois skin if properly used should last a long 



230 



Notes o?i Specific Gravity. 



f Am. .lour. Pharm. 
I May, 1902. 



time, and they can, of course, be used wet as well as dry. It is 
important that it is kept clean. If it is soiled, the best method of 
cleaning is by washing with soap and water. A liberal supply of 
soap is always beneficial to the skin. 

The best method to prevent shrinking is to rinse it in soap suds 
before drying. When dry, rubbing and stretching will return it to 
its former softness. 

Chamois skins are often abused through ignorance or inexperi- 
ence. The writer has seen skins that were returned to the seller, 
who in turn returned them to the manufacturer, that were partly 
burned into charcoal, evidently caused by drying in strong heat, 
likely in a hot oven, others shrunk to one-fourth their natural size 
by being boiled or steeped in hot water. 

It should be remembered that a chamois is gelatinous animal sub- 
stance, a sort of oleate of gelatine, and too much heat should be 
avoided. 



NOTES ON SPECIFIC GRAVITY. 
By Thomas S. Wiegand. 

The paper of Dr. Hatcher, in a recent number of the American 
Journal of Pharmacy, has called my attention to the subject of 
" Specific Gravity," and as the importance of a clear understanding 
of the subject is of such great advantage to the pharmacist, I feel no 
further apology is necessary for calling attention of members to the 
matter. Dr. Squibb, at the meeting of the American Pharmaceuti- 
cal Association held in Chicago, in 1869, in a report on the Phar- 
macopoeia, shows how valuable accurate determinations of specific 
gravity are in determining the quality of many of the preparations 
of the Pharmacopoeia, and gives a discription of an improved 
specific-gravity bottle, by which the most common errors in ascer- 
taining specific gravity of liquids can be reduced to a minimum ; but 
it must be borne in mind that all the ordinary weighings are 
approximate only unless the absolute weight of the bottle is taken, 
for all the usual weighings are made in the air and not in vacuo, 
and the bottle which contains one litre of water will hold 17- 7 
grains of air and, of course, there is this much less weight to be 
used as a counterpoise when the bottle is being used in taking the 
specific gravity of any liquid ; then the temperature at which the 



Am. J( ur. Pharm. \ 
May, 1902. / 



Atomic Weight Tables. 



231 



liquid is weighed must be taken into account, and this correction 
must be made for each and every liquid experimented with, as each 
liquid has its own rate of expansion, and this rate of expansion 
must be ascertained and the scale for it arranged beforehand. 

The paper of Dr. Hatcher's recalls the fact that that method of 
taking specific gravity was shown by me to the class when I was a 
quiz master to the Zeta Phi Society, 1875 or '77. 

An easy method of taking specific gravity of bodies soluble in 
water is given in " Ganot's Physics," and is as follows: Weigh the 
body in air, then in some liquid the specific gravity of which has 
been ascertained, and in which it is insoluble, and multiply its weight 
by the specific gravity of the liquid, then divide this product by the 
loss sustained when immersed in the liquid. The result is the spe- 
cific gravity sought. 



A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ATOMIC WEIGHT TABLES. 

By M. I. Wilbert. 

That the active pharmacist is interested in the present contro- 
versy on atomic weights is admitted ; to what extent it might or 
will affect^him in the ordinary routine of his business has probably 
not been considered. 

Those of us who studied chemistry when hydrogen was 1 and 
oxygen always 16, do not perhaps realize the difficulties that beset 
the student and teacher of chemistry at the present day, when the 
atomic weights of the various elements vary with the text-book 
that is used or the table that is consulted. A great amount of 
work has been done in this connection in the last twenty years, and 
the leading chemists of the world have long ago refused to be 
bound by arbitrarily proposed laws ; and among other things have 
discovered that our system of enumeration, for instance, is not 
necessarily a factor in chemical relations, so that instead of the 
various elements being related to each other in some mathematical 
proportion, we find that these proportions are at times fragmentary 
or fractional to a degree that is not at all in keeping with the aver- 
age pharmacist's capacity in mental arithmetic. 

But there is, no doubt, something more startling and revolutionary 
at the bottom of it all. There are so many physical phenomena to 
explain that we constantly hear of the possibility of our long- 



232 



Atomic Weight Tables. 



Am. Jour. Pharm 
May, 1902. 



cherished hypothesis of the atom being an entirely erroneous one, 
and that we will wake up some morning to a double-headed leader 
in the morning papers announcing- the discovery, or perhaps the 
actual demonstration of the unity of matter and the possible trans- 
mutation of the various elementary bodies. 

But what to do in the meantime is the question that is troubling 
many an able scientist. If we glance over the accompanying list of 
the elements and their corresponding atomic weights, we will real- 
ize that there is very little or no uniformity between them ; and, 
what is more, every one will admit, that if we should use any one of 
these tables, the results of our computation or work would not 
agree with the results obtained by some one who was using one of 
the other tables. 

But, first, a few words as to the origin of these tables. The first 
one is from Professor Ostwald's new book on " Anorganische 
Chemie," and, with the single exception of hydrogen, gives the same 
figures as the table of atomic weights in the German Pharmacopoeia. 

The latter book rounds out the figures for hydrogen at the sec- 
ond decimal, making it i*oi instead of i-oo8. 

The second list, hydrogen-i, is from Professor Clark's table of 
comparative atomic weights (1900). It will be noted that these two 
tables do not exactly correspond in their relative figures, nor do 
they agree in all particulars with the tables published by the Ger- 
man Chemical Society. This particular H-i table was chosen 
because it has been used in several text-books on chemistry that are 
now in use in this country. 

The third table is taken from the Pharmacopoeia of the United 
States for 1890. 

The fourth list is from the atomic weights as given in the same 
standard for 1880. 

In explanation we might say that niobium is duplicated under 
columbium, and the revised weights for didymium are given under 
neo and praseodidymium ; these are matters of detail, however, and 
are of but secondary importance. 

The important ieature in connection with a comparative study of 
a table ot this kind is a comparison of the atomic weights of the 
more common and, consequently, more important elements. If, for 
instance, we take into consideration the immense amount of work 
that has been done in the field of organic chemistry, confined almost 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1902. 



Atomic Weight Tables. 



233 



exclusively to oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon, and compare 
the atomic weights as used at the present time, or those used 
twenty years ago, we will find that they differ but little from those 
given in the O-16 column. Or, if we confine ourselves to what is 
directly of interest to the working pharmacist, and admit that a 
large amount of the available chemical work has been done on the 
basis of the atomic weights as given in the Pharmacopoeia for 1880, 
and then compare such common and important elements as carbon, 
oxygen, nitrogen, bromine, chlorine, iodine phosphorus, sulphur, 
potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, lead, mercury and 
arsenic we will find that the weights given in the list for 1880 cor- 
respond very closely with those given in the O-16 column. This is 
true of all the elements enumerated above, with the single exception 
of magnesium, the atomic weight of which has been recalculated 
within the past twenty years. 

But what is perhaps even more astonishing to the ordinary indi- 
vidual is that the atomic weights given in the Pharmacopoeia of 
1890 on the basis of H-i correspond more closely to those of the 
O-16 series than they do to the revised H-i tables. This is, of 
course, due to the fact that Morley, in 1898, showed that the proper 
relation of oxygen and hydrogen is as 1 to 15-875 instead of 1 to 
15-96 as suggested by Lothar Meyer. 

But there are still other reasons why we should, from a practical 
point of view, adopt O-16, and retain approximately the same 
molecular weights that have been used for upwards of thirty years. 
Among these are the facts that both the German and Swedish Phar- 
macopoeias have already adopted the O-16 standard, and that if we 
should vary as much as we necessarily would, by retaining the H-i 
standard, all of the new work done in these countries would not be 
available for us without elaborate recalculation. 

Another interesting factor is found in the fact that the total deci- 
mals of all of the elements given in the table of atomic weights as 
published in the German Pharmacopoeia is 33, while the correspond- 
ing elements in our own Pharmacopoeia, or in the H-i column, have 
43, a difference of more than thirty per cent. To the ordinary 
mortal a saving of one-third in the necessary amount of extra calcu- 
lation would appeal as being a matter of considerable moment. 

After all, would it perhaps not be better to admit that chemistry 
is, as yet, not an exact science, but an experimental one, in which 



234 



Atomic Weight Tables. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I May, 1902. 



there is material enough for all to do good work, without the constant 
changes that will be necessary if we insist on adhering to a standard 
of comparison that appears tobe but poorly adapted for the purpose ? 

If we admit that these weights are relative rather than absolute, 
would it not be just as well to use O-16 or C-I2 or even Hg-200, as 
our standard of comparison, so long as we retain approximately, 
within insignificant fractions, the atomic weight figures with which 
so much of the practical work in chemistry has been done ? To the 
writer's mind, a policy of this kind would not only simplify the 
routine work of the pharmaceutical, technical or analytical chemist, 
it would also facilitate original work, and might contribute mate- 
rially to promote the advent of that much-to-be-desired positive 
knowledge of the constitution and properties of matter. 











U.S. P. 


U.S. P. 




Symbol 


O = 16 


H = 1 


1890 


1880 




Al 


27*1 ■ 


26-9 


27-04 


27- 




. . . Sb 


T20' 


"9*5 


119-6 


I20* 




A 


39*9 










. . As 


75' 


74'45 


74-9 


74'9 




. . . Ba 


137*4 


136-4 


136-9 


I 3 6-8 


Beryllium 


. . . Be 


9-1 


9* 


9-03 


9" 




. . . Bi 


208-5 


206-5 


208-9 


2IO* 






ii" 


10*9 


10-9 


II' 




Br 


79-96 


79" 34 


79-76 


79-8 




Cd 


112* 


11 1*55 


111-5 


11 1 -8 




. . Cs 


133' 


131-9 


132-7 


132-6 




. . . Ca 


40- 


39-8 


39-91 


40- 




. C 


12' 


11-9 


11/97 


12: 




. . . Ce 


140" 


138' 


139-9 


141- 




. . . CI 


35-45 


35-i8 


35-37 


35*4 


Chromium . . 


. . . Cr 


52-1 


5i'7 


52- 


52-4 




. . Co 


59' 


58-55 


58-6 


58-9 


Columbium . . 


. . . Co 


94-2 


93* 


93 '7 


94' 




. . . Cu 


6 3 '6 


63-1 


63-18 


63-2 




. . . Di 






142. 


144-6 




. . . Er 


166- 


164-7 


166- 


165-9 




. . . F 


19- 


18-9 


19- 


19- 




. . . Gd 


156' 


155-8 










70- 


69-5 


69-9 


68-8 




. . . Ge 


72- 


71-9 


72-3 






Au 


197*2 


I95-7 


196-7 


196-2 




He 


4' 








Hydrogen . . 


. . . H 


i*oo8 


i- 


1 • 


1* 




In 


114- 


113-1 


113-6 


ii3*4 




. . I 


126-85 


125-89 


126-53 


126-6 




. . . Ir 


193* 


191-7 


192-5 


192-7 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
May, 1902. J 



Atomic 



Weight Tables. 



235 











1890 


1880 






= 16 


H = 1 


U.S P. 


U.S. P. 


Iron 


Fe 


s6- 

o u 


00 w 


00 u 


OO y 


T* V V\ 1" r* TI 


Kr 


40 








T antharmm 


La 


1 o° 


T "2.7*6 
-"-0/ w 


Il8*2 

x 


I •3,8* c 5 




Pb 


206*9 


on - • -jA 
"^ u O u 


206 '4 


206*5 


T "4-1, ■ 


t : 


7'°3 


D 9/ 


7*01 


/ 


iVJ.d.gI±CSl ULL1 


. lUg 


24*36 


O A ' T 
24 1 


3 


2/1 * 

*4 


~\T d ti crci n ^ c 


Mn 


55' 


04 


c-/i "8 
04 


04 


IYTpttmit v 


Ha 


ODD" "2 


x y° 


TOO "8 


IQQ*7 

x yy / 


ATrkl A*Hr1 p>n n tn 

1 > 1 v j 1 \ uuciium . . . 


Mo 


ofi* 

y° 


90 3 


nC'n 

yo y 


^ * ^ 

yo 


T^Jp nn 1 r" vrn in m 


Nd 


\ Al'fi 


T/l 9 ' ^ 
■ L 4^ i 








"NTp 










Nickel 


Ni 


0° / 


^8'2^ 


0° u 


=-8* 

0° 


Niobium 


Nb 


y4 * 


yo 






Nitrogen 


N 


T <1 "O/l 
j. 4 U4 


■"-o yo 


14*01 


IA* 


Osmium 


Os 


TQT ' 


189*6 


TQO"i 


1 y o 


Oyvctpti 





16" 


t=;*88 




1 * 


Palla.diu.rn 


Pd 


106 ' 


I06' 2 


T06 ' 7. ^ 


TOs'7 

ivJ / 




P 


3 r ' 


o° 70 


30*96 


1 T " 

3 1 


Platinum 


PI 


IQl'S 


A yo 4 


TQ/I "2. 


TQA'/1 

i y4 4 


Potassium 


K 


oy 1 


18*82 


oy u o 


"2 n 

oy- 


1 IdbcUUlU ) lillLiLLl 


Pr 


*4°'5 


I 39'4 






*R Vi nrl 1 n m 

XVilULllUlil 


Rh 


loy 








Rubidium 


Rb 


°0 4 


84*7^ 
°4 /0 


8^*2 
°0 z 


°0 


"Rntnpni nm 


Ru 


10 1 * 7 






I04 2 


tn Q T 1 11 TT1 


Sm 


t cn" 
1 U 




149 "62 






Sc 


A A • T 

44 1 


43 ° 


43*97 


A A ' 
44 


Selenium . . 


oe 


70/1 


/O D 


70 07 


/O 


Ci 1 1 />/~\n 


Qi 


zo 4 


/O ^ 


25 3 


2o 




A <T 


1 07 "93 


I07 " 1 1 


107 66 


I07*7 


Qnn 1 n tn 


Na 


2 3*°5 


22'SS 


2 • 






Sr 


87*6 


00 95 


87-2 

°7 3 


87 '/I 
O/ 4 


C|i 1 r^Vl lit" 


C 


32 '06 


3 1 °3 


1 t 

3 1 9 a 


3 2 ' 




f a 


I£ >3 


10 1 - 5 


1 • 

1 O 2. 


102 


TaI 1 n ri 11 m 


Te 




1 26*5 


12 5 * 




TprHi 11 m 


Tb 




J.3O O 


I 59 I 




Th all mm 


Tl 


204 " I 


202 '6 r 


203*7 


203*7 


HPVi nrni m 


Th 


2 3 2 "5 


23O O 


231*9 


2 3*i- 


TVi 111 1 11 m 


Tn 


1 7 1 ' 


169*4 






Tin 


tin 




110 1 


T iQ'Q 

110 


117-7 




Ti 


40 I 


47 


40 


A ft • 


1 1 1 « nrc^"Pn 


W 


104 


182*6 


T82 -fs 

I03 O 


IO3. D 


Uranium 


TJ 


2"ZQ* ^ 

^oy 


217*8 


2?8*8 

-^0° 


■^o° 


Vanadium . . . 


. . V 


51-2 


5*' 


5i"i 


51-3 




. . X 


65- 












173- 


171-9 


172*6 


172*7 




. . Yt 


89* 


88-3 


88*9 


89-8 


Zinc ...... 


Zn 


65*4 


64*9 


65-1 


64*9 




Zr 


907 


897 


90*4 


90. 



236 



a- and fi-Eucaine. 



Am. .Tour. Pharm. 
May, 1902. 



THE IDENTIFICATION AND PROPERTIES OF a- AND 

,3-EUCAINE. 1 
By Charges Lathrop Parsons. 

( Concluded from page 342. ) 
MICROSCOPIC CHARACTERISTICS. 

A careful examination of many of the precipitates which the 
various reagents yield with either of the eucaines or with cocaine 
failed to disclose any special characteristic of value. Many of them 
are beautifully crystalline and give striking displays of color with 
polarized light, but they vary too much with different conditions to 
be used with certainty as a means of identification. An examina- 
tion of the alkaloids themselves as precipitated by ammonia and 
crystallized from chloroform also give negative results. Fortunately, 
however, the hydrochlorides, when pure, are easily identified under 
the polarizing microscope, and especially is cocaine hydrochloride 
recognizable at once. 

The slides are best prepared by allowing a drop of an aqueous 
solution to spontaneously evaporate. Cocaine under these condi- 
tions does not always crystallize at once even when quite dry. But 
if set aside for a few hours the crystals will form and the peculiar 
feathery and fan-shaped radiations, resembling very closely those 
seen on a broken nodule of wavellite, are recognizable even with the 
naked eye. The examination is most satisfactorily performed with 
a magnifying power of about 250 diameters. 

a-Eucaine hydrochloride in saturated solution tends to crystallize 
in little spots which, under polarized light, look like very highly 
colored rosettes made up of very small crystals, so that the field is 
always bright, never showing any constancy of extinction directions. 
On edges of drop, the rosettes sometimes show small feathery forms 
of crystals of which the extinction directions vary but are more 
often diagonal. A 5 per cent, solution gives much the same result. 
The rosettes frequently appear to be made up of concentric rings of 
very small crystals, the centre of rosettes being thicker than edges, 
and only the edges showing plate or feather forms large enough to 
be examined as individuals. Interference colors are very bright. 
When crystallized from dilute solution the rosette forms may 

1 Read at the Denver meeting of the American Chemical Society, August 29,. 
1901, and reprinted from the four. Amer. Chem. Soc., 1901, p. 885. 



Am May?i902 arm *} a ~ and $-Eucaine. 237 

become very small and numerous, covering the entire field, while the 
interference colors are only gray or black. The forms of gray and 
black overlying feathers are at times very prominent in a-eucaine, 
and resemble nothing so closely as the small feathers of Plymouth 
Rock poultry. 

/3-Eucaine hydrochloride from saturated solution shows broad 
feathery or fern-like forms, sometimes blade-like or tabular. Usually 
the tabular forms show concentric rings of high color around the 
edges and the extinction directions are easily determined. They 
are usually slightly oblique to the main axis of the crystal, but dif- 
ferent crystals show two separate angles of extinction, one being 
the complement of the other and due to the fact that the individuals 
are viewed from opposite sides. The forms already mentioned are 
more apt to be found around the outer edge of the evaporated drop, 
while the centre is made up of isolated individuals which show bril- 
liant tabular and prismatic forms, sometimes quite small and rod- 
like. Rarely they are diamond-shaped. These diamond-shaped 
forms sometimes show extinction directions symmetrical to the 
main axis, but more often slightly oblique. The individual crystals 
are large and much more easily studied than those of a-eucaine. 
If more dilute solutions of less than 1-5 per cent, are used, the char- 
acteristics do not come out so plainly, the crystal forms being 
smaller and showing very low interference colors, mainly light 
grays. Also these sometimes show feathery forms and rosette 
forms something like a-eucaine. 

Cocaine hydrochloride in 10 per cent, to 1 per cent, solution crys- 
tallizes in fan-like shapes. A 2 per cent, solution gives a solid field 
of radiating forms, the individuals of which resemble very closely 
the forms sometimes seen on a frosted window. Extinction is 
parallel and perpendicular to the main axis of the crystals. Colors 
are brilliant and the whole field is characteristic, enabling one to 
distinguish cocaine immediately. With dilute solutions the fan-like 
shapes are still marked, but the field is sometimes broken and inter- 
ference colors are a slow order of light grays. 

In conclusion it is perhaps well to suggest that in working on 
unknown substances all tests for eucaine and cocaine, as with other 
alkaloids, are much more valuable when compared with those ot 
samples whose identity is known. 

New Hampshire Coixege. 



238 Reviews. {^^m""' 

REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICFS. 

Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association at 
the Forty-ninth Annual Meeting, held at St. Louis, Mo., September, 
1 901. Also the Constitution, By-Laws and Roll of Members. 
Baltimore, 1901. 

While an abstract of the proceedings of the last meeting of this 
Association has been published in many of the pharmaceutical and 
drug journals, this should only cause greater interest in the official 
records of the Association, containing as they do not only the 
papers in full, but the discussions which were in some cases most 
profitable and interesting. The progressive worker only requires a 
hint to enlarge the sphere of his activity and make more effective 
the work he is doing. In the 500 pages of the Proceedings are 
many hints for not only the teacher and manufacturer, but the retail 
pharmacist as well. Probably no previous issue of the Proceedings 
has contained so much in the line of modern drug-store methods, 
particularly applicable to the work of the retail pharmacist, as the 
volume now referred to. 

The " Report on the Progress of Pharmacy," by Professor Diehl, 
serves to enhance the value of the volume, and one may well ask : 
Where is there such a repository of information of the year's prog- 
ress as in the Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion ? 

The Elements of Physical Chemistry. By J. Livingston R. 
Morgan. Second edition, revised and enlarged. X -(- 352 pp., i2mo, 
cloth, $2.00. New York : John Wiley & Sons. London : Chapman 
& Hall, Limited. 1902. 

Applied as well as pure chemistry is dependent for its returns 
upon the principles of physical chemistry. The labors of Ostwald, 
Le Blanc, Nernst and others have caused almost a revolutionary 
aspect in regard to the nature of solutions, chemical reactions 
and the role of ions in analytical chemistry. These subjects being 
comparatively new, many persons are unable to obtain a compre- 
hensive outline of the subject, owing to the length of time which is 
necessary to spend upon the separate volumes devoted to these 
subjects. This volume is especially intended as a text-book 
for either class-work or self-instruction, and although calculus 
is used in the derivation of some of the laws, still much can 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May. J 902. 



Reviews. 



239 



be done without any training in the higher mathematics. In gen- 
eral, references are given, so that any one wishing to make an 
extended study of any special portion may do so with little diffi- 
culty. The amount of the subject included, however, embraces 
all that which is likely to be useful to all chemists. 

In the preparation of the second edition the author has endeav- 
ored to do three things: (a) To bring the subject-matter itself up 
to date ; (b) to make, wherever possible, the relations clearer than 
before ; (c) to make the book itself more useful to those studying 
the subject without an instructor. The physical meaning of all 
relations is shown, so that those who have not sufficient mathe- 
matical training to actually derive the single relations will at least 
understand them and be able to apply them when necessary. Fol- 
lowing the advice of Professor Ostwald, the chapter on the role of 
the ions in analytical chemistr}/ has been given a place in Chapter 
VII between chemical equilibrium and kinetics. In Chapter X a 
collection of problems is given which will show the value and appli- 
cation of each important relation considered. This collection will 
be particularly acceptable to those studying alone, as well as to 
others who have already studied the subject, but not yet attempted 
to apply it. 

The following subjects are treated in the respective chapters: (1) 
Physical chemistry, energy, the factors of energy and the methods 
for the determination of the atomic weight ; (2) the gaseous state ; 
(3) the liquid state; (4) the solid state; (5) solution; (6) thermo- 
chemistry; (7) chemical change, (a) equilibrium, (J?) the role of 
ions in analytical chemistry, (c) chemical kinetics; (8) the phase- 
rule and the equilibrium of water in its phases ; (9) electrochem- 
istry, the migration of the ions, the conductivity of electrolytes, 
electromotive force, electrolysis and polarization; (10) problems 
showing the value and application of the chapters considered. 

The book is to be commended most heartily to every one having 
an interest in the principles of chemistry. 

Indicators and Test-Papers. By Alfred I. Cohn. Second 
edition, revised and enlarged. $2.00. New York : John Wiley & 
Sons; London: Chapman & Hall, Limited, 1902. 

The first edition of this book was favorably reviewed in this 
Journal for January, 1900. In the second edition the work has been 



240 



Reviews. 



j Am. Jour. Pharm. 
(. May, 1902. 



brought up to date by the addition of an appendix, embodying the 
information on the indicators introduced since the appearance of 
the first edition. In this list are mentioned: alizarin green B, 
ammoniacal copper solution, corallin — malachite green, diazopara- 
nitraniline — propylmetacresol, iron isopyrotritarate, iron salicylate, 
patent blue L, perezol, potassium ferrocyanide with ammonium 
molybdate, and sodium alizarinsulphonate. 

The work is systematically arranged, reliable, and a practical 
guide for the laboratory worker, as well as a ready means of reference 
to all desiring any information on the source, preparation and appli- 
cation of indicators and test-papers, as well as their tests for sensi- 
tiveness. 

A Laboratory Guide to the Study of Qualitative Analysis. 
By E. H. S. Bailey and Hamilton P. Cady. Fourth edition. i2mo, 
235 pp., cloth, $1.25 net. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston's Son & Co., 
1901. 

While there are many manuals on qualitative analysis, still any 
work in which are considered the more modern theories underlying 
analytical chemistry, and which attempts to present some new facts 
and investigations, is very much desired. In the present work the 
authors apply the dissociation theory of Arrhenius and the law 
of mass action as enunciated by Gulberg and Waage in correlat- 
ing and interpreting chemical phenomena, and give a new method 
for the separation of arsenic, antimony and tin and also for the sepa- 
ration and identification of the acids. 

The properties of the metals and precipitates with the special 
tests, blowpipe reactions are given and numerous notes of special 
precautions are interspersed in the text. The methods of separa- 
tion of the ions and various groups, as also the special methods for 
examining unknown substances, are also valuable. 

The book is distinctly a modern one and is inspired by the several 
foundation works of Ostwald in inorganic and analytical chemistry. 
It is an ^ interesting and valuable work on qualitative analytical 
chemistry. 

Die Rohstoffe des Pflanzexreiches. Versuch einer technischen 
Rohstofflehre des Pflanzenreiches. Von Dr. Julius Wiesner. 2te ganz- 
lich umgearbeitete und erweiterte Auflage. 7. Lieferung (Bd. II, 
Bogen 11-20); 8. Lieferung (Bd. II, Bogen 21-30). Mit Textfigur 
45-75. Leipzig: Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann, 1901-1902. 



Am, .Tour. I'harm, i 
May, 1902. / 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



241 



As has already been stated in previous reviews of the second 
revised and enlarged edition of Wiesner's " Raw Materials of the 
Plant Kingdom," it is not only the production of Dr. Wiesner, but of 
twelve other collaborators. Most of Parts VII and VIII are devoted 
to the consideration of the fibres. A small portion of Part VII con- 
tains the end of the chapters on Woods and a few pages of Part 
VIII contain an introduction to the root and rhizome products of 
plants. 

The fibres are treated as follows: (i) Anatomischer Bau der 
Fasern ; (2) Die physikalischen Eigenschaften der Fasern ; (3) 
Chemische Eigenschaften der Fasern ; (4) Die Kennzeichen der 
Fasern ; (5) Uebersicht der Faserpflanzen ; (6) Uebersicht der nach. 
folgend abgehandelten technisch verwendeten Pflanzenfasern. 

These parts, like those previously reviewed in this Journal, reflect 
great credit upon the authors, and the work when complete will be 
indispensable to all those interested in the technical products of the 
plant kingdom. 

Digest of Criticisms on the United States Pharmacopceia. 
Seventh Decennial Revision (1900). Part III, comprising abstracts 
of papers up to May 15, 1901. 

Part II of the Digest ot Criticisms contained abstracts from ac- 
cessible literature to January 1, 1898. This part was the last com- 
piled by the late Hans M. W ilder. Shortly after Mr. Wilder's 
death (January 25, 1901), the late Dr. Charles Rice, Chairman 
of the Committee of Revision, requested Prof. Henry Kraemer to 
take charge of the preparation of Part III, the work to be done by 
Florence Yaple, Ph.G . Philadelphia. This part includes the abstracts 
of pharmaceutical literature during the years 1898, 1899 and 1900, 
and as much of the literature of 1901 as could be arranged by May 
15th without further delaying the work, and was prepared in less 
than four months. Any one desiring a copy of Part III of the Digest 
of Criticisms may obtain the same by addressing Prof. Joseph P. 
Remington, Chairman of the Revision Committee, and forwarding 
six cents per copy to cover the amount of postage. 



PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

The seventh of the series of pharmaceutical meetings of the Phila- 
delphia College of Pharmacy for 1901-1902 was held on Tuesday, 



242 Pharmaceutical Meeting. { Am May r ifo2 armt 

April 15th. Mr. Joseph W. England, Curator of the Museum, pre- 
sided. The first paper read was " Notes on Specific Gravity," by 
Thomas S. Wiegand, the Librarian of the College (see page 230). 
In discussing the paper Mr. Gustavus Pile said that for the ordinary 
determination of specific gravity of liquids, the use of the hydrom- 
eter was more easily understood and applied than a balance, and 
more accurate than a specific gravity bottle. It was possible with 
the hydrometer possessing a large bulb and small stem to have the 
graduations sufficiently delicate to detect a variation of the fifth of 
a grain. One of the most serious difficulties in taking specific 
gravity is that occasioned by the variation in temperature, and the 
speaker favored the adoption of one temperature rather than having 
two standard temperatures, viz.: 39 and 6o°. He said that in the 
construction of hydrometers everything depended upon having a 
correct standard of comparison. All other instruments are then 
made from this and the rulings made from tables which have been 
previously worked out. Mr. Pile further said that the displacement 
of air was not as great a source of error as is generally supposed,, 
and that any two liquids will displace nearly the same amount of 
air. 

The next paper was on " Chamois Skins," by Charles C. Drued- 
ing (see page 224). The paper was illustrated with a large number 
of commercial varieties which showed the steps in their preparation 
for the market. 

The discussion on the definition of the term spoonful and its 
metric equivalent was opened by M. I. Wilbert (see page 218). Mr. 
England said that apparently no one had so exhaustively gone into 
this subject before as Mr. Wilbert, and that a campaign of education 
seemed necessary to overcome the prevailing customs and notions on 
these subjects. He suggested that some of the difficulties might be 
overcome by the physician writing "a teaspoon even full " or a " tea- 
spoon heaping full." Mr. C. Carroll Meyer did not favor this sugges- 
tion, as he considered that it would add to the length of the directions 
on the label and that this was considerable, particularly when medi- 
cines were dispensed in half- or one-ounce bottles. Mr. George M. 
Beringer said that the physician calculates the doses of the prescrip- 
tion in one, two and four fluid drachms, and that while we cannot 
influence the size of spoons, yet we can make suggestions to the 
nanufacturer of medicine glasses. He further said that he had in 



Am, M°ay?i902f rm '} Pharmaceutical Meeting. 243 

mind the construction of a graduate as a medicine glass in which 
the lo.ver part was conical and graduated, and the upper part so 
constructed as to facilitate the administration of the medicine. He 
further said that we ought not to introduce the transposition of 
doses, and that we ought to endeavor to carry out the decimal meas- 
ures on graduates independent of their spoon equivalents. Mr. 
Meyer said that he believed that the people will continue to use 
spoons in measuring medicines. Mr. E. M. Boring considered that 
the physician could control the subject more than any one else and 
could influence the use of medicine glasses. Miss Anna C. Ross, P.D., 
alluded to some of the troubles connected with the subject in dis- 
pensary work. Mr. Wilbert, in closing the subject, said that in 
using teaspoons, metric equivalents were closely approximated. He 
offered the following resolutions, which, with the amendments as 
finally adopted, are herewith given : 

Whereas, it is desirable to secure greater accuracy and more uniformity in 
the measuring out or administration of doses of liquid medicines. 

Therefore, be it Resolved, That we, members of the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy, assembled at this pharmaceutical meeting, recommend the use of 
accurately graduated glass dose measures ; these measures to be constructed 
so that the height of the contained liquid, at a spoonful mark, is greater than 
its diameter. 

Resolved, That for use in connection with spoons as dose measures, we 
recommend the promulgation of the following definition taken from the French 
Codex : 

"A spoon is full when the liquid it contains comes up to, but does not show a 
curve above, the upper edge or rim of the bowl." 

Resolved, That for use in connection with the metric system of weights and 
measures, we recommend the adoption of the following approximate equiva- 
lents of spoonfuls. 

1 teaspoonful equals 5 c.c. 

1 dessertspoonful equals 2 teaspoonfuls or 10 c.c. 
1 tablespoonful equals 3 teaspoonfuls or 15 c.c. 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be sent to the chairman of the 
Committee on the Metric System of the American Pharmaceutical Association 
and the secretaries of the American Medical Association and Philadelphia 
County Medical Society, for the purpose of their consideration and the securing 
of uniform action on this subject. 

Mr. William Mclntyre said that inasmuch as it was proposed in 
the report of the Committee on Pharmaceutical Meetings at the 
annual meeting of the College, to provide a permanent fund for 
carrying on these meetings, he desired to give $65.00 additional 



244 



Philadelphia College of Pharmacy 



f Am. Jour. I'harm 
X May, 1902. 



to what he had already given to the committee, thus making his 
contribution to this fund $100.00. Mr. Mclntyre's gift was accepted 
and a unanimous vote of thanks was tendered him. 

At the next meeting, on May 20th, which will be the last of the 
present series, an interesting programme will be presented. 

H. K. 



PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 

THE EIGHTY-FIRST ANNUAL COMMENCEMENT. 

The exercises connected with conferring the degrees of Doctor of Pharmacy 
and Pharmaceutical Chemist were held in the Academy of Music, Thursday 
evening, April 17th. Prayer was offered by Rev. Edgar Cope. The degrees 
were conferred by the President, Howard B. French. The following received 
the degree of Doctor of Pharmacy (P.D.) : 



Name. 

Ackerman, William Brown, 

Alston, William Algernon, 
Baer, Herbert Oscar, 
Beegle, David Elmer, 
Berberich, Joseph Herman, 
Binder, Arthur Henry, 
Blew, Robert St. Clair, 
Blough, Elijah Robert, 
Borneman John Alexander, 

Brookes, Virginia Cade, P. C 
Brown, Horsey Pierce, 
Caden, Alice Beatrice, 

Catlin, Joseph Albert, 
Clemmer, John Krupp, 
Craven, Alfred Young, 
Crawford, Thomas Foster, 
Croft, Clarence, 
Crothers, Anthony Brooks, 
Dickinson, Ralph Brinton, 
Douglass, John Xavier 
Downs, William Joseph, 
Dulaney, Joseph Field, 

Eckels, Nathaniel Ort, 
Evans, Thomas John, 
Eves, Charles Scott, 
Evrard, John Joseph, 



Subject oj Thesis. 

Some Notes on the Morphology and 

Cultivation of Digitalis \ 
Cinchona , 

Liquor Ferri Chloridi, 
Suprarenal Glands, 
Morphine and its Antidotes, 
Cereus Grandiforus , 
Arsenic and its Antidote, 
Cultivated Hydrastis, 
Naturalization of Medicinal Plants 

in the United States, 
.Mesquite Gum, 
Antidiphtheritic Serum, 
The Valuation of Pepsin with Dried 

Egg Albumen, 
Cannabis Indica, 
A loin, 
Heroin, 
Iodine, 
Aloes, 
Kaolin, 

Cocaines Hydrochloras, 
Smokeless Powder and- its Advantages, Pennsylvania. 
Nux Vomica, Pennsylvania. 
Nutrient Gelatin and Agar-Agar 

Media, Texas. 
Emulsion of Terebene, Pennsylvania. 
Aqua Hydrogenii Dioxidi, Pennsylvania. 
The Hypophosphites, Pennsylvania. 
Coal Tar Products, Pennsylvania. 



State. 

Pennsylvania. 
S. Carolina. 
W. Virginia. 
Pennsylvania. 
Germany. 
Pennsylvania. 
New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania. 

Germany. 

Texas. 

Delaware. 

Kentucky. 

Maryland. 

Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania. 

Scotland. 

Pennsylvania. 

Maryland. 

Pennsylvania. 



Am. Jour. Pharm 
May. 1902. 



} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 



245 



Name. 

Fetterolf, Clarence F. G., 
Filman, Walter Theodore, 
Fitch, James Clarence, 
Fleischer, William Paul, 
Fox, Irvin Berry, 



Fox, Joseph Peter, 
Fried, Percy, 

Gamer, Albert Charles C, 
Gehringer, Edwin Franklin 
Geron, Yeatman, 
Gettel John Ralph Elsrode 
Gliem, Harry Charles, 
Goodman, Edith Morton, 



Goring, Myatt Edward, 
Grove, Harry Ross, 

Handwork, Francis Collins 

He fifel finger, Wm. Edward, 
Hendrickson, Raymond, 
Hertzler, Norman Eberly, 
Hertzler, Oliver Henry, 

Hilliard, Bayard, 
Jones, Howard Harlan, 
Kellar, William Albert, 

Kirk, Frank Hall, 
Knabb, Daniel Milton, 
Knauss, Howard James, 
Kyle, Christian Bauer, 
Lescure, Anna Rosalie, 
Levering, John Hartranft, 
Lewis, Herbert Willard, 
Lide, Leighton Elba, 
McGarrah,Wm. Henry, Jr. 
MacGregor, Albert Dell, 

McLaughlin, Harry A., 
Marcus, Simon, 
Margolin, Fannie Bezman, 
Martin, Charles Edward, 
Martin, Frederick Adam, 
Matlack, Walter Ball, 



Subject of Thesis. State. 

Xanthium Canadense, Pennsylvania. 

Oleum Santali, Pennsylvania. 

Fat-free Tincture of Digitalis, Pennsylvania. 

The Different Varieties of Ipecac, Pennsylvania. 

The Economics of a Retail Pharma- 
cist Collecting and Powdering his 
own Crude Drugs, Pennsylvania. 

Cascara Sagrada, Pennsylvania. 

Urotropin, Pennsylvania. 

Public Sanitation, California. 

Sodii Chloridum, Pennsylvania. 

Ergota, Alabama. 

Rhamnus Purshiana, Pennsylvania. 

Therapeutics of Digitalis, Pennsylvania. 

Diphtheria Antitoxin; its Preparation 
and Recognition by the Pharma- 
copoeia, Colorado. 

Pepsinum, New York. 

The Physiological Action and Thera- 
peutic Uses of Ergot, Pennsylvania. 

Official Medicinal Plants growing in 

the vicinity of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Administration of Cod Liver Oil, Pennsylvania. 

Nutgall Ink, California. 

Pyroxylinum, Pennsylvania. 

Acetic Acid as a Menstruum in the 

Manufacture of Fluid Extracts, Pennsylvania. 

Apomorphine Hydrochlorate, New Jersey. 

Acidum Gallicum, Pennsylvania. 

Eucaine and its Salts. Eucaine 

Hydrochlorate, Colorado. 

Petroleum and its Therapeutic Uses, Pennsylvania. 

Syrupus Hypophosphitum, Pennsylvania. 

Acidum Carbolicum, Pennsylvania. 

Acetone, Pennsylvania. 

Disinfectants and Antiseptics, Pennsylvania. 

Liquor Potassii Arsenitis, Pennsylvania. 

Olive Oil Adulteration, Massachusetts. 

I he Manufacture of Cotton Seed Oil, Mississippi. 

The Art of Filling Capsules, Pennsylvania. 

Tests for the Identification of For- 
maldehyde in Milk and Food, Illinois. 

Peppermint and Spearmint, Pennsylvania. 

Phytolacca Radix, Pennsylvania. 

Petroleum, Russia. 

Kaolin, Pennsylvania. 

Acidum Benzoicum, New Jersey. 

Digitalis and its Preparations, New Jersey. 



246 



Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 



Am. .lour. Pharm. 
May. 1902. 



Name. Subject of 7 hesis. 

Meals, Ira Dale, Zinc Oxide, 

Meredith, Wilbur Curtis, Digitalis, 
Metzler, Oscar LeRoy, Cocillana, 
Myers, Luther Melancthon, Pepsinum, 



Oberly, John S., 
Parker, James Heber, 
Penrose, Thos. Wm., P. C. 
Quinn, Vincent DePaul, 
Ramsaur, David Wilfong, 
Reeve, Alfred Warffuell, 

Reice, Isaac Stephen, 
Rhodes, Geo. Washington, 



Ginseng and its Cultivation, 
The Estimation of Formaldehyde, 
, Distilled Water, 
Cinchona, 
Serenoa Serrulata, 
Comparative Solubility of the Chemi 

cats of the U.S. P. and the P.P., 
Belladonna, 

The Physician and the Pharmacist, 



Robinson, David Cvogman,Strophanthus, 
Robinson, Thos. H., Jr., Ungutntum Zinci Oxidi, 
Roeder, Maurice Albert, Syrup of Tolu, 
Rudolph, Harold Clarence, Vaccine Virus, 



Schmidt, Oscar Carl, 
Shenkle, Albert Philip, 
Slobig, Charles Henry, 
Smith, Alfred Homer, 
Smith, Henry William, 



Liquor Magnesii Citratis, 
Gentiana, 
Petroleum, 
Codeina, 
Copper, 

Smith, Wm. David Harris, A comparison of the several parts of 

Cassia Marilandica with the Leaf- 



State. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Florida. 

New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania. 
Maryland. 
Pennsylvania. 
Virginia. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Delaware. 
Pennsylvania. 



Soken, Joseph Louis, 
Strauss, Robert Franklin, 
Stuver, Henry William, 
Swartz, William Luther, 
Thomas, George Carroll, 
Toulson, John Milburn, 
Tyler, Ephraim Shaw, 

Ulrich, Ralph Thomas, 
Weidemann, Geo. B., B. S 
Weigester, Wilson, 
Welch, William Herbert, 



lets of Cassia Acutifolia, 
Argon, 
Podophyllum, 

Emulsion of Liquid Petroleum, 
Pills and their Excipients, 
Guarana, 
Phytolacca, 

The Opium Preparations of the 

U.S.P., 
What is a Fruit ? 
, Tinctura Opii Deodorata, 
Gonococcus, 
lannic Acid, 



Williams, Morrison Patton, Official Plants of the Labiates, 
Wilson, Oscar Hermon, Cinchona, 
Winkler, Max Erwin, An Antidote Cabinet, 
Wisegarver, Oscar Kline, Biological Products, 
Woodill, Robert Franklin, Urine Analysis by Pharmacists 
Worthington, J. W. Wolf, Mercury with Chalk, 
Ziegler, Charles Norman, Oleum Morrhuce, 
Ziegler, Wm. Lodge, Jr., Maltum, 

The following received the degree of Pharmaceutical Chemist (P.C.) : 

Name. Subject of Thesis. State. 

Baker, Daniel, Fat-free Tincture of Strophantus, Pennsylvania 

Miller, Roy Leonard, Assay of Extractum Nucis Vomica, Maryland. 



Tennessee. 

Russia. 

Pennsylvania. 

Colorado. 

Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania. 

Maryland. 

New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
N. Carolina. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Massachusetts. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania. 



ADE? May!;i9(G ari " J Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 247 

Announcement by the Dean. Prof. Joseph P. Remington stated that an 
unusually high average had been attained by the members of this class, and that 
the President's cup, offered by Howard B. French, was awarded them and would 
be held hy them until some succeeding class should attain a higher grade of 
scholarship. The following received the grade of distinguished : Daniel Milton 
Knabb, John S. Oberly, James Heber Parker, William David Harris Smith, 
Morrison Patton Williams, Oscar Plermon Wilson, Joseph Field Dulaney. The 
following were meritorious : Albert Charles C. Gamer, John Milburn Toulson, 
William Herbert Welch, J. Warren Wolf Worthington. 

The Valedictory Address was delivered by Hon. Charles Emory Smith, 
ex-Postmaster-General. After briefly reviewing the history and work of the 
College, Mr. Smith alluded to the beneficent work -of the apothecary since the 
time of Hippocrates, and in this connection made a number of quotations from 
the classics. In closing he urged the graduates to be thorough in all they did 
and masters of their work ; thoroughness with tact and common-sense he con- 
sidered were the requisites for a successful life. 

AWARD OF PRIZES. 

The Procter Prize of a gold medal and certificate for the highest grade of 
scholarship and meritorious thesis was awarded to David Wilfong Ramsaur, 
and presented by Howard B. French. 

The William B. Webb Memorial Prize of a gold medal and certificate, 
offertd by Mrs. Rebecca T. Webb for the highest general average in the exami- 
nations of the Committee, Operative Pharmacy and Specimens, was awarded to 
Daniel Milton Knabb and presented by William J. Jenks. The following 
graduates received honorable mention in connection therewith : David Wilfong 
Ramsaur, William David Harris Smith. 

The Chemistry Prize of $25, offered by Prof. Samuel P. Sadtler, for 
original work in quantitative analysis, was awarded to James Heber Parker, 
the following graduates receiving honorable mention in connection therewith: 
Raymond Hendrickson, Roy Leonard Miller. 

The Materia Mbdica Prize of S25, offered by Prof. C. B. Lowe, for the 
best examination in Materia Medica, the recognition of Materia Medica speci- 
mens, and a meritorious thesis, was awarded to John S. Oberly, the following 
receiving honorable mention in connection therewith : Daniel Milton Knabb, 
James Heber Parker, Alfred Homer Smith, William David Harris Smith, Oscar 
Hermon Wilson, J. Warren Wolf Worthington. 

The Analytical Chemistry Prize of $25, offered by Prof. F. X. Moerk, 
for the best special examination in quantitative and qualitative analysis by 
students receiving the grade of " very satisfactory" in both the second and 
third years, was awarded to James Heber Parker, the following receiving hon- 
orable mention in this connection : Wilbur Curtis Meredith, David Wilfong 
Ramsaur, William David Harris Smith, Oscar Hermon Wilson. 

The Maisch Prize of $20, offered by Mr. J. H. Redsecker, of Lebanon. 
Pa , for histological knowledge of drugs, was awarded to Oliver Henry Hertzler, 
and presented by Prof. Henry Kraemer, the following graduates receiving 
honorable mention in connection therewith : James Clarence Fitch, Albert 
Charles C. Gamer, Daniel Milton Knabb, David Wilfong Ramsaur, William 
David Harris Smith, Morrison Patton Williams. 



248 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am ^iS| arffl - 

The Operative Pharmacy Prize of $20, offered by Prof. J. P. Reming" 
ton, for the best examination in operative pharmacy, was awarded to J. War- 
ren Wolf Worthington, the following graduates receiving honorable mention 
in this connection : William David Harris Smith, Daniel Milton Knabb, John 
Alexander Bornemann, David Wilfong Ramsaur, Howard James Knauss, Leigh- 
ton Elba Lide, John Milburn Toulson, Yeatman Geron, Charles Scott Eves, 
Henry William Stuver, William Edward Heffelfinger, William Luther Swartz, 
Herbert Willard Lewis, John S. Oberly. 

The Theoretical Pharmacy Prize, consisting of a fine Troemner agate 
prescription balance, offered by Mr. M. N. Kline, for the best examination in 
theory and practice of pharmacy, was awarded to William David Harris Smith, 
and presented by Dr. C. A. Weidemann, the following receiving honorable 
mention in connection therewith : Daniel Milton Knabb, Albert Dell Mac- 
Gregor, James Heber Parker, David Wilfong Ramsaur, George Buzby Weide- 
mann, Wilson Weigester, William Herbert Welch, Oscar Kline Wisegarver. 

The Instructors' Prize of $20, offered by the instructors for the highest 
term average in the branches of pharmacy, chemistry and materia medica, 
was awarded to John S. Oberly, and presented by Dr. J. L. D. Morison, the 
following graduates receiving honorable mention in connection therewith : 
James Heber Parker, William David Harris Smith, Oscar Hermon Wilson, 
Morrison Patton Williams, J. Warren Wolf Worthington, Albert Charles C. 
Gamer, David Wilfong Ramsaur, Joseph Field Dulaney. 

The Commercial Training Prize of $20, offered by Prof. J. P. Reming- 
ton, for the best examination in this branch, was awarded to Edith Morton 
Goodman, and presented by Dr. A. W. Miller, the following graduates receiv- 
ing honorable mention in connection therewith : William Brown Ackerman, 
Herbert Oscar Baer, David Elmer Beegle, Nathaniel Ort Eckels, John Joseph 
Evrard, Albert Charles C. Gamer, Leighton Elba Lide, Albert Dell MacGregor, 
Frederick Adam Martin, John S. Oberly, James Heber Parker, David Wilfong 
Ramsaur, John Milburn Toulson, George Buzby Weidemann, Max Erwin 
Winkler, William Lodge Ziegler. 

COMPLIMENTARY SUPPER OF THE FACULTY. 

A complimentary supper was given to the graduating class by the members 
of the Faculty on Wednesday evening, April 16th, in the Museum of the Col- 
lege. Some of the officers and trustees of the College were present, as also 
other invited guests The grade of scholarship attained by this class being 
higher than that of the class last year, they were entitled to receive the Presi- 
dent's cup. It was presented by the donor, Howard B. French, and received 
on behalf of the class by a specially selected committee. 

Professor Remington acted as toastmaster, and toasts were responded to by the 
members of the Faculty and instructors, some of the members of the College 
and Board of Trustees, and by many of the members of the graduating class. 
The latter took this occasion to present Dr. J. L. D. Morison, retiring instruc 
tor in Materia Medica, with a watch-fob as a mark of their esteem. 

BACCALAUREATE SERMON. 

The baccalaureate services were held this year, as last year, in Christ Church, 
the sermon being delivered by the rector, the Rev. Dr. C. Ellis Stevens. 



Am 'May?l902 a^rl) •} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 249 

THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION. 

The thirty-eighth annual meeting of the Alumni Association was held in 
Alumni Hall, on Tuesday afternoon, at 2.30 o'clock, April 15th, with the 
President, John H. Hahn, in the chair. 

Following the annual address of the President, reports from the officers and 
standing committees were read. The following officers were elected for the 
ensuing year: President, William G. Nebig; Vice-Presidents, Albert Oetinger 
and Jacob M. Baer; Treasurer, C. Carroll Meyer; Recording Secretary, William 
E. Krewson; Corresponding Secretary, Walter A. Rumsey; Board of Directors, 
John D. Burg, E. F. Cook, C. H. La Wall, William T. England and Rolland H. 
French. 

The thirty-eighth annual reception was held in the evening of the same day 
in the College Museum, William G. Nebig, the newly-elected President, pre- 
siding. After the roll call by the Secretary, William E. Krewson, of new mem- 
bers elected during 1901-1902, they were addressed by Dr. Adolph W. Miller. 
The prizes offered by the Association were presented as follows: 

The Alumni gold medal for the best general average of the Class of 1902 was 
presented by William G. Nebig to David Wilfong Ramsaur. 

The Alumni prize certificates to the members of the class receiving the highest 
averages in each of the following branches were presented by Mahlon N. Kline: 

Pharmacy, to Wm. David Harris Smith; Chemistry, to Morrison Patton Wil- 
liams; Materia Medica, to John S. Oberly; General Pharmacy (Committee), 
to J. Warren W. Worthington; Operative Pharmacy, to J. Warren W. Worthing- 
ton; Analytical Chemistry, to Joseph F. Dulaney; Specimens, to William Her- 
bert Welch. 

The Alumni silver medal was awarded to Chester Augustus Billedoux, for 
the best general average in the second year examination, and presented by 
Walter A. Rumsey. 

The Alumni bronze medal was awarded to Miss Millicent Saxon Renshaw, for 
the best general average in the first year examination, and presented by Jacob 
M. Baer. 

The class oration was given by Charles E. Martin; the poem by Alfred Y. 
Craven; the history by Wm. D. H. Smith, and the prophecy by M. A. Roeder. 

EXAMINATION QUESTIONS. 

The following is a copy of the questions given to the students of the Third- 
Year Class at their recent examinations. The examinations in Operative 
Pharmacy and Analytical Chemistry were practical, and were conducted in the 
respective laboratories ; the others were written. 

THEORY AND PRACTICE OF PHARMACY. 

A — (1) How many pounds of 10 per cent. Ammonia Water (sp. gr. 0*960) 
can be made from 1 gallon of 28 per cent. Ammonia Water (sp. gr. 900) ? 
(2) What are the U.S. P. requirements for the strength of Opium? (3) How 
many c.c. of Tincture of Opium assaying 1*4 per cent, morphine can be made 
from 50 oz av. of Powdered Opium assaying 15*5 per cent, morphine? 

B — Give the unabbreviated official or Latin name, ingredients, brief outline 
of process, and describe the appearance of blue ointment, compound chalk 



250 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Aim "m££ 



Pharm. 

1902. 



powder, Lugol's solution, Zittman's decoction, carron oil and aromatic syrup 
of rhubarb. 

C — Give the English name, ingredients, brief outline of process and describe 
the appearance of syrupus acidi hydriodici, tinctura opii deodorati, spiritus 
aetheris nitrosi, linimentum belladonnae, vinum ferri amarum and unguentum 
chrysarobini. 

D — (1) When and by whom was vaccination first introduced? (2) What 
observation was made by the discoverer which led to the original introduction 
of vaccination ? (3) Describe the modern methods of preparing vaccine virus, 
stating the precautions necessary to guard against contamination from danger- 
ous impurities. 

E — (1) What is the difference between a Cerate and an Ointment? (2) State 
the circumstances under which a physician would select the following vehicles 
for external application : Lard, Hydrous Wool Fat, Oleic Acid, Petrolatum, 
Cerate. (3) What methods have been used to prevent or delay rancidity in 
fats? (4) What is the most effective method of preparing lard for pharmaceu- 
tical purposes so as to secure absence of odor and a proper consistency? (5) 
What are the advantages of collapsible tubes for dispensing ointments? 

F — (1) Describe three kinds of gelatin capsules and state their uses. (2) 
How are capsules for holding liquids made? (3) How may each kind of cap- 
sule be filled by the apothecary? 

G—(i) What is the object of pharmaceutical legislation? (2) What should 
be the qualifications of a Board of Pharmacy ? (3) Why is there not a United 
States Pharmacy law? (4) Give the reasons for advocating the payment of all 
expenses of enforcing pharmacy laws by the State? (5) Why should all 
receipts be turned into the State treasury and all expenses be paid by the 
State? (6) Why should every registered pharmacist be compelled to have a 
diploma from a recognized college before taking his examination ? 

//—Criticise and translate the following. Write out with English names the 
ingredients and quantities. State how you would compound them, or what 
course you would pursue. 

37421 

R Acidi Carbolici gtt. xx 

Sodii Bicarb. 

Sodii Borat. aa 
Glycerini fjfj 
Aquae ad. f<fiv 
4281 

R Potas. Iod. gr. iij 

Quin. Sulph. gr. j 

Syr. Aurant. gss 
Aquam ad. ^ij 

M. 

73842, S. 99. 
R Acid. Carbolici £iss 

Liq. Plumb. S. Acet. fgij 

Aquae q. s. ft. f ^ x 

Ft. Lotio Sec. Art. 
Sig. — Use externally. 



Am. Jour. I'harru. 
May, 1902. 



Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 



251 



/—Criticise and translate the following. Write out with English names the 
ingredients and quantities. State how you would compound them, or what 
course you would pursue. Give the meaning of the numbers and marks on 
the margin : 

R Sarah McM. 

M. S. gr. j 

Am. Mur. sjj 
Mst. Fuscm. f5iv 
M. Sig. — 3 i j in aq. ev. h. 

682. 

R Dg. 

Pulv. Rad. Bellad. gr. 1/20 
Flor. Benzces 
11321 Tannin Pur. aa gr. j 

Sacch. Alb. F. P. 

M. F. Pulv. D. T. D. Dir. No. XX. 
Sig. — Bvy mng & eng 1 powder to be given. 

N. K. 

U B. A. 20509. 

01. Copaib. rr^ij 
Magnesise gr. ij 

Pulv. Acacia gr. j 

M. ft. pil mitte tales xxxvj 
B.J. 

K — Fill up six of the labels upon the sheet attached, writing suitable direc- 
tions for the prescriptions found on Questions H and J. 

Then write three complete prescriptions upon the blanks printed on the 
sheet: (1) For a baby six moths old, suffering from indigestion and diarrhea 
(four powders containing magnesia in a proper dose). (2) One for an old lady 
requiring a tonic and nerve stimulant, containing Tincture of Nux Vomica, 
Diluted Nitrohydrochloric Acid and Elixir of Orange (teaspoonful dose, 8-ounce 
mixture). (3) One metric prescription for a man thirty years old, requiring a 
suppository containing Extract of Belladonna and Powdered Opium (12 sup- 
positories). 

Write labels for the prescriptions above, and also for the following: (4) Oue 
for an ointment to apply for a slight eruption on the face, hands and arms, due 
to sunburn. (5) One for 12 pills for an adult suffering from constipation. 

Upon labels for Nos. 4 and 5 write the name and the kind of pills and oint- 
ment, and brief directions for use. 

CHEMISTRY. 

A — (1) Describe Acidum Stearicum and Acidum Oleicum. (2) Give the 
formulas of the alcohols and the hydrocarbons from which Stearic Acid and 
Oleic Acid respectively are derived. (3) To what series do they belong re- 
spectively ? (x) What important reaction with fatty oils is dependent upon this 
distinction ? (5) What are the pharmaceutical and technical uses of these two 
acids ? 



252 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am lm rn * 

B — (i) Describe the pure Cellulose of the U.S.P., and give its official name. 
(2) What solvent for Cellulose is known? (3) What is the action of strong 
Sulphuric Acid upon Cellulose? What of dilute Sulphuric Acid? What of 
strong Nitric Acid? (4) What pharmaceutical products are obtained as the 
result of these several actions ? (5) What important industrial applications for 
the same products ? 

C— (1) Write the structural formula for Acetanilidum, and state to what class 
it belongs. (2) Mention any other synthetic compounds of importance belong- 
ing to this class. (3) Show by formulas the difference between diphenylamine 
and phenylene-diamine. (4) What color tests in water analysis depend upon 
the use of these compounds? (5) Give the reactions for the formation of a 
di-azo compound and the production of a phenol from the same. 

D — ( 1) Give the official name for phenol, and state its source and properties. 
(2) What are the pharmacopceial tests for phenol ? (3) What compound is formed 
by the action of strong Nitric Acid upon phenol, and what is the character of 
the compound thus formed? (4) Name the two isomeric compounds C 6 H 4 
(CH 3 )OH and C 6 H 5 CH 2 OH and state how you would establish the identity of 
each. (5) Name the isomeric compounds C 6 H 4 (CH 3 )C1 and C 6 H 5 CH 2 C1 and 
state by what reaction you can distinguish between them. 

E—{i) What is the exact chemical name and structural formula of Salicylic 
Acid? (2) What are its natural sources ? (3) Write the reactions for its syn- 
thetic formation. (4) Name the official salts and esters of Salicylic Acid. (5) 
Give the pharmacopceial tests for Salicylic Acid. 

F— ( 1) What is the chemical distinction between an alkaloid and a glucoside ? 

(2) By what chemical tests do you establish this difference? (3) What are 
some of the most important alkaloidal reagents? (4) What compounds are 
indicated as the underlying substances in the alkaloidal formulas? (5) By 
what reaction have glucosides been made artificially? 

G — (1) Define a terpeue and give a typical example, with an account of its 
properties. (2) What classes of compounds accompany the terpenes in their 
occurrence in nature? (3) Give examples of official essential oils that do not 
contain terpenes. (4) Into what several groups may resins be divided? Give 
the distinguishing characters of each. 

//"—Write the graphic formulas of: (1) Tartar Emetic. (2) Phenacetine. 

(3) Ortho-oxybenzoic Acid. (4) Benzaldehyde. (5) Gallic Acid. (6) B- 
Naphthol. 

/ — Give proper chemical names for : 

(1) fOC ]8 H 33 (2) CH=CH\ 

C 3 H 5 \ OC 1P H ss O I O (3) 

CH = C/ C 6 H 5 NH-NH 2 
COH 

(4) (OH (5) CH 1 (6) COH 

I # S 

(COH CO HC CH 

I I II 

C 6 H 5 HC COH 

\\ / 
CH 



A 7 "— Examples in Proximate Organic Analysis. 



Am, £?!*"i902 arH1- } Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 253 

(1) How would you identify and determine the components in a mixture 
of free fatty acid, fatty oil, and mineral oil ? (2) How would you identify and 
determine the components in a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbon, phenol and 
ketone ? 

MATERIA MKDICA. 

A — Medical Terms, etc. — Define briefly the following terms, viz.: (1) Epis- 
pastic. (2) Antiseptic. (3) Escharotic. (4) Hypnotic. (5) Disinfectant. (6) 
Lithontriptic. (7) Ecbolic. (8) Errhine. (9) Cholagogue. (10) Sudorific. 
Give three illustrations of each of the above terms from the following list, viz.: 
Sulphonal, Podophyllin, Dover's Powder, Ergot, Mustard, Caustic Potassa, 
Corrosive Sublimate, Iodoform, Potassium Citrate, Pilocarpine, Nitric Acid, 
Formaldehyde, Savine, Veratriue, Trional, Aloin, Boric Acid, Lithium Citrate, 
Euonymin, Piperazin, Chloral, Carbolic Acid, Bloodroot, Mezereum, Hot Bath, 
Thymol, Cantharides, Arsenic, Cotton Root Bark, Ginger. 

B — Official Names, etc. — Give the official names of the following and state 
what constitutes in each case the official drug: (1) Wolfsbane. (2) Woody 
Nightshade. (3) Mediterranean Onion. (4) Henbane. (5) Wormwood. (6) 
Indian Hemp. (7) Canadian Hemp. (8) Stinkasant. (9) Culver's Physic. 

(10) Blue Cohosh. (11) Succus Theabaicum. (12) Soldier's Friend. (13) 
Lactose. (14) Queen's Root. (15) Cutch. (16) Cleum Jecoris Aselli. (17) 
Indian Tobacco. (18) Oxgall. (19) Bitter Apple. (20) Spotted Hemlock. 

C— Anti-Constipation Pills. — Write out a formula for twelve pills which 
shall contain the proper amounts of the following ingredients, viz.: Aloin, 
Extract of Nux Vomica, Extract of Belladonna, Extract of Physostigma. 
How should they be given ? 

D — Official Names, Natural Orders, etc. — Give the official names, natural 
orders and habitat of the drugs derived from the following origins, viz.: (1) 
Barosma crenulata. (2) Rhamus Purshiana. (3) Nicotiana Tabacum. (4) 
Cannabis Sativa. (5) Fraxiuus ornus. (6) Croton Tiglium. (7) Ecballium 
Elaterinum. (8) Veronica virginica. (9) Pinus palustris. ( 10) Abies balsamea. 

(11) Brassica alba. (12) Melaleuca Leucadendron. (13) Citrus Bergamia. 
(14) Garcinia Hanburii. (15) Liquidamber orientalis. (16) Ruta graveolens. 
(17) Swertia Chirata. (18) Dryopteris Filix-mas. (19) Astragalus gummifera. 
(20) Claviceps purpurea. 

E — N. O. Solanacecs. — (1) Give the official names and active constituents of 
four leaf drugs, a fruit drug and a stem drug derived from plants belonging to 
this order. (2) Give the dose of four official alkaloidal salts derived from the 
above sources. (3) What is the action of the latter upon the pupil of the eye, 
and what are the drugs which act in this way called ? (4) Name two official 
drugs that have an opposite action, and the class of drugs to which they belong. 

F — Monkshood. — (1) State three prominent ways in which you would differ- 
entiate this drug from dandelion root. (2) State its alkaloidal constituents, 
and the acid with which they are combined. (3) What is the action of this 
drug upon the cutaneous sensory nerves, the heart and the respiration ? (4) 
State the medicinal properties of this drug, and the method of giving it to get 
the best results. (5) How would you treat a case of poisoning by this drug? 

G— Volatile Oils. — Give the Latin official names of the following, and the 
botanical names of the plants from which they are derived : (1) Oil of Flea- 



254 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. {^'^;^ tm ' 

bane. (2) Oil of Turpentine. (3) Oil of Cassia. (4) Oil of American Worm- 
seed. (5) Oil of Allspice. (6) Oil of Cade. (7) Oil of Sweet Birch. (8) Oil 
of Wintergreen. (9) Oil of Pennyroyal. (10) Oil of Neroli. How should 
volatile oils be preserved, and what is the color of a medicinally active Oil of 
Fleabane ? 

H— Vegetable Purgatives. — (1) Give official names and doses of three laxa- 
tive drugs. (2) Of three simple purgatives. (3) Of three drastic purgatives. 

(4) Of three cholagogue purgatives. 

I— Copaiba. — (1) State the manner of its production. (2) How do the Para, 
the Rio Janeiro and the Maracaibo varieties differ from each other ? (3) What 
is the best variety for making Massa Copaiba, and how should the others be 
treated to adapt them for this purpose ? (4) What is the dose and action of 
this drug upon the mucous membrane of the bronchi and genito-urinary tract? 

K— Emergency Case. — If a case were brought to your store exhibiting the 
following symptoms, viz : Complete unconsciousness, from which the patient 
cannot be roused, face flushed, eyes congested, pupils unequally dilated and 
uninfluenced by light, breathing stertorous, pulse slow but nearly normal, and 
perhaps paralysis of motion and sensibility of one side, what would be your 
diagnosis and treatment ? 

COMMITTEE. 

A — Bismuth — (1) Give the unabbreviated official name, specific gravity and 
symbol. (2) Describe its physical properties. (3) In what form is Bismuth 
generally found in nature ? (4) What process is used for purifying Bismuth ? 

(5) Name the official salts of Bismuth. (6) What impurity are these salts 
liable to contain ? (7) What is the pharmacopceial test for this impurity ? (8) 
Give the important tests for the identification of Bismuth in solutions. (9) 
What important properties does Bismuth communicate to its alloys? (10) What 
are the medical uses of Bismuth ? 

£ — (1) What is the difference between a granulated salt and one which is 
powdered? (2) Explain the cause of the formation of lumps during the proc- 
ess of granulation. (3) State how they may be avoided without resorting to 
trituration. (4) How are granulated Effervescing Salts made? (5) What 
advantages are gained by the administration of remedies in this form ? (6) Give 
an outline of the formulas of two official granulated Effervescent Salts. (7) 
Name one or more common household chemicals which are usually seen in the 
granular form. 

C— Cinchona Bark. — ( 1) Give the names of two official barks and their botani- 
cal origins. (2) What countries yield the principal supply of these barks ? (3) 
What is meant by the terms " natural," "mossed " and " renewed " bark ? (4) 
What is Grahe's test for Cinchona Bark? (5) What are the U.S. P. require- 
ments for alkaloidal strength for the official barks? (6) What action does qui- 
nine have upon micro-organisms? (7) State the dose of quinine when given as 
a tonic, an antiperiodic, or as a prophylactic. (8) What are the disadvantages 
of quinine pills that are insoluble in the stomach ? 

D — Give the English name or synonym, ingredients, brief outline of process, 
and describe the appearance of I/iq. Ferri et Ammonii Acetatis, Pilulse Rhei 
Composite, Syrupus Ipecacuanhae, Tinctura Gentianse Composite, Vinum 
Antimonii and Spiritus Juniperi Compositus. 



Am Ma"i$2. ariu "} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 255 

E — (1) If 5 pounds of Sodium Bicarbonate were accidentally emptied into a 
drawer which you knew contained just 9 pounds of Rochelle Salt, what would 
you do to remedy the mistake, and utilize the mixture ? Give name of sub- 
stance and quantity used to make it available. (2) How many c.c. would a 
mixture of the following liquids measure : 2,000 grammes each of water, alco- 
hol and glycerin of official strength? (No allowance for contraction or tem- 
perature.) 

£ — Volumetric Analysis. — (1) What is a normal solution? (2) Illustrate by 
giving the molecular weights and grams used per liter of the following : Sul- 
phuric Acid, Sodium Hydrate, Silver Nitrate, Iodine, Potassium Permanga- 
nate. (3) What are the advantages of volumetric solutions of lesser strength ? 
(4) What are the disadvantages of most of the volumetric solutions of the 
U.S. P.? (5) Name the official volumetric solutions with which all other 
volumetric solutions can be standardized. (6) What is an indicator? (7) Name 
five of the more important indicators and name the chemicals or class of chem- 
icals for which each is used. 

G — Ipecac. — (1) Give the origin, habitat and constituents of Ipecac. (2) In 
what respects do the Rio and Carthagena varieties differ ? (3 ) Can one be sub- 
stituted for the other ? (4) Mention some of the drugs that have been sug- 
gested as substitutes for Ipecac. 

H— Doses and Antidotes. — Give the maximum single dose of each of the 
following. Also name the antidotes and physiological antagonists of the first 
five of them : Tincture of Aconite, Tincture of Digitalis, Cocaine Hydro- 
chlorate, Morphine Sulphate, Strychnine Sulphate, Diluted Hydrocyanic Acid, 
Codeine Sulphate, Tincture of Nux Vomica, Atropine Sulphate, Hyoscyamine 
Sulphate. 

/ — (1) How would you compound the following prescription? State the 
object for directing the Salol coating. 

R Argenti Nitratis gr. x 

Pulv. Opii gr. vj 

M. ft. pil. No. XII. Coat with Salol and place in capsules coated with 
Salol. 

Sig. — One every 3 hours. 

(2) Criticise this prescription. What difficulties are likely to occur, and what 
precautions would you take to avoid them ? 

R Liq. Ammon. Acetat. f 3 iv 

Acid. Acetic f^j 
Tinct. Ferri Chloridi f gss 

Glycerini f ^ ss 

Mucilago Acacise q. s. ft. f^viij 
Misce. Sig. — One teaspoonful every 2 hours. 
K. — (1) Write a prescription for thirty pills, using unabbreviated official 
names and expressing the quantities metrically, each pill to contain 
R Arsenous Acid gr. 1/20 

Aloin gr. 1/6 

Vallet's Mass gr. iss 

Cinchonidine Sulphate gr. ij 
M. Sig. — One pill ter in die. 
Translate the directions and name the best excipient. 



256 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 

(2) State exactly how you would prepare the following prescription. Would 
you dispense it as written ? Give reasons for your mode of procedure. 

H Acidi Arsenosi *5 
Potassii Bicarb. i" 
Aq. Destillat. ioo* 
Ft. solutio sec. art. 

Sig. — Let 4 c.c. be given every 2 hours. 
Operative Pharmacy. 

(i) POWDERS. 

R Hydrarg. Chlor. Mit. . . . . o'i Gramme 

Pulv. Rhei 0-3 " 

Testae Prep i* " 

M. ft. Chart. No. XII. 

(2) GRANULAR EFFERVESCENT SAI/T. 

Sodium Phosphate 12*5 Grammes 

Citric Acid 4*5 " 

Tartaric Acid 675 " 

Sodium Bicarbonate 12 "5 

(3) OINTMENT. 

Mercury ; 2*5 Grammes 

Nitric Acid 3- C.c. 

Nitric Acid 2. " 

Lard Oil 30* " 

(4) EMULSION. 

Make 100 c.c. of an emulsion, by the English method, which must contain 
50 per cent, of Cod Liver Oil. Put it in a bottle and write on the label the 
quantities of each ingredient used. 

(5) SUPPOSITORIES. 

Extract of Stramonium -50 Gramme 

Tannic Acid '50 " 

Oil of Theobroma 6* Grammes 

Make six suppositories by rolling. 

ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY. 

(1) Describe the gravimetric and volumetric estimations of iron in Ferrous 
Sulphate. What are the advantages of the latter method ? 

(2) (a) Give the formula of the precipitate obtained in the quantitative 
determination of aluminum and state the change occurring during ignition. 
(6) How much " Alumen " will be equivalent to 0*153 of this ignited substance ? 

(3) {a) Why is it necessary, in the gasometric estimation of Hydrogen 
Dioxide, to make a correction for temperature before calculating percentage ? 
{b) If a sample of Hydrogen Dioxide yields 11 volumes of oxygen at 20 C, 
what is its percentage strength ? 



Am May%££ arm '} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 257 

(4) State the quantities of pure chemicals present in 200 c.c. of ^Hydro- 

N N 
chloric Acid, of — Barium Hydrate, of — Ammonia. 
10 2 

(5) Name the volumetric solutions and indicators (stating the end-reaction 
in each case) used in titrating Ferric Chloride, Arsenous Oxide, and Phenol. 

(6) (a) Calculate the factor of a silver nitrate v.s. 10 c.c. of which react 

with 8 c.c. — Sodium Chloride v.s. (b) How much potassium Iodide will be 
10 

equivalent to 1 c.c. of this silver nitrate v.s. ? 

(7) How would you standardize a Sulphuric Acid v.s. ? 

(8, 9 and 10) Volumetric estimations of Ferric Chloride, Arsenous Oxide, 
Phenol. 

COMMERCIAL TRAINING. 

A — Ordering Goods. — Write out an order for the following goods on Smith, 
Brown & Co., Wholesale Druggists, Boston, Mass. You are not known to 
them, but you have good credit. Be careful to use proper forms, abbreviations 
and details. Select any ten articles that you would be apt to need, each rep- 
resenting a different class of goods — say, 1 chemical, 1 drug, 1 fluid extract, 
1 kind of soap, 1 kind of toothbrush, etc. Write the order in such form that 
the drug house would not be in doubt on any single point. Fold the order 
properly and place it in an envelope properly addressed. 

B — Writing a Business Letter. — Write a model letter, asking for a position 
(containing about 100 words), to either a retail druggist, wholesale house, or 
manufacturer having a vacancy, giving such information about yourself as 
would be useful, and impressing the firm with the desirability of securing 
your services. Fold the letter properly and place it in an envelope properly 
addressed. 

C — Bank Checks. — (1) Describe the formalities necessary in opening an 
account with a bank. (2) Under what circumstances does a bank require 
identification ? (3) Why is identification necessary ? (4) What are the titles 
of the usual officers and principal employees of a bank, and state very briefly 
their chief duties. (5) Why is a check sometimes drawn "to order" and some- 
times "to bearer" ? (6) Which manner of drawing is usually preferable, and 
why ? (7) When you have received a check, drawn to your order, with your 
name misspelled, what course is to be pursued? (8) Draw a check upon the 
College of Pharmacy Bank for $80.75, upon the paper before you, omitting no 
necessary detail. (9) What is a " certified check"? (10) What is a "clear- 
ing house " ? 

D — Insurance. — (1) Define the business term " insurance." (2) Name four 
kinds of insurance in common use. (3) Define the terms "policy," "pre- 
mium," "good risk," " hazardous." (4) What value has insurance in affecting 
the credit of an individual or firm ? (5) What is meant by the contradictory 
term of a firm "insuring itself" ? (6) Has life insurance value in establishing 
the credit of a business man? (7) What is the principal advantage of life 
insurance ? 

E — Transportation. — (1) When goods (small or large packages) are to be, 
sent to a distance, describe briefly but accurately, with proper business forms 



258 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am -^;™? rm ' 

how each kind may be transported. (2) How may money be sent with com- 
parative safety to a distant point? (3) Name all of the methods that you 
know of, giving reasons for preferring one over the other under varying cir- 
cumstances. 

F— Commercial Terms. — Define the following terms : (1) Executor. (2) 
Administrator. (3) Power of Attorney. (4) Mercantile Agency. (5) F.O.B. 
(6) Will. (7) Mortgage. (8) Deed. (9) Lease. (10) Bill of Lading. 

G — Card Indexes. — (1) Describe a card index for recording petty cash sales. 
(2) Name advantages and uses of the card index system for general purposes. 

H— Promissory Notes. — (1) What is a promissory note? (2) Describe 
briefly their uses in business. (3) What is an accommodation note? (4) 
What risk is incurred through endorsing promissory notes ? What is meant 
by a note "going to protest " ? 

I— Book-keeping.— (1) Define a book of original entry. (2) Day-Book. (3) 
Journal. (4) Cash-Book. (5) Ledger. (6) Posting. (7) Trial Balance. 

K — Book-keeping. — (1) What two forms of book-keeping are practised? 
(2) Describe briefly the principle of each. 

SPECIMENS. 

The following specimens were placed before the members of the Class for 
recognition : 

(1) Pharmacy.— Adeps Lanse Hydrosus, Ceratum Resinse, Elixir Aromaticum, 
Pulvis Ipecacuanhas et Opii, Aqua Chloroformi, Syrupus Rosae, Vinum Ferri 
Citratis, Tinctura Myrrhae, Extractum Ergotae Fluidum, Liquor Iodi Com- 
positus. 

(2) Chemistry. — Benzinum, Amylum, Sodii Salicylas, Acidum Tartaricum, 
Plumbi Oxidum, Acetanilidum, Potasii Ferrocyanidum, Acidum Tannicum, 
Glycerinum, Plumbi Acetas. 

(3) Materia Medica. — Gentiana, Senega, Cimicifuga, Podophyllum, Fran- 
gula, Xanthoxylum, Matico, Digitalis, Chenopodium, Sinapis Nigra. 

(4) Committee. — Tinctura Gentianae Composita, Tinctura Benzoini Compo- 
sita, Syrupus Ferri Iodidi, Magnesii Carbonas, Acidum Boricum, Potassi Bicar- 
bonas, Stramonii Semen, Belladonnas Folia, Aconitum, Sanguinaria. 

ANNUAL MEETING. 

The Annual Meeting of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy was held on 
March 31st, at the College Building, 145 North Tenth Street. 

Twenty-seven members were present, the President, Howard B. French, pre- 
siding. 

The minutes of the quarterly meeting held December 30, 1901, were read 
and approved. 

The minutes of the meetings of the Board of Trustees for December 3, 1901, 
January 7 and February 4, 1902, were read by the Registrar, W. Nelson Stem, 
and approved. 

The annual meeting being the occasion for the reports of the officers and 
Standing Committees, these were given in the following order : 

President's Report : The property at the present time is in fairly good con- 
dition. All necessary repairs have been made as economically as possible, yet 
it seems essential to have many things done to bring them up to that standard 
that is desirable for the institution to maintain. 



Am M ay?S arm '} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 259 

The Faculty have worked most harmoniously for the best interests of the 
institution, and never within the knowledge of the President has more zealous 
and faithful work been done by the teaching force. 

For the term 1901-02 there has been an increase of twenty-three students 
over the preceding year. 

The Course in Commercial Training, which, while compulsory, is without 
cost to the students, has been attended by about 175 members of the Second- 
and Third-Year Classes. 

There has been an increase in the number of special students in the Micro- 
scopical Laboratory, and quite a number have taken individual instruction in 
the Pharmaceutical Laboratory, in prescription compounding, and special 
work on theses. 

In this connection commendation is made to the Assistant Director of the 
Pharmaceutical Laboratory, E). F. Cook, for suggesting and starting prescription 
compounding. 

Since the last annual meeting seventeen new members have been elected 
and two members have resigned. 

"In educational matters the institution has retained its leading position in 
the pharmaceutical world, yet your President would suggest the desirability of 
considering the advantage of establishing a Post-Graduate Course. The course 
of illustrated lectures delivered during the past winter was so largely attended 
and they were of such special value to the College that it would seem advisable 
for the Board of Trustees to arrange for a similar course next year. In conclu- 
sion the President expresses his appreciation of the active co-operation of his 
fellow-officers and others in authority." 

Committee on Publication, by Samuel P. Sadtler. The American Journal 
of Pharmacy has been issued regularly during the past year, and while the 
cost of printing and paper has advanced nearly 20 per cent, it has been pos- 
sible to reduce the expenses along certain lines (as referred to in a previous 
report), so that the general running expenses have not been increased. The 
number of unsold volumes on hand is estimated at about 1,675, covering the 
period from 1829 to the present time. Some of the volumes are becoming 
extremely rare, and are becoming more valuable on this account. 

Editor's Report, by Henry Kraemer. The American Journal of Phar- 
macy continues to embody to a greater or less extent the history of American 
Pharmacy as it has done since 1825 ; and during the past year papers of his- 
torical, professional and practical value have been secured. 

Librarian's Report, by Thomas S. Wiegand. The library has been con- 
sulted much more during the past year than for a considerable time, both by 
the Classes and others ; 301 bound volumes and 834 unbound volumes and 
pamphlets have been presented by the President. 

Seventy-eight bound volumes and 76 pamphlets and unbound volumes have 
been received, and over 80 volumes of exchanges have been bound and added 
to the library. 

Report of Committee on Pharmaceutical Meetings, by Richard V. Mattison, 
M.D. The meetings have been held regularly during the College year. The pro- 
grams have been of both professional and practical interest. The attendance 
has been increased, and more interest manifested by retail pharmacists than 
heretofore, at least for some years back. 



260 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, \ Km '$£;$jt m - 

Curator's Report, by Joseph W. England. The Museum is in good con- 
dition and has received a number of additions during the year. The work- 
ing collection of official drugs and preparations continues to be of undiminished 
interest and practical worth to the students in their daily work. A previous 
suggestion that the preparations of the National Formulary should be placed in 
the reading-room is renewed. 

The resignation of Mr. L. S. A. Stedem was presented, and on motion 
accepted, when all the requirements had been complied with. 

The various recommendations contained in the reports of the President, Com- 
mittee on Pharmaceutical Meetings and Curator were then taken up, and on 
motion they were referred to the Board of Trustees. The following names of 
nominees for honorary membership made at the December meeting were then 
balloted for and unanimously elected : Prof. Chas. F. Chandler, Columbia 
University; Dr. Albert B. Prescott, University of Michigan ; Dr. Fred B. 
Power, Scientific Laboratory of Burroughs, Wellcome & Co., London, Eng. 

Delegates to the meeting of the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association, 
at Buena Vista, June 24th-27th, were appointed : C. A. Weidemann, H. L. 
Stiles, Meiers Busch, Joseph W. England and Jacob M. Baer. 

The annual election being next in order, Mr. William Mclntyre and Mr. 
Jacob M. Baer were appointed tellers, who, after a ballot, reported the election 
of Howard B. French, President; William J. Jenks, First Vice-President; 
Richard V. Mattison, M.D., Second Vice-President ; James T. Shinn, Treasurer; 
A. W. Miller, M.D., Corresponding Secretary; C. A. Weidemann, M.D., Re- 
cording Secretary ; Joseph W. England, Curator ; Thomas S. Wiegand, Libra- 
rian ; Henry Kraemer, Editor. 

Trustees for three years : Joseph P. Remington, T. Morris Perot and C. Car- 
roll Meyer. 

Publication Committee : Henry N. Rittenhouse, Samuel P. Sadtler, Wallace 
Procter, Henry Kraemer, Joseph W. England, Joseph P. Remington and R. V. 
Mattison, M.D. 

Committee on Pharmaceutical Meetings: R. V. Mattison, M.D., Joseph P. 
Remington, Henry Kraemer, C. B. Lowe, M.D. and William L. Cliffe. 

A recess was declared while the vote was being counted. Professor Rem- 
ington alluded to the coming meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation, which would be held at the Hotel Walton, Philadelphia, September 
8th-i5th. He stated that an exhibition would be arranged at Horticultural 
Hall, and urged the active co-operation of all the members and druggists gen- 
erally, as the meeting promised to be one of the most instructive and interest- 
ing ever held. Dr. C. B. Lowe also urged the members to get to work in 
earnest. 

C. A. Weidemann, M.D. 

Secretary 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



JUNE, 1902. 



THE EVOLUTION OF THE UNITED STATES PHARMA- 

COPCEIA. 

By M. I. W113ERT, 
Apothecary at the German Hospital, Philadelphia. 

With the eighth decennial revision of the United States Pharma- 
copoeia in active preparation, it was thought that a review of some 
of the previous editions might prove to be of interest. 

The history of the inception, origin, and continuation of the 
Pharmacopoeia is sufficiently well told in the introductory pages of 
the last edition, so that we may confine these remarks exclusively 
to a review of the construction, arrangement, and contents of the 
various books. 

To do this more readily and also more satisfactorily, we have 
computed and arranged a considerable amount of the information 
into tables, that, in a general way, show the contents and scope of 
the book at the different decennial periods. 

The first edition of the Pharmacopoeia is admittedly based on the 
" Pharmacopoeia of the Massachusetts Medical Society," Boston, 
1808. This work, while eight years older than " The Pharmacopoeia 
of the New York Hospital," appears to have been much more popu- 
lar, and to have enjoyed a larger circulation ; consequently, had a 
greater following. Another reason why the " Massachusetts Phar- 
macopoeia" was favored is found in the fact that the New England 
delegates to the " National Medical Convention " were sufficiently 
numerous and influential to practically dominate the convc tion. 
This is corroborated by the fact that the first edition of " The Phar- 

(261) 



262 United States Pharmacopoeia. { Am j£^£2. arm ' 

macopceia of the United States," as the book was called even at that 
time, was printed in Boston. 

This first edition had, however, several original features, in which 
it differed, not alone from the earlier American works, but also from 
any of the European Pharmacopoeias that were in use in or con- 
sulted in different parts of the country. 

The Materia Medica, or " Catalogue of Medicinal Substances not 
included in the Preparations," was divided into a primary and a second- 
ary list. This was done so that a physician or an apothecary might 
tell at a glance whether or not a particular substance was much used 
or popular, or, as noted in one of the later editions, " it permitted a 
discrimination between medicines of acknowledged value and others 
of less estimation." The second point of difference was, that while 
other Pharmacopoeias had either been printed in the vernacular or 
entirely in Latin, the body of this book was primarily in Latin, but 
had, on the opposite pages, a free translation of the Latin into 
English. 

This was evidently done for several reasons: in the first place, the 
vernacular was introduced to make the book accessible to a number 
of physicians and pharmacists who were not familiar with the Latin, 
while the Latin was used to make the book more popular in those 
sections of the country where the English language was not so well 
understood, and also, " To make the meaning of the various direc- 
tions more clear, in case the English might be considered 
ambiguous." 

As noted above, this first volume was printed in Bjston, and con- 
sisted of 272 octavo pages. If we subtract from this 101 pages of 
duplicated material, we would have a book of 171 pages. These 
pages, as is shown in the following tables, contained a total of 621 
titles. Of these, 221 were in the primary and 71 in the secondary 
list of the Materia Medica. These two lists are described in the 
introduction as being " A Catalogue of Simple Medicines, together 
with some prepared medicines which are kept in the shop of the 
apothecary, but not necessarily prepared by him." Among these 
simple medicines we find antimonum, argentum, aurum, cuprum and 
plumbum ; these were raw materials from which corresponding 
chemical compounds were to be made by the apothecary. Organic 
drugs, in use at the present time, were well represented in this first 
edition ; among them we may note such familiar substances as 



Ato j J u°ne;S rm -} United States Pharmacopoeia. 263 

acacia, asafetida, benzoin, camphor, kino, lobelia, myrrh, opium and 
squill. Some of the English and also Latin titles are a little 
unfamiliar at the present time ; we find, for instance, nux vomica 
referred to as " vomic nut," while ergot is found in the secondary- 
list with the English title "spurred rye," sometimes called " ergot." 

The portion of the book entitled Preparations includes 329 titles. 
As will be seen by comparing the number of articles classed under 
preparations in Table 1 with those called galenicals in Table 2, many 
of these so-called preparations would not be classed with prepara- 
tions at the present time. This section of preparations included 
formulas for making chemical substances like benzoic acid, citric 
acid, calomel, corrosive sublimate, sulphuric ether, tartar emetic, 
and oxide of zinc. There were also included a large number of 
essential or volatile oils, with directions for producing them in the 
laboratory of the apothecary. 



Table No. i.— Giving the Number of Titles in the First Six Editions with their 

Classifications. 





1820 


I83O 


1840 


1850 


1S60 


1870 




221 


220 


241 


253 


304 


330 




71 


86 


90 


9i 


75 


72 




329 


314 


357 


424 


494 


569 




621 


620 


688 


768 


873 


991 



Table No. 2. — Giving the Comparative Number ok Vegetable, Chemical and 
Animal Drugs, also the Number of Galenical Preparations in the Various 
Editions of the United States Pharmacopoeia. 





1820 


1830 


1 840 


1850 


i860 


1870 


1880 


1890 




254 


260 


281 


297 


312 


321 


264 


255 




109 


116 


124 


140 


: 7 6 


192 


233 


239 




12 


15 


17 


19 


18 


18 


15 


18 




246 


229 


266 


312 


367 


440 


481 • 


473 
















4 


5 


Total 


621 


620 




688 


768 


873 


97i 


997 


990 



264 United States Pliarmacopoeia. { Am j 



Table No. 3.— Giving the Comparative Number and Classes of Preparations. 





1820 


1830 


1840 


1850 


i860 


1870 


1880 


1890 
















11 







11 


11 


9 


10 


16 


10 


8 


6 










1 


1 


3 


4 


4 




6 


7 


5 


5 


5 


5 


2 


2 




H 


11 


12 


13 


12 


12 


2 


2 
















1 


2 


















4 




16 


16 


24 


28 


32 


34 


3 2 


34 










7 


25 


46 


79 


87 
















4 


5 














5 


2 


6 




3 


3 


4 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 




23 


20 


27 


32 


3i 


3i 


5 


4 














2 








9 


6 


6 


6 


7 


9 


10 


9 




9 


5 


5 


6 


8 


8 


11 


4 






1 


2 


2 


4 


4 


5 


4 




19 


18 


22 


25 


23 


29 


26 


23 
















2 


3 












5 


6 


6 


6 














2 


3 


















3 


3 




23 


13 


17 


18 


19 


19 


15 


15 




8 


9 


11 


13 


16 


17 


17 


13 




7 


3 


4 


4 


7 


7 


9 


9 








3 


3 




















3 


3 


4 


4 












21 


26 


26 


24 




7 


11 


10 


10 


15 


16 


22 


25 














9 




1 




15 




16 


19 


23 


23 


34 


32 




5i 


47 


56 


59 


56 


58 


73 


72 
















2 


1 




3 


3 


5 


6 


9 


13 


16 


15 




2 


3 


4 


4 


6 


5 


4 


2 




4 


















10 


8 


8 


9 


13 


15 


15 


19 




10 


9 


10 


10 


9 


9 


14 


10 



Am jiSey'im rm '} United States Pharmacopoeia. 265 

The number and kind of galenical preparations are well illustrated 
in Table 3. This table also illustrates the progress or change that 
has been brought about in the various decennial revisions. 

The general features of this first volume were retained through 
six editions. One interesting feature that has been developed is the 
fact that all of the various editions may be considered in pairs. We 
find, for instance, that the 1820 and 1830 Pharmacopoeias have 
much in common, both as to contents as well as style and general 
appearance. Their publication was authorized directly by the 
"National Medical Convention," composed entirely of physicians. 
In 1840 the revision was delegated to a revision committee, and 
they in turn consulted the different Colleges of Pharmacy as to 
much of the detail ; so that the pharmaceutical profession practi- 
cally assisted in both the 1840 as well as in the 1850 editions, and 
these two books have also other points of similarity that we will 
call attention to later. In the i860 revision of the Pharmacopoeia 
the pharmaceutical profession practically dominated the revision 
committee, and the same may be said of the Pharmacopoeia for 
1870. The Convention for the revision of the Pharmacopoeia in 
1880 authorized extensive changes in the style and general make up 
of the book, and these changes were retained and elaborated in the 
1890 edition. 

A careful study of the accompanying tables will indicate many 
other points of similarity between the different pairs of books. For 
instance, the kind and number of articles enumerated in the first 
two editions are almost identical. There are, however, evidences of 
progress. For instance, under the heading "Materia Medica " we 
find what the Revision Committee in the preface call " accessory 
matter." This accessory matter was intended to give precision to the 
officinal terms, and consisted, in the case of chemical substances, of 
a short description, and in the case of botanic drugs, of a descrip- 
tion of the part of the plant that was intended to be used, and the 
designation of its botanical origin by giving the full botanical name 
and its author, or a reference to a book where the description of the 
particular plant could be found. 

In the second part the descriptions or definitions of the various 
classes of preparations were omitted in this second edition. The 
reason given for this in the introduction was that " They are out of 
place in a Pharmacopoeia which is intended for the guidance of 



266 United States Pharmacopoeia. { Am jun U e r 'i902 arm ' 

those already instructed in medicine and pharmacy." Among other 
innovations in this second volume we find iodine in the primary 
list, and a formula for making iodide of potassium given in the list 
of preparations. In this same book we also find formulas for mak- 
ing morphine and quinine and several of the salts of these alkaloids. 
Among the other interesting additions was the introduction of a 
colored compound spirit of lavender, and this in turn was used in the 
composition of the solution of potassium arsenite, thus instituting a 
practice that has been retained through all the various revisions to 
the present time. 

With the 1840 edition we find a considerable change in the gen- 
eral appearance and also in the contents of the book. The most 
evident changes are, of course, the omission of the Latin portion of 
the work, the introduction of optional processes for using displace- 
ment filtration, or percolation, in the making of tinctures or other 
liquid preparations of vegetable drugs, and the introduction of 
better and fuller directions for making the various kinds of prepara- 
tions. The improvement in this section of the book was, of course, 
directly due to the fact that the " National Medical Convention " 
had recognized the shortcomings of the previous editions, and had 
authorized the committee, to whom the revision of the Pharmaco- 
poeia had been delegated, to request the co-operation of the Colleges 
of Pharmacy in the United States. By virtue of this authority, the 
chairman of the committee had addressed letters to the presidents 
of the Colleges of Pharmacy of Boston, New York and Philadelphia, 
requesting their co-operation in the revision of the work. In answer 
to these letters the Colleges of Pharmacy of Boston and New York 
sent communications, proposing important changes. These changes 
were evidently acted upon, and the draft of the proposed new 
Pharmacopoeia was then turned over to a committee that had been 
appointed by the " Philadelphia College of Pharmacy " to review it 
before it was turned over to the printer. The review of this P.C.P. 
Committee was evidently so thorough and exhaustive that it neces- 
sitated a complete re-writing of the whole book at the hands of the 
Revision Committee. For, as explained by this committee in apol- 
ogizing for the unavoidable delay in publishing the new book, "The 
proposed alterations were too numerous to admit of being incorpo- 
rated with the existing Pharmacopoeia." 

To mention a few of the new features of this edition we might 



Alll j u ^;\ 9 p ^ ara) -} United States Pharmacopoeia. 267 

say that articles of a chemical nature had appended to them 
descriptions of their physical and chemical properties, with a view 
of facilitating their recognition, or the recognition of probable con- 
taminations. The subject of displacement was, as noted before, 
introduced, and many of the formulas have two distinct processes, 
giving the apothecary the choice of using either the new or the 
old and more familiar process of maceration and subsequent filtra- 
tion. This double or alternative process was probably necessary, 
on account of the opposition that had been encountered to the 
introduction of this innovation. In the call for delegates to the 
convention for 1850, the Colleges of Pharmacy were requested to 
send delegates on equal terms with Colleges of Medicine. As a 
result of this innovation we find that pharmacists were well repre- 
sented on the revision committee that was appointed in that year. 
The book itself followed rather closely along the lines that had 
been adopted by the committee of the preceding edition. There 
was, however, a marked increase in the number of preparations, 
and quite an improvement in some of the formulas. The subject 
of «' displacement filtration " or percolation had evidently been 
carefully studied and elaborated. In this edition we also find, for 
the first time, quite a representation of what is now a most familiar 
class of galenical preparations, the fluid extracts. 

In i860 another innovation was introduced. The Pharmaco- 
pceial Revision Committee, appointed by the " National Convention 
for revising the Pharmacopoeia," recognizing that former editions 
had not met with the sale and use that a work of this kind should 
have, determined to make an effort to introduce the Pharmacopoeia 
to a wider range of usefulness. With this object in view, and 
despite the fact that progress in medicine and pharmacy had neces- 
sitated the introduction of a large number of new drugs and prep- 
arations, the size of the book was materially reduced. This was 
accomplished by the use of smaller type and a more accurate and 
scientific classification of the preparations. For instance, the class 
of solutions was, for the first time, gathered together under one 
heading. The same may be said of several other preparations that 
in previous editions had been placed under several headings; in this 
edition they were all gathered together under their proper classifi- 
cation. 

Mr. William Procter, Jr., it appears, was the guiding genius in 



268 United States Pharmacopoeia. { Am j T u ne?i9o h 2 arm 

this attempt at popularizing the Pharmacopoeia. Among other 
things he induced the publishers to materially reduce their expected 
profits, and this, with the reduction in the size of the book, enabled 
the publishers to offer it for sale at the remarkably low price of one 
dollar a copy. While actual figures are not obtainable, there can 
be no doubt that this and the one immediately succeeding were the 
two most popular and most widely used of any of the editions of 
the United States Pharmacopoeias. 

The edition of iSyo retained many of the features of the fourth 
decennial revision, and despite the fact that the price was materially 
increased it still remained a popular book. This popularity is 
evidenced by the fact that for years after it had gone out of date 
it was still on sale through the usual channels, and even to-day it 
may be found on the shelves of many pharmacies among the books 
that are consulted and used in the everyday work of the dispensing 
counter or laboratory. 

The revolution that was wrought in the make-up of the Pharma- 
copoeia by the Revision Committee for 1880 is of comparatively 
modern date. This was really the first book that made any preten- 
tions to be in line with advanced work and ideas. The old classifi- 
cation into a primary and secondary list of materia medica, and a 
separate list for preparations, was abandoned, and in its place we 
find an alphabetical arrangement of all drugs and preparations. 
While many of the old and practically useless drugs had been 
dropped, there still remained a goodly number of little used or 
obsolete drugs. Many of you will remember how the majority of 
the reviewers of the day, following in the footsteps of the late and 
much lamented Dr. E. R. Squibb, called attention to the unpopular- 
ity of the first or opening title in the book, Absinthium. This book r 
however, had many excellent features, and we can here call atten- 
tion to but a few of them. 

The descriptions of the crude drugs were elaborated so as to 
include structural peculiarities that could be made out with a pocket 
lens having a magnifying power of ten diameters. All of the chem- 
icals had tests for their identity or purity added, and many of them 
had added volumetric estimations of allowable impurities. In addi- 
tion to this, reliable assay processes were given for at least two of 
the alkaloidal drugs. 

The exclusive use of the apothecaries' system of weights and 



^fi'm™'} United States Pharmacopoeia. 269 

measures was abolished, and instead, by way of a compromise, the 
formulas were given in parts by weight, with the notable exception 
of those where definite quantities were called for, and here the 
metric weights were given with, and as an alternative for, troy or 
apothecaries' weights. This book then marked the definite intro- 
duction of the metric system of weights and measures into the prac- 
tice of pharmacy in the United States. Altogether it was a credit- 
able and highly scientific production, and one that will prove to be 
a landmark in the advance of pharmacy. 

The unfortunate feature of this edition was the price at which 
the book was to be sold. That this was a mistake, and one that 
was recognized and not sanctioned by a large number of the mem- 
bers of the Revision Committee, is evidenced by the tone of an edi- 
torial in the American Journal of Pharmacy (1882, p. 636). In this 
editorial the writer called attention to the high-handed action of 
the sub-committee on publication, and disclaimed any sympathy 
with the impending contract for publishing the Pharmacopoeia. 

The direct result of this peculiar action, of course, was that the 
book was not popular with the great majority of pharmacists. It 
found its way into the shops of but a comparatively few of the more 
advanced and more progressive members of the profession. Prob- 
ably the most interesting feature in this connection is the fact that 
the individuals and interests against whom the blow was directed 
really benefited very materially by the change. This is, however, a 
subject that is hardly in keeping with the intentions of this particu- 
lar paper; suffice it to say, therefore, that as a working manual the 
Pharmacopceia was largely displaced by one or the other of the 
various commentaries or works of that kind. 

The 1890 edition, while following the lines that had been mapped 
out by the previous Revision Committee, included some radical 
changes. Among these was the abolition of the parts by weight, 
and the complete adoption of the metric system of weights and 
measures. In addition to this, many of the obsolete or useless 
drugs and preparations were discarded, and a higher standard of 
purity was required for those retained. These requirements, in 
many cases, have been considered too high, and it is true that in 
some instances a theoretical degree of purity was demanded that 
was difficult if not impracticable to obtain in practice. 

This last edition of the Pharmacopoeia, while not as popular as it 



2J0 



United States Pharmacopoeia. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1902. 



should have been, has nevertheless reached a much greater number 
of active pharmacists than the previous edition. All of this despite 
the fact that the 1880 edition directed the attention of the majority 
of these pharmacists to the evident advantages of the dispensatories 
and commentaries that were and are allowed to publish at will 
complete or modified working formulas for the different prepara- 
tions. It must therefore be considered a promising indication for 
the future that a gradually increasing number of pharmacists are 
again making their preparations from, and comparing their crude 
drugs and chemicals to, the clear and graphic formulas and descrip- 
tions as given in the Pharmacopoeia itself. 

It will readily be admitted that the book from which the every- 
day work of the pharmacist is conducted should not be overbur- 
dened with foreign matter. The formulas should be clear and dis- 
tinct and not given in duplicate or triplicate, as is the case with 
some as given in the dispensatories. 

This brief review of the past editions will of course suggest specu- 
lation as to the merits and contents of the coming. 

That the coming book will be a marked step in advance, and 
practically inaugurate a new era in professional pharmacy, is to be 
expected. That we have a right to expect this is evidenced, not 
alone by the indications from the past, but is already assured by the 
action and recommendations of the last convention. As is well 
known, this convention has authorized certain changes that will 
give the book a firmer and more authoritative position with the 
rank and file of both the medical and the pharmaceutical profes- 
sions. 

That the coming book will prove to be the equal if not superior 
of any of the recent editions of several of the European Pharma- 
copoeias, is assured by the scientific character and attainments cf 
the various members of the Pharmacopceial Revision Committee. 
That the new book will have exceptional merits is doubly assured 
by the established standards that it must at least equal, if not 
excel. 

Whether or not it will become a popular book will depend largely 
on the action of the Committee on Publication, and mainly on the 
price at which it is to be sold. Let us hope that, for the sake of 
advancing the interests of scientific pharmacy in these United 
States, this committee may see its way clear to publish, not only a 



Am /u°n u e?i902f rm '} Descriptions of Cncde Drugs. 271 

scientific book, one that the present and also future generations 
of pharmacists may point to with pardonable pride, as depicting the 
sum total of our present knowledge, but, what is also to be desired, 
let us hope that the committee on publication sees its way clear to 
have the book issued in such shape that it will find its way into 
every shop where drugs and medicines are either sold or prepared. 
Let us hope that they will issue a book that will always lay open 
before the working pharmacist and be to him a guide and a refer- 
ence in his daily work ; a book that he will learn to cherish on 
account of the information that it contains ; one that he will follow 
because its formulas are not alone simple and concise, but will, 
without unnecessary care, give preparations that compare favorably 
in appearance and efficiency with any that can be produced by the 
manufacturing pharmacists. In short, let us hope that the present 
Revision Committee can give us a book that is good enough and 
cheap enough to appeal to the physician as a source of information, 
to the student as a necessary text-book, and to the apothecary as a 
manual and guide in his everyday work. 



THE US.P. DESCRIPTIONS OF CRUDE DRUGS 

By M. I. WiiyBERT. 
Apothecary at the German Hospital, Philadelphia. 

If we attempt to compare the crude drugs, of vegetable origin, as 
they are found in the pharmacies of to-day, with the descriptions of 
them as given in the last edition of the U.S. P., we will find that 
these descriptions do not describe the drugs as they are found in 
the ordinary channels of trade. 

This discrepancy is of course due to the fact that, at the present 
time, many of these drugs are bought and sold as compressed herbs, 
or if the substances are to be used in the making of galenical prep, 
arations, they are usually bought in a comminuted, ground or pow- 
dered condition. This change in the physical characteristics of 
these various vegetable substances would appear to make it impera- 
tive that the coming Pharmacopoeia include descriptions and tests 
by means of which these drugs, as they are actually found on the 
shelves of the retail pharmacist, may be readily recognized, and 
any probable adulterations or sophistications detected. 

For this particular purpose the compound microscope offers a 



272 Descriptions of Cr7ide Drugs. { Am jun^'iS™' 

means of establishing a series of tests that are easily applied, and 
are at least as reliable, or perhaps even more so, than a desultory 
examination of the macroscopic appearance of the whole drug. 

To illustrate this point more fully, let us consider the descrip- 
tions and usual appearance of half a dozen of the more popular 
drugs as they occur in the trade. 

Few pharmacists ever buy the seeds of Strychnos Nux-vomica, as 
they are described in the Pharmacopoeia, and this for the simple 
reason that the drug miller, with steam-driven machinery, can com- 
minute these tough horn-like bodies in a fraction of the time and 
at infinitely less cost than could the pharmacist with his historic 
but mechanically inefficient pestle and mortar. It is evident, there- 
fore, that the only portion of the really excellent description of 
nux vomica given in the Pharmacopoeia that is at all applicable to 
the drug, as usually bought by the pharmacist, is that " it is 
inodorous and persistently bitter." While it is true that under 
extract of nux vomica we have an assay process that is applicable 
to the drug itself, this process, however, does not give any method 
of differentiating strychnine from brucine or any other alkaloid that 
may be present. In this particular case it would appear desirable, 
then, that the Pharmacopoeia include a definition of the color and 
microscopical appearance of this drug in the comminuted state, and 
also an enumeration of the kind of plant hairs and cells that may be 
recognized by means of the microscope. In addition to this it 
would appear desirable to introduce a test for definitely estimating 
the amount of strychnine present, and of differentiating this from 
any probable contaminating alkaloid. 

Cinchona is another one of the drugs that are seldom bought in 
the whole or unground condition. This fact has already been recog- 
nized by the Revision Committee of the last Pharmacopoeia, as 
under cinchona as well as under cinchona rubra we find a definition 
of the proper color of these drugs in their powdered form. We 
also find quite a reliable method of recognizing quinine and of esti- 
mating it apart from the estimation for total alkaloids. 

For cinchona, then, it would only be necessary to add a descrip- 
tion of the kinds of cells and cell contents that may be found, and 
possibly an enumeration of the kinds of cells that should not be 
present. 

The chemistry of ipecac has been inquired into so thoroughly 



Am. Jour. Pharro."! 
June, 1902. f 



Descriptions of Crude Drugs. 



273 



during the past two or three years, that a method of assay for total 
alkaloids at least might be introduced. In addition to this a de- 
scription of the color of the ground or powdered drug, with the 
chief cell characteristics, might be added. 

Here it may be interesting to note some of the difficulties that 
will necessarily be encountered in developing satisfactory tests or 
descriptions for the various constituents and different appearances 
of powdered drugs. As is well known, the German Pharmacopoeia, 
in its last revision, recognized the fact that many crude drugs are 
being marketed in a ground or powdered form, and has given quite 
a number of very satisfactory and reliable descriptions of the various 
powders. Among others it includes a description of the powder of 
ipecac. It appears, however, that the description strictly applies to 
the root of Brazilian origin ; so that, despite the fact that chemical 
as well as physiologial investigations have demonstrated that the 
Carthagena root is in many respects quite as efficient and even 
conforms with the chemical requirements of the German Pharma- 
copoeia, it is nevertheless barred from use in Germany on account 
of the reputed difference in the size of its starch grains. 

Apart from any question of whether or not it is necessary or 
desirable to admit the Carthagena ipecac on the same terms as the 
Brazilian root, this particular incident only illustrates the fact that 
we cannot possibly expect to have a series of descriptions that will 
prove to be perfect for an indefinite length of time, for, as has been 
repeatedly pointed out, it is only by making mistakes and subse- 
quently discovering them that we can possibly expect to make 
progress in any vocation or science. 

Belladonna leaves are certainly never seen in trade as herbarium 
specimens, so that at least the first half of the U.S.P. description 
would not be applicable to their identification, as they usually occur 
in the shops. In addition to the remaining portion of the descrip- 
tion we should have an enumeration of characteristic cell formations 
that may be found and also a method of assay for the alkaloid. 

Rhubarb belongs to a class of drugs for which we cannot, at the 
present time at least, expect to have a satisfactory chemical standard. 
We have, however, several qualitative tests, and also several distinct 
cell constituents and cell forms ; these should be enumerated in the 
official description. 

Practically the same is true of squill; here, again, a quantitative 



274 Descriptions of Crude Drugs 

chemical estimation is out of question, and only qualitative tests 
and the microscopical appearance of cells and the cell contents are 
available, by means of which we may recognize this drug or any of 
its possible adulterations. 

These six drugs, picked at random from those contained in the 
Pharmacopoeia, illustrate very well the needs and shortcomings of 
the present descriptions of vegetable drugs. What is true of these 
is true of almost every one of the organic drugs used or sold in the 
apothecaries' shop at the present time. 

While the present Revision Committee has, no doubt, given con- 
siderable time and thought to a consideration of the needs and 
necessities of the coming edition of the Pharmacopoeia, and has also 
considered the advisability of including descriptions of powdered 
drugs, its members will hardly be willing to make any radical inno- 
vations, however, unless they feel that these changes are needed 
and desired by a fair majority of the people for whom the Pharma- 
copoeia is intended. Therefore, it remains for the individual phar- 
macist to recognize the importance and the necessity of his being- 
able and willing to take advantage of any possible chance of 
improving the professional side of his calling, unless, of course, he is 
willing to degenerate more and more into being a vendor of some- 
body else's pharmaceutical specialties and other so-called patent 
medicines. 

The Pharmacopceial Revision Committee will, no doubt, give us 
the kind of book we ask for. The members composing that com- 
mittee are not alone eminently practical, but they are also scientific- 
ally able to give us a book that will compare favorably with any 
that has been published in Europe during the past five years, and it 
is quite safe to say that they are willing to incorporate the most 
desirable and practical information in the coming edition of the 
United States Pharmacopoeia. 

What should be done, however, is that the rank and file of the 
pharmaceutical profession recognize the necessity of making scien- 
tific progress and demonstrate their willingness to adopt and to 
further elaborate any improvements in their official standard. A 
step in the right direction will be taken if, at the coming meetings 
of local, state or national associations, the members of the pharma- 
ceutical profession will declare their willingness to adopt a pharma- 
copoeia that will include reliable and up-to-date tests for articles of 



f Aru. Jour. Pharm 
I June, 1902. 



Am ju°nY'i902 arm '} Preparing a He matin Product. 275 

the organic materia medica as they occur in the ordinary channels 
of trade at the present time. 



A PRACTICAL METHOD OF PREPARING A HEMATIN 

PRODUCT. 

By Torald Soumann, M.D. 
(From the Pharmacological Laboratory of Western Reserve University, 

Cleveland, O.) 

I. INTRODUCTORY. 

The comparative value of " inorganic " and " organic " iron prep- 
arations is still under discussion. It is not my purpose to enter into 
this question, but I take it for established that experimenters and 
the majority of clinicians acknowledge that organic iron prepara- 
tions are indicated in certain conditions. Iron in the organic form — ■ 
i. e. } combined in such a way that it cannot be demonstrated directly 
by chemical reactions — differs entirely in its therapeutic properties 
from the ordinary " inorganic " iron salts. It cannot be produced 
synthetically, any more than proteid-nitrogen can be produced 
from ammonia or nitrates. Preparations containing it can only be 
isolated from cells, either vegetable or animal. Typical of prepara- 
tions of the former class are the nucleins ; of the latter, the hemo- 
globin derivatives. The origin of the organic iron does not seem 
to be an important feature in its therapeutic action ; so that the cost 
of the preparation and the pharmaceutic elegance of the product 
are the principal features which will determine the choice of a 
useful compound. 

As a raw material for the manufacture of an organic iron, blood 
has certainly the advantage of a low prime cost. Raw defibrinated 
blood, however, is justly repellent to the aesthetic taste of most 
patients ; and this holds, although to a less extent, for blood which 
has been simply dried or preserved with glycerin. This objection- 
able feature can be very largely removed by isolating the hemoglobin 
or one of its modifications. The dose is in this way reduced, the 
sanguinous character is disguised, and the raw animal flavor is 
entirely destroyed. To secure this end for medicinal purposes it 
is not necessary that the product should be entirely free from for- 
eign substances, as long as the latter are reduced to a small amount 
and are of a harmless character. 



2j6 Preparing a Hematin Product. { Am / U °ue r ;i902 arm ' 

The only reason why preparations of this kind have not become 
popular is to be found in their prohibitive price, due to the expense 
and to the small yield of the present processes of manufacture. The 
only products which come within the range of practicability are re- 
duction-derivatives : hemogallol, prepared by the action of pyrogal- 
lol ; and hemol, prepared by the action of zinc. These are rather 
further removed from hemoglobin than is desirable ; there is always 
some danger of contamination with the chemicals used in their 
manufacture ; the processes are not such as can be readily employed 
in the average pharmacy ; and the cost of the preparations is still 
very high, especially when the effective dose is considered. 

II. PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENTS. 

The problem which I set before myself was, therefore, to devise 
a process yielding a physiological hemoglobin derivative, by a 
method requiring only simple manipulations and apparatus, and 
which should still give a permanent product sufficiently pure for 
medicinal use, at a minimum cost. It is known that hemoglobin, 
taken by the mouth, is changed to hematin before absorption. This 
derivative was, therefore, the one which I aimed to isolate. 

Hemoglobin and its derivatives are proteids, and agree closely 
with the other serum proteids in their physical and chemical char- 
acters. The precipitability and solubility are nearly the same, and 
hence arise the difficulties in isolating a pure hemoglobin product. 
A difference exists in the behavior to acidified alcohol and ether- 
Hematin is somewhat soluble in these media, whereas the other 
serum proteids are insoluble. This is the basis of the processes so 
far employed for the isolation of these products, and my first experi- 
ments were made along this line. On account of the very limited 
solubility of the hematin, the yield was so small, considering the 
large loss of the expensive solvents and the tediousness of the pro- 
cess, that the cost of the product would render it useless. 

After some further experimentation it occurred to me that an effi- 
cient separation might be secured very cheaply by peptic or other 
digestion. Peptic digestion (in an acid medium) converts the serum 
proteids first into acid-albumins, then into albumoses, whilst hemo- 
globin is changed to acid-hematin. When the liquid is rendered 
neutral the acid-albumin and acid-hematin are precipitated, whereas 
the albumose remains in solution. It would therefore only be neces- 



Am jine^902 arm '} Preparing a Hematin Product \ 277 

sary to carry the digestion so far as to convert all the acid-hematin 
into albumose, to obtain a precipitate of pure hematin on neutraliza- 
tion. This method, which I first tried myself, and then had con- 
trolled by one of my students, Mr. S. A. Young, gave eminently 
satisfactory results. I shall give the process in detail. We operated 
on quantities of 100 c.c. to 1,000 c.c. of blood at a time. 

III. PROCESS FOR THE ISOLATION OF THE HEMATIN. 
Material required: 

Defibrinated Beef's Blood 1 1,000 c.c. 

Pepsin, U.S.P i'5 gm. 

Dilute Hydrochloric Acid, U.S.P ~) Of each a sufficient 

T. S. Sodium Carbonate, U.S.P r quantity to make 

Thymol J 18 to 30 gms. of hematin. 

(1) To the blood add 2,000 c.c. of dilute hydrochloric acid and 
0*5 gm. of pepsin. Pour into large bottles, which should be a fourth 
filled. Add to each bottle a small crystal of thymol (the size of a 
split pea) and set the bottles in a large water-bath (a wash-boiler 
will answer the purpose), which is kept at a temperature of 40 C, 
for twenty-four to thirty-six hours. 

(2) Render the contents of the bottles just neutral to litmus by 
the sodium carbonate solution. Fill the bottles with cold water 
and let them stand in a cool place until the precipitate has settled. 

(3) Carefully decant the supernatant liquid, leaving the precipi- 
tate and adhering liquid in the bottles. Again fill the bottles with 
water, let settle, and decant. To the washed and moist precipitate 
in the bottles add now enough of a mixture of 

40" c.c. of diluted hydrochloric acid, 
o*5 gm. of pepsin, 
960* c.c. of water, 

to a third fill the bottles ; add to each a small crystal of thymol, and 
digest at 40 C. for twenty-four hours. Then proceed by (2) (above). 
Decant a little of the clear liquid into a test-tube, and add an 
equal volume of soda solution and a drop of T. S. cupric sulphate. 
If this produces a pink color, repeat (3) (above). If the color is 
blue, proceed by the next paragraph. 

1 Blood which has been rendered non-coagulable by removing the fibrin. 
This is done by stirring the blood vigorously with a rough wooden stick for 
some ten minutes, beginning immediately after it has been drawn from the 
animal. 



278 Preparing a Hematin Product. { Am jineyi£i arm 

(4) Decant the liquid from the precipitate as completely as possi- 
ble. Fill the bottles containing the moist precipitate with cold 
water, let settle, decant, and repeat this until the washings give only 
a faint turbidity with acidulated T. S. silver nitrate. When this 
stage has been reached, pour the precipitates into a large evaporat- 
ing dish and dry on a boiling water-bath. Pulverize the product in 
a wedgewood or porcelain mortar. 

IV. YIELD AND CHARACTERS OF THE PRODUCT. 

On account ot the low cost of the materials, the absolute yield is 
of little importance. We have found it to vary from 1-8 to 3 per 
cent, of the defibrinated blood, according to the care used in neu- 
tralizing and in decanting. 

The product constitutes a black, granular powder, non-hygro- 
scopic, odorless, and practically tasteless. Mixed with sugar or 
chocolate, it constitutes a very palatable confection. 

It dissolves slowly in 1 per cent. Na 2 C0 3 and in 0-2 per cent. HC1 ; 
less readily in I per cent. HC1. The solutions are turbid, reddish 
brown, and give the characteristic hematin spectra. The solution is 
hastened by heating. The solubility is not impaired by boiling the 
solutions or by heating the dry powder for twenty-four hours at 
100° C. Strong NaOH yields a clear dichroic solution, which does 
not give the biuret test for proteids. The hydrochloric solutions do 
not give the Prussian-blue reaction with ferrocyanide, showing the 
absence of inorganic iron. 

The ash of the product varies, of course, with the care with which 
it has been washed. In the sample made by Mr. Young it was 9-2 
per cent. ; in one made by myself, 5 per cent. Dried at no C. to 
constant weight, the former sample lost 5*57 per cent, of water. 

The determination of the ash, moisture and iron were made by 
Dr. R. A. Hatcher. I take this opportunity to thank him for his 
willing assistance. 

V. IRON- CONTENT. 

Two different samples were each found to contain 07 per cent. Fe. 
Nencki and Sieber's formula for hematin (C s2 H 32 N 4 4 Fe) corresponds 
to 9-3 per cent. Fe. It follows from this that my product is far from 
being pure hematin. Nevertheless, its iron-content compares very 
favorably with that of other iron products. Even pure hemoglobin 
contains but 0-4 per cent. Fe (Hufner). 



Am 'jine! , i9o h 2 arm '} Exhaustion of Watery Liquids. 279 

VI. ADMINISTRATION. 

As I have stated, the product is entirely unobjectionable to sight, 
taste or smell. It is absolutely non-irritant when taken by the 
mouth. It should be administered in solid form, either as powder 
mixed with two parts of sugar, or as chocolate tablets. The dose, 
as with other preparations of this class, would be about I gm. per 
day. 



EXTRACTION APPARATUS FOR THE EXHAUSTION OF 
WATERY LIQUIDS BY IMMISCIBLE VOLATILE 
SOLVENTS. 

By ToraIvD Soi/cmann, M.D. 
(From the Pharmacological Laboratory of Western Reserve University, 

Cleveland, O.) 

The use of the separatory funnel for the exhaustion of watery 
liquids by immiscible solvents has some objectionable features when 
the desired substances are but slightly more soluble in the extra- 
hent than they are in water. The extraction must then be fre- 
quently repeated, and very large quantities of the expensive sol- 
vents are lost in the manipulations. These difficulties may be 
avoided by making the extraction continuous, employing some 
adaptation of the Soxhlet apparatus. The form which is here 
described is a simplification of a more expensive apparatus which 
I have seen used abroad, but which appears to be unknown in this 
country. I do not, of course, lay any claim to originality as to the 
principles of its construction. 

The apparatus as modified is illustrated in the figures, which are 
drawn to scale and which are largely self-explanatory. L is for use 
with extrahents lighter than water, H for those heavier than water. 
The wider tubes have an external diameter of T 7 ^- inch, the nar- 
rower of inch. 

When the apparatus is to be used, a 100 c.c. or 250 c.c. flask 
charged with 30 c.c. or 100 c.c. of the solvent is attached at F. 
This flask is tared if a quantitative determination is to be made; 
10 c.c. of the solvent are then poured into the expanded funnel- 
tube, followed by the watery liquid which is to be exhausted. The 
apparatus should be slanted so that none of the solution escapes 
th rough b. The watery liquid should not extend beyond the point 



Am Ju n U e?l?o h 2f rm •} Restoring Broken Soxhlet Apparatus. 281 

a in the cut — i. e., for the given dimensions it should not exceed 25 
c.c. The flask is now set on a water bath and the funnel-tube is 
attached at C to a reflux condenser, properly supported. When heat 
is now applied to the water bath, the vapors generated in the flask 
escape through A, are liquefied in the condenser, and drop back into 
the funnel. 

With light solvents, using apparatus L, the solvent displaces the 
water from the narrow tube, driving it toward c. As soon as 
enough of the solvent has accumulated to extend beyond the bend 
at the lower end of this tube, it will ascend in bubbles through the 
solution contained in the coils, and will be discharged through d 
back into the flask. From here it will repeat the circuit. If the 
heat is properly regulated, the apparatus will functionate perfectly 
automatically, and may be left to itself until the solution is entirely 
exhausted. 

When the apparatus H is used for extrahents heavier than water 
the solvent descends in bubbles through the solution in the coils, 
ascends through the narrow tube and flows back into the flask 
through d. In other respects the apparatus functionates precisely 
like L. If the apparatus should break it can usually be readily 
joined by rubber tubing. 

The extractors which I am using were made after my directions 
by E. Machlett & Sons, 143 East Twenty-third Street, New York, 
at a cost of $3 for the pair. 



A WAY OF RESTORING BROKEN SOXHLET 
APPARATUS TO USEFULNESS. 

By Torai^d Soumann, M.D. 

Every one who has had occasion to work with Soxhlet extractors 
has doubtless been greatly annoyed by the fragility of this apparatus. 
The fracture occurs almost invariably at the point a {Fig. 1), pre- 
cisely where it is impossible to repair, and the apparatus is rendered 
absolutely useless. The description of a simplified extractor pub- 
lished by L. D. Haverhill {Drug, Circ, Vol. 46, p. 193) suggested 
to me a way of restoring such broken apparatus to some degree of 
usefulness, as follows : 

The tube b (Fig. 2) is cut off smooth at the broken point. The 
tube c is closed by a small blowpipe flame, as close as convenient to 



Condenser 




Fig. 2. — A Restored Broken 
Soxhlet Apparatus. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1902. 



Toxicity of Strychnine. 



283 



the body of the extractor. A strong test-tube is chosen, ot such 
diameter that it will fit loosely into the tube e, and will reach above 
d. If no test-tube of sufficient length is at hand, the lower part of 
e may be filled with sufficient clean sand. A hole is now made in 
the bottom of the test-tube by heating the very end in a blowpipe 
flame whilst blowing into the tube. The apparatus is now ready 
for use. A loose plug of purified cotton is packed loosely into the 
bottom of the test-tube, on this is placed a layer of clean sand, then 
the powder to be exhausted, and another layer of clean sand. The 
apparatus is then mounted as in Fig. 2, and used as the ordinary 
Soxhlet extractor, the solvent taking the course indicated by the 
arrows. 



THE EFFECT OF COLLOIDS IN DIMINISHING THE 
TOXICITY OF STRYCHNINE. 

By Robert A. Hatcher, M.D., 
Demonstrator of Pharmacology, Western Reserve University. 

Upon the suggestion of Professor Sollmann, an investigation was 
undertaken with a view to learning by life-tests whether strychnine 
is destroyed in the tissues or not, and what influence certain condi- 
tions may have upon this destruction. This investigation is still in 
progress and will be the subject of a separate article, the present 
contribution being deemed of pharmaceutical as well as pharmaco- 
logical interest. 

In a series of sixty-two experiments upon frogs and nine upon 
guinea-pigs, the minimum fatal dose of strychnine sulphate, hypo- 
dermically injected, was found to be 00042 mg. X G., 1 while 
0-0045 m S- X G. invariably proved fatal, and 0-00435 mg. X G. 
was fatal to three out of five. They usually became spasmodic in 
from three to eight minutes. 

The average fatal dose for guinea-pigs was found to be o 00475 
mg. X G. ; this dose and all above were fatal, while all receiving 
less recovered. In this connection it is interesting to note that the 
dose necessary to cause convulsions in the guinea-pig is within 10 
per cent, of the fatal dose, less quantities merely producing hyper- 
excitability, whereas in the frog, the smallest doses given — about 
30 per cent, below the fatal dose — rendered them spasmodic. 



1 0*0042 mg. XG. = 0-0042 milligrammes multiplied by the weight of the 
frog in grammes. 



284 



Toxicity of Strychnine. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1902. 



Ten mg. quantities of strychnine sulphate, having been injected 
into the tissues of rabbits and guinea-pigs respectively and extracted, 
was then injected into frogs and guinea-pigs in doses which were 
calculated upon the supposition that the whole of the 10 milli- 
grammes was recovered, none being lost or destroyed in the tissues. 
Having noticed the absence of bitterness in the solution of extracted 
strychnine and, further, that the amounts theoretically present did 
not prove fatal in the usually fatal dose, while the convulsive action 
was considerably delayed, it was suspected that the colloid matter 
present was responsible for the diminished toxicity. 

Calculating the dose of strychnine sulphate extracted from the tis- 
sues from the amount injected, and supposing none to have been lost 
or destroyed, a dose of 0-0084 mg. X G. was survived by a frog, but 
to another 0-0086 mg. X G. was fatal. This solution of strychnine 
sulphate, after repeated purification, proved fatal to one frog in the 
dose of 0-0065 mg. X G., while another survived a like quantity. 

In order to test the influence of colloids upon the toxicity of 
strychnine more accurately, strychnine sulphate was suspended in oil 
and in this way 0-006 mg. X G. hypodermically proved fatal to a 
frog in 12 hours, evidently very near the minimum fatal quantity 
when so used, since toxic doses usually kill in about an hour. 

The strychnine sulphate was then dissolved in thin mucilage of 
acacia and 0-0055 mg. X G. was injected into a frog ; the tetanus 
was delayed an hour, and recovery followed ; 0-0065 mg. X G., 
similarly employed, was fatal, but upon repeating the experiment, 
but using thick mucilage of acacia, recovery followed, though this 
dose exceeded the quantity fatal in ordinary solution by nearly 50 
per cent. 

In a guinea-pig 00495 m S- X G. in thin mucilage caused con- 
vulsions in twenty minutes, followed by recovery; and upon repeating 
this experiment upon another guinea-pig, but using thick mucilage 
and finding no convulsive effect, the dose was increased to 0054 
mg. X G., using thick mucilage again ; this also failed to produce 
any noticeable effect even after some hours, the animal dying later 
of bacterial poison. 

From the results of these experiments it will be seen that the 
presence of colloidal substances diminishes the toxicity of alkaloidal 
poisons injected hypodermically as they do when given by the 
mouth. 



Am ju°ne i ; , i9o h 2f rm "} Manufacture of Sulphuric Acid. 285 

Schmiedeberg states (Arzneimittellehre, p. 190) that one may take 
it with enough certainty that all indigestible colloidal substances, to 
wit, gums and mucilage of plants, not only themselves remain 
longer in the stomach and intestine, but also delay the absorption of 
other substances, and E. Leibert (reported by H. v. Tappeiner, 
Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamic et de Th'erapie, Vol. 10, 
p. 85, 1902) showed that colloids markedly hinder the effects of 
dilute solution of chloral hydrate, and Rott {ibid., p. 93) showed that 
this difference existed also, with or without gums, when the solution 
of chloral hydrate was introduced into the intestines. 

Cleveland, O., May 7, 1902. 



THE NEW CONTACT METHOD FOR THE MANUFAC- 
TURE OF SULPHURIC ACID. 

By Prof. Samuel P. Sadt^kr. 

The importance of sulphuric acid as the foundation of most 
chemical industries is generally impressed upon every chemical 
student. His attention is called to the fact that all the other 
mineral acids are obtained by its aid from the minerals or salts in 
which they are bound up in nature and that many of the elements 
are also obtained by reactions in which its use is found to be indis- 
pensable. It is to be remembered, too, that some of the most 
important organic products are only obtainable by the aid of the 
concentrated or fuming sulphuric acid, as alizarine and artificial 
indigo. The question of its manufacture on a large scale cheaply 
becomes therefore of the first importance. 

The chemical reaction underlying its production is an extraordi- 
narily simple one. It merely involves the union of sulphur dioxide 
with an atom of oxygen to form sulphur trioxide, and this takes up 
moisture with avidity to form the molecule of sulphuric acid. While 
this reaction of sulphur dioxide and oxygen is an exothermic one, 
it takes place very slowly, unless aided by some catalytic-acting 
material. In the well-known lead-chamber process, this material 
acting as the carrier of oxygen is a mixture of the oxides of nitrogen, 
obtained by the decomposition of nitric acid or a nitrate. This 
process, after having served for over a century as the only one 
capable of being used on a manufacturing scale, is likely to be 
replaced in the near future by what seems to be a simpler one, 



286 Manufacture of Sulphuric Acid. { Am jj££ifo£ arm ' 

although there is no difference in the fundamental chemical reaction. 
It merely replaces the gaseous carrier of oxygen by the use of a 
solid contact material, which by its catalytic action brings about the 
same change of sulphur dioxide to sulphur trioxide. There is this 
advantage, however, that these contact substances, acting at a higher 
temperature, can bring about the change in the absence of water and 
thus produce at once a stronger acid than chamber acid, or even 
sulphuric anhydride itself as a direct product. 

In an address before the German Chemical Society, delivered 
October 19, 1901, and printed in full in the Berichte det Deutschen 
Chemischen Gesellschaft, 34, p. 4069, Dr. R. Knietsch, of the Badische 
Anilin- und Soda-Fabrik, gives an account of the manufacture of 
sulphuric acid by the new "Contact Method" as developed and 
patented by his company and now manufactured by them on a large 
scale. As this is the first detailed account of the new process, now 
being largely adopt-d by the manufacturers of sulphuric anhydride, 
and promising to replace the time-honored lead-chamber process 
for all grades of sulphuric acid, wherever new plants are being 
designed, it will be well to give its substance for general information. 

The first discovery of the catalytic action of a solid body in the 
formation of sulphuric acid was made by Peregrine Philips, Jr., of 
Bristol, Eng., who took out a patent for the use of platinum in this 
connection. Seventeen years later, Schneider, a Belgian chemist, 
announced the catalytic action of pumice stone and thought that he 
had solved the problem of the ready formation of sulphuric oxide 
by its means, but the promise was not realized. In 1846, Jullion 
patented the use of platinized asbestos as a catalytic agent, but it 
was not used in connection with the manufacture of sulphuric acid 
until later. 

Wbhler and Mahla later discovered the catalytic action of the 
oxides of copper, iron and chromium, but the discovery did not 
lead to any practical process. 

The next step in advance was made by Clemens Winkler, who 
used an exact mixture of two volumes of sulphur dioxide and one 
volume of oxygen to form the trioxide, which could then be com- 
bined with much or little water, according to the strength of acid 
desired. This method was successfully applied to the manufacture 
of fuming sulphuric acid. For this purpose he heated ordinary 
sulphuric acid, which on decomposing formed water, oxygen and 



Am jS , im arm '} Manufacture of Sulphuric Acid. 287 

sulphur dioxide, and condensed the water. The oxygen and sulphur 
dioxide, in the presence of the contact mass, then united to form 
sulphur trioxide. It was, however, not considered possible to use 
furnace gases direct, and for the manufacture of dilute acid it could 
not of course compete with the chamber process. 

The Badische Anilin and Soda Fabrik, however, took up the effort 
to carry out the reaction, utilizing the sulphur furnace gases, and 
found that the dilution of these gases with nitrogen, contrary to 
Winkler's view, did not interfere with the reaction. They found 
that the presence of small quantities of solid impurities in the gases 
did interfere and hence the mixed gases had to be led through cool- 
ing and condensing tubes for quite a distance before allowing them 
to pass over the contact mass. In fact the greatest care had to be 
taken to eliminate a variety of impurities, which if present speedily 
rendered the contact mass inactive. 

An examination of the furnace gases showed that, while the 
action on the contact mass was due partly to the presence of anti- 
mony, bismuth, lead, zinc and other substances in small quantities, 
the most injurious substance was arsenic, which was able, when 
present only to the extent of 1 to 2 per cent., to poison the mass 
and render it entirely inactive. The removal of the small amount 
of arsenic trioxide present in the gases as a mist was a problem 
which had been studied by many chemists, but had never been suc- 
cessfully solved. 

After the expenditure of an immense amount of time, patience 
and money a method was devised by which, through cooling and 
washing and other processes, the exact details of which are not 
given, the gases were absolutely freed of all impurities, especially 
those in the solid condition. It was found that the ease with which 
the solid particles could be precipitated depended largely upon the 
rate of cooling, slow cooling greatly facilitating it. Although it 
was supposed that acid of a concentration of 90 per cent, could not 
act on iron, or, if so, would form sulphur dioxide, the decrease in 
power of the contact mass, which only began to appear after weeks 
or months, was shown to be due to the formation of hydrogen 
from the iron and sulphuric acid and the action of this on an arsenic 
compound to form arsine. Even the trace of arsenic contained in 
the small amount of sulphur, which passed through unprecipitated,. 
was sufficient to injure the contact mass. But this was easily 



288 Manufacture of Sulphuric Acid. {^jfme^oi™ 

removed, as was also the sulphuric acid which was formed in the 
furnace and which before had acted on the iron and the arsenic 
compounds by spraying the gases after they issued from the fur- 
nace where the pyrite was burned. 

In the technical preparation of the fuming acid very little atten- 
tion had been paid to the heat evolved when sulphur dioxide and 
oxygen combine, although it amounted to 22,600 calories. It was 
shown that the commonly accepted idea of the necessity of heating 
the contact mass very high, in order to produce the combination 
when the diluted furnace gases were used, was incorrect, and that 
both the yield and the life of the mass could be increased if the 
tubes containing it were cooled in order to carry off some of the 
heat generated in the chemical combination of the two gases. A 
form of furnace was devised, something like a tubular boiler placed 
on end, and the contact mass arranged in the upright tubes of the 
furnace in such a way that the pressure and amount of surface of 
the mass exposed in each tube was the same. Under these condi- 
tions the process is a continuous one and the mass retains its full 
power for a year or more. 

The ordinary method of absorbing gases by passing through a 
series of vessels containing water or dilute acid would not entirely 
remove the sulphur trioxide even when a number of the absorbing 
flasks were used ; but one vessel containing acid of 97 per cent, to 
98 per cent, sulphuric acid absorbs it instantly and entirely. 

In order to keep the concentration at this point the excess of 
sulphur trioxide is removed from time to time or water is added. 
By the method just described the experimenters were able to obtain 
acid of any concentration and mixtures of the acid and sulphur tri- 
oxide in all proportions. 

Although the amount of product formed is not directly dependent 
upon the nature of the contact mass, yet the latter must be one 
which will give the greatest efficiency at about 450 C. All sub- 
stances which reach their highest efficiency above this temperature 
will never cause a quantitative yield, no matter how long the gases 
may be kept in contact, as they will be partly regenerated if they 
have first combined. The only substance which fulfils these con- 
ditions is platinum, even members of the same family not showing 
an equal efficiency. The introduction of this method has enabled 
the Badische Anilin- und Soda-Fabrik to increase the yield of the 
anhydride from 18,500 tons in 1888 to 116,000 tons in 1900. 



Am ju°ne?i?o2. arin '} Copper in Powdered Drugs. 289 

The incentive to the development of this practical contact process 
was the need of anhydrous or fuming sulphuric acid for the cheaper 
manufacture of organic products like alizarine, and especially the 
new synthetic indigo, but the process now developed is able to com- 
pete advantageously with the chamber process for all grades of 
sulphuric acid, and the close of the nineteenth century undoubtedly 
sees the old and familiar lead chamber doomed to early replace- 
ment by a simpler form of plant. 



THE PRESENCE OF COPPER IN POWDERED DRUGS 
AND CHEMICALS. 1 

By B. H. Gane. 

From time to time, the author has been somewhat puzzled over 
the origin of small amounts of copper which have been detected in 
various powdered drugs and chemicals. Traces of copper have 
been found by investigators in the ash of various drugs, and have 
generally been attributed to absorption of copper by the plant from 
the soil, notwithstanding the fact that the place of growth of the 
drug may have been far removed from any known source of copper. 

That this is not the source of the copper in all cases is shown by 
the fact that the metal could not be detected in the whole drug, 
and in the case of chemicals, the process of manufacture precluded 
copper contamination. As the amount of metal found was 
extremely small, and its occurrence quite casual, no detailed effort 
was made for some time to trace the source of the contamination, 
it being attributed either to careless handling or to the use of cop- 
per utensils for transferring the powder from the grinding mill. 

The rejection, however, of several consignments of powdered 
ammonium carbonate, which had developed a blue mottled appear- 
ance, rendered it necessary to ascertain definitely the origin of the 
copper, so as to avoid further trouble from this cause. The search 
was not without difficulties. Every possible source of copper was 
eliminated, such as brass work around the mill, and close watch was 
kept over the grinding and sifting, so as to avoid contamination 
during these processes. The use of brass sieves and copper or 
tinned copper scoops was also abandoned in the milling room. 



1 Reprinted from the Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry, February 
28 1902. No. 4, Vol. XXI. 



2go 



Progress of Pharmacy. 



Am. Jour. Pharm 
June, 1902. 



In spite of these precautions the same trouble would crop up at 
intervals, and it was not until attention was drawn to the driving 
belts that the source of the copper contamination was definitely 
located. 

The various sections of a driving belt are riveted with copper 
rivets or stitched together with copper wire, and as the leather 
wears down from constant passage over the pulleys, the rivet heads 
are gradually raised flush with the surface of the belt, and are slowly 
ground down by passing over the pulleys, minute particles and 
sometimes fair-sized fragments of copper being thrown off from 
time to time. 

The casual occurrence of the copper in the powders is easily 
explicable when the small size of the hopper feeding the mill is 
taken into account. Replacing the leather belt by one made of 
rubber has obviated further trouble. 

This note is presented in the hope that it may save some manu- 
facturers from similar trouble, and prevent inaccuracies on the part 
of investigators, particularly when examining the constituents of 
the ash of vegetable drugs. 



PROGRESS OF PHARMACY. 

A QUARTERLY REVIEW OF SOME OF THE MORE INTERESTING ADVANCES 
MADE IN PHARMACY AND MATERIA MEDIC A. 

BY M. I. WlI^BERT, 
Apothecary at the German Hospital, Philadelphia. 

Pharmacopoeias. — Several of the European Pharmacopoeias are being 
revised, but so far none of them have been definitely announced for 
publication, and the only advance that is to be reported in this con- 
nection is an Addendum to the Norwegian Pharmacopoeia (third edi- 
tion, 1895). This addendum includes a total of twenty-three titles, 
thirteen of these being new drugs, and ten additions to, or altera- 
tions in, formulas for galenical preparations. The new admissions 
are: adeps lanae cum aqua, albumen ovi siccum, chloretum hydras- 
tinicum, liquor ferri albuminati, methyl sulfonalum, salicylas natrio- 
theobromicus, sapo kalinus, serum antidiphthericum, solutio acetatis 
kalici, solutio subchloreti ferrici, subgallas bismuthicus, sulfas fer- 
rosus siccatus, tribromphenoias bismuthicus. The changes in the 
galenical preparations are largely in detail of technique and are 
comparatively unimportant. {Apotheker Zeitung.) 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1902. 



Progress of Pharmacy. 



291 



No very valuable additions to pharmaceutical literature are to be 
recorded of the German commentaries in course of publication. 
Hager's Handbuch der Pharmaceutisclien Praxis has been completed 
and very favorably commented on in the German journals. 

During the past three months there have been a number of arti- 
cles of more or less practical value commenting on the manufacture 
and use of compressed pills. The direct cause of these articles, 
especially those that have appeared in the German pharmaceutical 
journals, was a small book on the subject by F. Utz, Julius 
Springer (Berlin, 1901). In this book there are upwards of a hun- 
dred formulas for the manufacture of various pills, and, as was to be 
expected, many of them are not as practical or as desirable as they 
might or should have been. The discussion on these lines has, 
however, been broadened out considerably and has included the 
consideration of possible abuses arising from the use of preparations 
of this kind. The Pharmaceutical Journal, London, has also printed 
a series of articles, dealing largely with the manufacture of this 
particular class of galenical preparations; many of the formulas given 
in this series of articles are also rather unpractical, and should be 
avoided. It would appear that, despite the popularity of this par. 
ticular class of preparations, comparatively little attention has been 
paid to their manufacture from a pharmaceutical point of view, or to 
their efficiency or use on the part ot the medical practitioners. 
Especially is this true of us in this country, where this class of com- 
pressed pills, no doubt, originated, and where their manufacture has 
been and is practically in the hands of the manufacturing pharma- 
cists. 

An interesting complication has arisen in Germany in connection 
with the admission of various synthetic chemicals into the last edi- 
tion of the Pharmacopoeia, under a non-trade-marked name or title, 
and giving the trade name as a synonym. It appears that several 
German pharmacists have been under the impression that this 
matter of synonyms worked both ways, and have, as a consequence, 
run into trouble with the manufacturers, or, rather, patentees. For 
instance, a German pharmacist may dispense antipyrine for pyraza- 
lon, but he cannot dispense pyrazalon on a prescription that calls 
for antipyrine. This, of course, involves a principle of common law, 
and would hold good in this country as well ; so that if anything is 
to come from the oft-repeated suggestions of admitting these pat- 



292 



Progress of Pharmacy. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1902. 



ented chemicals under a non-trade-marked name, this name must 
first be popularized, so as to induce medical practitioners to use it 
instead of the more familiar and usually widely advertised name 
given by the original manufacturer or the patentee. 

There have been a number of reports on original investigations of 
drugs containing alkaloids. One of the more interesting is an inves- 
tigation of the Alkaloids of Tobacco, by Pictet and Rotchy. (Quoted 
by the Apothek. Zeit., 1902.) These investigators have isolated 
three new alkaloids from tobacco. Two of these may be separated 
from nicotin by fractional distillation, not being as volatile as 
nicotin. One of these newly discovered alkaloids is a liquid, and 
named by the investigators nicotein ; it has the supposed chemical 
composition of C 10 H 12 N 2 , is volatilized at a temperature of 266 or 
267 , and is soluble in water and the usual organic solvents. 
Another, nicotellin, has the composition of C 10 H 8 N 2 , and requires a 
heat of more than 300 to vaporize it. At ordinary temperatures it 
is solid, and by recrystallizing from alcohol may be obtained in the 
form of white prismatic needles. It is present in tobacco in but 
small quantities. 

The third alkaloid is very volatile and is found mixed with the 
nicotin. It occurs in very small quantities and has as yet not been 
satisfactorily studied. 

Among changes in the sources of old drugs it is interesting to 
note that ginger is being cultivated in Brazil and also in Central 
America. A sample of the Brazilian product has reached the 
European markets, and is said to be particularly firm, light in color, 
and to have a pleasantly aromatic odor and taste. 

According to the Pharmaceutische Zeitung, a, new process for 
obtaining iodine from seaweeds has been patented in England. 
According to the specifications of this patent, seaweeds are treated 
at high temperatures with diluted sulphuric or other mineral acids, 
and from the resulting liquids iodine may be obtained by various 
chemical means. The accompanying potassium salts are obtained 
by crystallizing, and the residue is to be washed, dried, and subse- 
quently used as fertilizer. 

The same paper [Pharmaceutische Zeitung), in commenting on 
sugar of milk, says that the American product, while inferior to 
the German, has entered largely into competition, even in the Ger- 
man markets, with the usual result of producing a decided decrease 
in price. 



Am.. lour. Pharm.\ 
June, 1902. J 



Progress of Pharmacy, 



293 



Amyl salicylate, or salicylic acid amyl ester, while not a very 
recent preparation, appears to be giving good results as an anti- 
rheumatic and sedative. It is described as being a colorless, refract- 
ing liquid, having an odor somewhat resembling salol, soluble in 
ether, alcohol and chloroform. It has been used as a substitute for 
methyl salicylate, applied externally in quantities of 2 or 3 
grammes. It has also been given internally in doses of 0-20 six to 
eight times a day. 

Organic combinations of arsenic are increasing at a rate that will 
soon bring them up to, if not ahead of, the organic salts of silver 
in number. Among the newer remedies we may mention: 

Arrhenal, said to be monomethyl sodium arsenate ; this is being 
brought forward as a substitute for the older sodium cacodylate or 
dimethyl sodium arsenate. 

Neo-arsycodyle, a French preparation, probably analogous to 
arrhenal. 

Atoxyl (Pharm. Zeit., 1902) is a preparation of German origin, 
and is said to be the anilid of meta arsenic acid. It has been given 
in doses of from 0*05 to 20 subcutaneously. 

Magnesium cacodylate has been recommended as being more 
soluble in water than the corresponding salt of sodium, and also 
containing a larger percentage of cacodylic acid. 

Marsyle, ferric cacodylate, is supposed to be an efficient remedy 
in cases of neurasthenia, anemia, and various skin diseases, given in 
doses of o-oi. 

Guaiacol cacodylate-cacodiacol has been reported on as being very 
unstable, being readily decomposed into its constituents. 

Glycerino arsenic acid has been suggested as offering a favorable 
or promising method of administering arsenic ; the similarity exist- 
ing between combinations of phosphorus and arsenic is pointed 
out, and the possibility of substituting arsenic in the well-known 
salt of glycerino phosphate of calcium naturally suggests itself. 
(L Union Pharm., 1902.) 

This proposed glycerino arsenate of calcium has been criticised 
in some of the German journals, who claim it to be an extremely 
unstable compound, and consequently not to be depended upon. 

Carbolic acid is apparently coming into many new uses ; among 
others the strong acid is being extensively used both in this coun- 
try as well as in Europe, for washing or swabbing out infected or 



294 



Progress of PJiarmacy. 



Am. Jour. Pharro, 
June, 1902. 



broken-down wounds or ulcers. The acid is allowed to act for a. 
few minutes and is then washed away with strong alcohol. 

Alcohol has the property of arresting the caustic action of car- 
bolic acid, and on this account is now generally conceded to be the 
most efficient and desirable antidote in case of poisoning by this 
drug. Quite a number of cases have been reported in which this 
antidote has given very satisfactory results. The great number of 
cases that are constantly being reported, in which carbolic acid has 
been given or taken, accidentally or otherwise, would warrant the 
widest possible circulation of the knowledge of an efficient antidote. 

A mixture of equal parts of carbolic acid and camphor has been 
recommended as a topical application. It is said to be a bland but 
efficient antiseptic. Diluted with from three to five parts of olive oil, 
it has been used as a soothing dressing in burns, eczema, and ery- 
sipelas. [Exchanged) 

A 2 per cent, solution of carbolic acid has been used in the 
treatment of tetanus, several cases having been reported where ap- 
parent favorable results have followed the subcutaneous adminis- 
tration of varying amounts of this 2 per cent, solution. 

Crurin. — Quinoline bismuth sulphocyanate, formerly marketed 
with a 25 per cent, addition of starch, is now also sold without 
this addition, and has been used, with reported good results, as an 
injection in cases of gonorrhoea. (Apothek. Zeit., 1 902.) 

Formaldehyde. — Raikow (Chem. Zeit., 1902) reports having 
obtained absolute formaldehyde in a liquid state by absorbing the 
water contained in the commercial 40 per cent, solutions, with 
potassium carbonate, calcium oxide or calcium chloride. After 
adding any of these chemicals to saturation and allowing to stand, 
the mixture separates into two perfectly clear layers that may be 
separated by mechanical means. The resulting liquid formaldehyde, 
probably a mixture of various polymeric modifications, is soluble 
in water, alcohol or ether. 

Gluion. — A dietetic gelatine preparation used as a food or as a 
substitute for albuminous food products, made by treating gelatine 
with an acid at a comparatively high temperature ; neutralize with 
alkali and dialyse to free from crystallizable salts. 

Gelatine treated in this way does not gelatinize, nor is it precipi- 
tated by alcohol. Gluton is a white powder that is readily soluble 
in water, the resulting solution being limpid, even at low tempera- 



Am ji° n u e i ;- 1 f h 2 arm -} Progress of Pharmacy. 295 

tures. It is said to have the same food value as gelatine, and may 
be used in connection with thirst-quenching drinks. (Pilar. Central- 
halle.) 

Gly conic acid. — An oxidation product of cane sugar, described as 
being a thick syrupy liquid that does not reduce Fehling's solution ; 
has been suggested as an available food in cases of diabetes. (Apothek. 
Zcit.) 

Glycosal. — Monosalicylic acid glycerin ester ; a white crystalline 
powder melting at about 76 C. Slightly soluble in cold water, 
more freely soluble in hot water or alcohol, but not readily dis- 
solved by ether or chloroform. Miscible with glycerin, and readily 
saponified by alkalies or the alkaline carbonates. 

Said to possess the antiseptic and antirheumatic properties of 
salicylic acid, and may be used in place of any of the salicylates to 
advantage. (Fharm. Zeit. t 1902.) 

Ichthyol. — Sulphoichthyolate of iron, and sulphoichthyolate of 
calcium are being recommended for internal use in prefereace to the 
more soluble salts of ammonium or sodium, the former having the 
advantage of being odorless and tasteless. 

Ferrichthyol. — The name given to sulphoichthyolate of iron ; is to 
be given in doses of 1 -oo or 2-00. 

Several substitutes for ichthyol have appeared recently ; one of 
these, ichtainmon, being put on the market by F. Reichert, Breslau, 
is said to be obtained by destructive distillation from a bituminous 
shale formation. This distillate, subsequently neutralized with NH 3 , 
gives a substance closely resembling ichthyol in physical properties, 
and its therapeutic value is said to be the equal of ichthyol in every 
way. [Pharm. Zeit. y 1902). 

Thigenol. — A sulphonate of soda, said to contain 10 per cent, of 
sulphur ; is freely soluble in water and diluted alcohol ; has a slightly 
alkaline reaction. This compound has also been recommended as a 
substitute for ichthyol, and is said to be preferable on account of 
the absence of the disagreeable odor of the latter. (Apoth. Zeit., 
1902). 

Phenolphtalein. — Also known or sold as purgo, is again mentioned 
as an efficient and reliable purgative, given in doses of 010 to 0-50. 

Solvo sal-lithium. — Lithium salolo phosphoricum is a powder solu- 
ble in 20 parts of water, and recommended to be used as a diuretic 
in doses of 0-25 three or four times a day. It may also be used 



296 



Progress of Pharmacy. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June. 1902. 



as a local antiseptic or antiseptic mouth-wash in solutions of 1 
part of the substance to 200 or 500 of water. {Pharm. Centralh., 

1902.) 

Sodium bisulphate — NaHS0 4 H 2 — is said to be useful in modify- 
ing water infected with typhoid bacilli, so that it may be drank 
without fear of infection. When used in the form of compressed 
tablets containing 0-30 of the bisulphate, one is dissolved in a glass 
of water, and, in addition to making the water harmless, it will 
impart an agreeable saline and slightly acid taste, that contributes 
materially toward quenching the thirst. {Pharm. Centralh., 1902.) 

Sodium persulphate and ammonium persulphate have been sug- 
gested and used as remedies to stimulate or improve the appetite, 
given in doses of o-io half an hour before eating. In Germany a 
solution is being sold under the trade name Persodine ; this [Pharm. 
Centralhalle, 1902) is said to be made as follows : 

2. Sodium persulphate. 
300. Distilled water. Mix. 
Give a tablespoonful half an hour before eating. 

Quinine for hypodermic use. — A solution ol this alkaloid may be 
prepared according to Gaglio (Chem. Zeit., 1902) by dissolving 3 
grammes of quinine hydrochlorate or hydrobromate and 1*5 grammes 
of urethan in 3 grammes of distilled water. This combination con- 
tains about two molecules of urethan to each molecule of the 
quinine salt. This of course recalls the Fact that there are other 
chemicals that will form molecular combinations with quinine salts 
and in this way facilitate solution. Urea was suggested many years 
ago, and with the reintroduction of this remedy into active use the 
combination with quinine will probably be found applicable in some 
cases. Another chemical that appears to combine in a molecular 
way with some of the quinine salts is chloral hydrate ; if we take, 
for instance, 3 grammes each of quinine hydrochlorate and chloral 
hydrate, they will readily dissolve in from 3 to 5 grammes of water, 
making a limpid solution miscible with water to any degree. 

Thebaine hydrochlorate has been recommended in cases of neuras- 
thenia, given in doses of 0-05 to 0-20. (Pharm. Zeit.) 

Among the novelties in the administration of drugs we find bromo- 
farina and bromo-pan ; the first is said to be flour mixed with a cer- 
tain amount of a soluble bromide salt and intended for the preparation 
of the bread or biscuit. Bromo-pan is evidently bread in the form 



Am jS'i902 arm *} Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 297 

of a biscuit or roll, each bread containing I gramme of a bromide 
salt. (Pharm. Centi alhalle , 1902.) 

Another proposed novelty is serum bromatum. This consists of 
6 grammes of sodium bromide and 1-5 of sodium chloride to 1000 
of sterilized distilled water. It is said that quantities of 500 or 
more may be injected without risk or injury, in the same way that 
normal salt solution is used for transfusion. 

Serum iodatum is the corresponding solution of an iodide, but is 
apparently made up of entirely different proportions. The formula 
given for this is as follows : Sodium chloride, 6 grammes ; sodium 
iodide, 2 grammes; sodium sulphate, 2 grammes; to 1000 of water. 
This serum, used as mentioned above, has been tried with success in 
the treatment of syphilis. {L Union Pharm., 1902.) 



RECENT LITERATURE RELATING TO PHARMACY. 

MODIFICATION OF BETTENDORF'S ARSENIC TEST, SOLUBILITY OF 
STANNOUS CHLORIDE IN ETHYLIC ETHER. 

In course of an analysis of an unknown substance, Mr. de Jong, 
apothecary in Amsterdam, discovered that stannous chloride is 
soluble in ether. 1 He proceeded to make good use of his discovery 
in modifying Bettendorf's well-known test on arsenic. As all of us 
have a more or less troublesome experience with the peculiarities of 
this test, it seems to be a valuable improvement. Instead of mixing 
the fluid to be examined with the reagent (no need to go into details) 
and waiting for a somewhat vaguely defined coloring of the mixture, 
de Jong overlies the unknown liquid with the acidulated (HC1) 
ethereal solution of stannous chloride and obtains a contact ring 
(as in HNO3 reaction with ferrous salts). 

De Jong furnished the final touches on some incomplete literary 
information. Neither he nor your referent knows of a distinct state- 
ment. Credit is due, however, to Roscoe and Schorlemmer, Vol. 3, 
Part I, p. 335, where they say : ethylic ether dissolves many inor- 
ganic compounds . . . ferric chloride (especially valuable to the 
apothecary for his tinctura nervina Bestuch), mercuric chloride, pla- 
tinum chloride, several other chlorides And on page 337, 

various metallic chlorides form compounds with ether. One of the 



1 Ph. Weekblad, March 2?, 1902. 



298 Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. { Am ju° n "'iS2f rm " 

first of these was obtained by Kuhlmann by bringing together 

anhydrous ether and stannic chloride The Annalen der 

Chetnie, Vol. 112, p. 223, and Vol. 114, p. 356, contains articles, 
by Buckton and by Cahours, on " Zinnmonoethylchlorid, Darstel- 
lung, Eigenschaften und Zusammensetzung." Buckton mentions a 
Zinndiethylchlorid also; but this has only a remote connection to 
our point. J. B. N. 

A NEW METHOD OF DISTINGUISHING HUMAN BLOOD FROM THAT OF 

ANIMALS. 

C. Tarchetti (Gaz. degli Osped., May 19, 1901) describes a new 
procedure for this purpose : If into an animal (A) the blood of a 
different species (B) is injected, then after a certain time the blood 
of the animal (A) is found to be toxic towards blood of the species 
(B). Thus, by repeated injections into rabbits of human blood — 
10 c.c. on four or five occasions at intervals of about a week — 
Uhlenhuth and Wassermann got from the blood of the rabbit a 
serum which exhibits hemotoxic powers to human blood, not only 
in a fresh state, but also when dried and redissolved in normal saline 
solution. Ape's blood was the only other one which behaved like 
human blood. Wassermann and Schultze proceed thus : Dissolve 
the spot of blood to be examined in a little normal saline solution; 
filter ; place 4 or 5 c.c. in two small test-tubes, to one of which (a) add 
o*5 c.c. of rabbit's blood made hemotoxic as above; to the other 
(b) add 0-5 c.c. of normal rabbit's blood, A third control-tube (c) 
may be made with 4 or 5 c.c. of solution of the biood of any ani- 
mal save ape or man in distilled water. Place the solutions in a 
thermometer at 37 C; if the spot of blood be human, in an hour's 
time the tube (a) will show a turbidity or a flocculent precipitate, 
while (b) and (c) will be perfectly limpid. Tarchetti carried out 
similar experiments with human blood and that of animals, both 
fresh and dried, for more than two months on cloth, wool and knife 
blades, and found the method reliable. The reaction occurs almost 
as well at the air temperature as at 37 C. The solutions must be 
absolutely clear to begin with, and he finds distilled water better 
for this purpose than normal saline fluid, for it brings all the hemo- 
globin out of the corpuscles. He has found that the diagnosis can 
be at once made with the greatest certainty in a hanging drop 
under the microscope; a slight uniform precipitate is at once 



Am june?i902? rm "} Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 299 

formed, and in a few minutes is seen as islets united in a reticulate 
pattern, much resembling the arrangement of Ebert's bacillus 
agglutinated by typhoid serum. The same thing is observed in fil- 
tered aqueous solutions of dried blood. It is only after a long time 
<(i2 to 24 hours) that a similar appearance is seen in blood of other 
animals. — Charlotte Med. Jour.; Pediatrics, 1902, p. 359. 

ARTIFICIAL INFANT FEEDING. 

S. A. Visanska (Pediatrics, Feb. 15, 1902) says that endeavoring 
to feed a baby artificially, three important factors are to be borne in 
mind : First, the quantity of the food ; secondly, the quality of the 
food; thirdly, the individual peculiarities of the child. The writer 
says that one of the most frequent mistakes made in feeding a baby 
is that of giving it a much greater quantity of food than it can pos- 
sibly assimilate, with a result that a child either vomits it or passes 
it through the bowels in an undigested state. 

Regarding the character of food to be given a child, that is its 
quality, it is evident that the more closely the food resembles 
mother's milk the more likely it is to agree with the child. The 
writer says that his experience has taught him that modified cow's 
milk is the ideal artificial food for feeding infants. He says that the 
method he has adopted for feeding babies is that of Professor Seibert, 
and that is to feed according to the weight and not the age of the 
child. Visanska says that it is of no advantage to have the milk 
from one cow ; it is in fact a distinct disadvantage, for the great dif- 
ference which exists between milk of different cows makes it impos- 
sible to prepare a proper imitation of mother's milk, according to 
any fixed rules, unless we should have individual cow's milk analyzed 
in order to determine in just what way the mixture should be made. 
Besides this, the milk of any cow is subject to variations from time 
to time, depending upon the nature of the food given it, the health 
of the animal and other factors. 

COFFEE AND TEA AS PRECIPITANTS FOR POISONS. 

Dr. Torald Sollmann, Assistant Professor of Pharmacology of the 
Western Reserve University of Ohio, reports some interesting 
experiments upon " Coffee and Tea as Precipitants for Poisons." 
(The Journal of Medical Research, January, 1902, 43-53.) After 
referring to the generally accepted opinion that strong tea and black 



300 Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy, { Am ju°n U e?i902 arm ' 

coffee are chemical antidotes against alkaloids and metallic poisons, 
he states that this belief appears to be based solely on clinical 
experience and upon the fact that both beverages contain some form 
of tannin, gallotannic acid being known to precipitate both of the 
above classes of poisons. The clinical results might be due to the 
physiological effects of the caffeine rather than the chemical action 
of the tannin, as in the use of coffee in opium poisoning. That the 
tannin of both tea and coffee should be gallotannic acid seems improb- 
able in the absence of experimental support of this statement 
(which, apparently, has not been reported), since the different 
tannins are known to differ widely in composition and reactions. 
Ordinary tannin — gallotannic acid — is an anhydride of digallic acid. 

Tea-tannin may be (Dragendorff, Pftanz analyse, 1882, s. 166) 
practically identical with gallotannic acid, or with quercotannic acid 
(Rocheleder quoted in Beilstein, 1897, Vol. 3, p. 688), or be an 
entirely different substance (Stenhase, American Journal of Phar- 
macy, 1862, p. 254). 

Coffee-tannin is radically different from tea-tannin, being a digly- 
cosyl ether, of 3-4 cinnamic acid. The very markedly less astrin- 
gency of coffee as compared with tea would indicate that the tannins 
of these two substances were not identical, especially when it is 
noted that unroasted coffee contains, according to Spencer (G. L. 
Spencer, " Tea, Coffee and Cocoa Preparations," U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, Bulletin 13, 1892), from 5-8 to 33-8 per cent, of tannin r 
while tea contains only from 4 8 to 15*4 per cent., the latter being a 
very rare figure. Notwithstanding this smaller content in tannin F 
tea is in practice usually preferred to coffee as a chemical antidote. 1 

In order to determine the chemical reaction of tea and coffee 
with different alkaloids and metals, and to ascertain how far the 
general statement of text-books that tannin precipitates " most alka- 
loids and metals" is true, Dr. Sollmann carried out the following 
experiments: 



1 May there not be a larger percentage of tannin in unroasted coffee than 
in roasted ? In other words, do not the destructive changes that take place in 
green coffee during the process of roasting destroy some of the tannin ? As is 
well known, isolated tannin is markedly affected by heat — swelling, blacken- 
ing and igniting, according to temperature (U. S. D., 1899, 100) — and green 
coffee on being roasted is heated to a temperature that is destructive of some 
of its constituents, including, possibly, some of its tannin. — J. W. E. 



Am jJ° n u e ^ 1 f h 2 armi } Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 301 

'* A decoction of coffee was prepared by boiling for forty-five 
minutes ground, roasted coffee with ten parts of water, replacing 
from time to time the liquid lost by evaporation, filtering whilst hot . 
and percolating through the marc and filter enough hot water to 
make ten parts. A decoction of black ' English Breakfast ' tea 
was made in a precisely similar manner. Both liquids were some- 
what acid to litmus. The coffee became somewhat turbid on cool- 
ing. The tea showed a very pronounced diffuse precipitate, and 
became almost opaque in thick layers. This could not be removed 
by filtration through paper. It could be made to disappear by 
heating or by the addition of alcohol. On account of this turbidity 
the reactions were always compared with corresponding dilutions of 
the decoctions with water. Neither decoction gave any precipitate 
with dilute hydrochloric acid, nor with Mayer's reagent, in the pro- 
portions which were used. The tests were made by adding definite 
proportions of the decoctions to solutions of the substances to be 
investigated, and noting the resulting phenomena at once, and after 
standing. If a turbidity or precipitate occurred, a portion of the 
unfiltered liquid, in the case of alkaloids, was mixed with about 
one- fifth volume of 5 per cent, hydrochloric acid, and with one 
volume of alcohol, to test the solubility. Another portion of the 
liquid was filtered, and a part of the filtrate was put with more of 
the decoction. If no further precipitate occurred, a few drops of 
Mayer's reagent were added. In the case of metallic salts the 
decoction was added until a further portion ceased to affect the fil- 
trate, and the latter was then tested for the metals. The propor- 
tions usually employed for the alkaloids were 2 c.c. of 1 : 100 
aqueous solution of the alkaloid 1 to I c.c. of the decoction (expressed 
in the table as 1:150 — 3 ^ per cent.) or 5 c.c. each of 1 : icoo 
solution of alkaloid, and of the decoction (expressed as 1 : 2000 — 
5 per cent.)." 

Details of the experiments are then given in extenso, after 
which the conclusions are stated as follows : 

I. — Precipitation of Alkaloids. — Atropine, coniine, morphine and 
pyridine are not precipitated even in fairly strong solution by coffee, 
Tea precipitates them from strong, but not from weak, solutions. 



1 Or one of its salts, brought into solution if necessary by the addition of a 
few drops of 5 per cent. H 2 S0 4 . 



302 Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy, { Am j"in U e?i902 arm ' 

Aconitine, brucine, cocaine, lobeline, nicotine and pilocarpine, in 
weak solution, are only sparingly precipitated by tea; coffee does 
not affect them even when they are in concentrated solutions. 

Apomorphine, the cinchona alkaloids, hydrastinine, strychnine, 
and veratrine in dilute solutions are precipitated efficiently by either 
coffee or tea, the latter being generally more efficient, except per- 
haps for veratrine and quinine. 

The precipitation is incomplete with all alkaloids except ape- 
morphine. However, the quantity of unprecipitable alkaloid is quite 
small in those which are said to precipitate from " dilute solution," 
since most of the alkaloid is removed from I : 2000 solutions. 

The precipitates are somewhat soluble in dilute HC1, very readily 
soluble in dilute alcohol. The administration of the latter must 
therefore be avoided if these beverages (or tannin) are used as 
chemical antidotes in alkaloidal poisoning. Since the precipitates 
are not quite insoluble in water, as little liquid as possible should be 
given. The quantities of the decoctions should not be less than 
3 c.c. of a well-boiled 10 per cent, decoction for each milligram of 
alkaloid. 

II. — Metallic Salts 1 . — Tea is also the more efficient precipitant of 
metals, but the difference is not nearly so striking as with alkaloids. 
Both beverages are inefficient against arsenious acid or tartar emetic. 
They precipitate to a large extent, but not quite completely, the 
salts of cobalt, copper, nickel, uranium and zinc, and would be use- 
ful antidotes against the toxic members of this list. They precipi- 
tate practically completely the salts of aluminum, lead and silver. 
Mercury is partly precipitated by tea, but not by coffee, so that the 
former would be an antidote, the latter not. 

III. — Proteids (Eggwkite, Albumose and Gelatine). — These differen- 
tiate very sharply between the two tannins ; whereas tea pro- 
duces large precipitates, coffee leaves them unaffected, or renders 
them slightly turbid at most. This serves to explain the less astrin- 
gent taste of coffee and its less deleterious effect upon digestion. 

The reactions of tea bear a very close resemblance to those of 
gallotannic and quercotannic acid. The precipitant effects of caffeo- 



1 The salts used were : Arsenious acid, tartar emetic, cobalt chloride, cupric 
sulphate, nickel sulphate, uranium acetate, zinc sulphate, ferric chloride, lead 
nitrate, silver nitrate, aluminum chloride and mercuric chloride. 



,S.m. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1902. 



Correspondence, 



303 



tannic acid are weaker, but occur along the same lines. The greatest 
differences are seen in their action on proteids and on certain 
alkaloids, whereas other alkaloids and most metallic salts are pre- 
cipitated almost equally well by both. An exception is formed by 
mercuric chloride, which is partly precipitated by tea, not at all by 
coffee. J. W. England. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 
botanical nomenclature. 

May i, 1902. 

Dear Sir : — Replying to your request of April 23d, asking me for 
my views on " Botanical Nomenclature," I take pleasure in giving 
them. As is well known to readers of my publication, " Mycologi- 
cal Notes," my views on the subject are very radical. I advocate 
strongly the discontinuance in current literature of the use of per- 
sonal names after the names of plants. I believe that the custom 
of citing personal names is conducive to more harm, more confusion, 
more synonyms, more invalid " new species," more changing of old 
names, than all other agencies combined. It is not denied by any 
one that the various names we have for a plant, synonyms, are both 
•a great weight and a great hindrance to the science. Botanists 
meet and pass rules for the naming of plants, but they cannot agree 
on any set of rules, and never will as long as the members are 
vitally interested in the particular rules that perpetuate their own 
names and the plant names that have been proposed by themselves. 

Botanical nomenclature is, theoretically at least, a language, and 
-should reach stability by custom and good usage, and by that 
alone it will do so. Can we expect stability, when we offer a stand- 
ing reward by which the man who wishes a change in a plant's 
name has his own name cited thereafter in connection with it ? If 
this be not the cause of much name changing, it is no less a fact that 
under such a system, synonyms have reached their present unwieldy 
bulk and are growing every day, and I believe will increase to the 
end of all time, under present methods. 

As long as a new combination, some " prior " generic name, some 
M prior " specific name, some slight variation in shape of leaf or 
bract or even color of anther, stands as a reward by which some 
snen can cite their own names as authority for a new species, instead 



304 



Correspondence. 



Am. Jour. Pnarrru 
June, 1902. 



of those of another man, trivial excuses for such acts will be found. 
It is no less justice to the men who are not afflicted with such a 
craving to conspicuity, than to prevent injustice, that the change of 
method be made. 

There can be no denying the fact that a binominal, a combina- 
tion of the generic and specific names, is the name of a plant, and 
that this alone is the name of the plant. If relieved of artificial 
inducements for changes, these binominals will gradually assume 
practical uniformity. It is a language, and by custom and use must 
reach stability, like any other language. What constitutes " good 
language" but accepted usage? If botanical writers were inter- 
ested only in using good botanical language, they would select 
established names most generally in use by qualified men, for that 
is " good language," and gradually it would crystallize in reason- 
ably permanent form. 

It would, of course, change gradually; all languages change 
gradually, but we would be relieved of these " volcanic eruptions,' 1 " 
overthrowing most of our names, simply because certain writers 
have peculiar views of " priority," that for one reason or another 
afford excuse to propose new combinations. But one might say r 
we must have some authority for our names. And so we must r 
and fortunately we have, and a good one, the " Index Kewensis."* 
This work is modern; it should be accepted as a dictionary of botan- 
ical language, the same as we do with standard dictionaries of the 
English language. Let us use names of plants only as authorized 
in such works, in dictionaries of the language, and abolish personal 
names from all writings devoted to plants, such as manuals, jour 
nal articles, pharmacopoeias, etc. Gradually, botanical nomenclature 
will then take on the dignity and permanency of a language. 

Neither chemists, physicians nor pharmacists are interested* 
in the different views of classification or nomenclature of the vari- 
ous schools of botanists or individual writers. Let the botanists 
fight that problem out among themselves. The authors of such- 
works as " Index Kewensis" alone are called on to decide which 
view presents enough merit to warrant adoption. I strongly advo- 
cate the adoption of the names for the plants adopted in the "Index: 
Kewensis," and the exclusion of all personal names after the names, 
of plants. Sincerely yours, 

C. G. Lloyix 

Cincinnati, O. 



Am. Jour. Pharro. 
June, 1902. 



Editorial. 



305 



EDITORIAL. 

THE AMERICAN PHARMACEUTICAL ASSOCIATION. 

The attainment of the fiftieth anniversary usually furnishes an 
occasion for congratulation, whether it be by a nation, a state, an 
association or an individual. As we watch the careers of individ- 
uals with interest, so with organizations and societies, we not only 
contemplate their immediate aims and purposes, but ask ourselves 
what they will stand for in years to come. And if they have stood 
the test of years, we are warranted in concluding that their endur- 
ance was due to some inherent force or underlying principle of action 
that received not only the support of the individual members but 
was approved by the highest and best sentiment of the time. That 
the American Pharmaceutical Association has stood this test stands 
to the credit of American pharmacy. 

The American Pharmaceutical Association began its history on a 
plane that was intended to benefit the pharmacists of America for all 
time. How much the practice of pharmacy has drifted from, and how 
much it has been guided by, those cardinal principles as contained 
in the earlier Proceedings of the Association would require a master 
hand to treat with justice. Suffice it to say that this Association has 
enrolled in its membership every one of those master minds who 
have contributed so much to the elevation of American pharmacy. 
Beginning with the names of men like Procter, we find extending 
down to our own time men of the character of Squibb and Rice. 
Verily there is in the Proceedings of the Association a hall of fame 
with its immortals that we leave to others to treat at the time of 
the celebration of the golden anniversary by the Association on 
September 8th. If only something could be done to reach the 
rank and file of the pharmacists of America, to enthuse them 
with the spirit of the founders ol this Association, and to show 
them that this spirit is still manifest in the work, we cannot but 
believe that there are many who are not members now who would 
become affiliated with the organization. 

Since the organization of the Association in 185 1 and 1852 the 
world has made greater advances — particularly in science — than in 
the thousand years preceding. Pharmacy and medicine each have 
profited by the advances of the sciences, and while we may well be 
discouraged with the condition of pharmacy in some quarters we 



306 



Editorial. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1902. 



will find that this was also the complaint fifty years ago. A more 
hopeful view of the progress in American pharmacy will be had by 
reading the earlier Proceedings and comparing them with those of 
the past few years. Or, better still, we may say to those who 
have never attended the meetings of the Association — or who 
have never become enthused with its merits — that this next meet- 
ing in September will be an unusual opportunity for securing an 
historical knowledge of the Association as well as its purposes and' 
conduct. 

The President of the Association, as well as the Local Secretary,, 
are active in their preparations for the meeting. The Local Secre- 
tary, Wm. L. Cliffe, has acted in accordance with a resolution 
adopted at the St. Louis meeting, September 21, 1901, and named 
a committee on arrangements for the meeting of 1902. The fol- 
lowing are the members: Howard B. French, Harry L. Stiles, 
Joseph P. Remington, Clement B. Lowe, Mahlon N. Kline, Henry 
K. Mulford, Miers Busch, Richard V. Mattison, Walter A. Rumsey, 
Henry C. Blair, 3d; Geo. D. Rosengarten, Wm. A. Sailer, Walter 
V. Smith, Harvey H. Hentzer, D. E. Bransome, Jacob M. Baer. Mr. 
Cliffe is chairman of the committee. 

THE MEMORIAL TO DR. CHARLES RICE. 

We have already referred in this Journal (pp. 44 and 148) to the 
movement inaugurated by the Board of Trustees and Committee of 
Revision of the United States Pharmacopoeia for the purpose of 
erecting a monument over the grave of the late Dr. Charles Rice 
and of preparing a memorial volume commemorating his life and 
work. The committee cannot proceed in either one of these direc- 
tions until sufficient funds have been raised. 

While the Committee of Revision have taken the initiative in 
this movement, it is but natural to suppose, when we contemplate 
the life of him who with rare genius and unselfishness contributed 
so much to the success of the U.S. P. for three revisions that others 
should wish to join in the work of honoring his name. The phar- 
macists of the United States are therefore not only given an oppor- 
tunity to co-operate in this movement but they are especially 
invited to do so. A number of drug journals have taken up the 
matter and have raised a considerable sum of money. The Com- 
mittee on Rice Memorial " invite all to contribute to this fund." 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1902. 



Reviews. 



307 



If there has been any hesitancy on the part of any to contribute 
to this fund we cannot but believe that it has been due to a miscon- 
ception as to the nature of the movement or where the contributions 
should be sent. We hope that all who desire to contribute to this 
fund will remit promptly, so that the work of the committee may 
be carried on without further delay. 

All contributions should be sent to either Prof. Virgil Coblentz„ 
115 West Sixty-eighth Street, New York City, N. Y., or to S. A. D. 
Sheppard, 11 29 Washington Street, Boston, Mass. 



REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

A Laboratory Manual of Urinary Analysis. By Robert A, 
Hatcher, Professor of Materia Medica and Director of the Labora- 
tory of Urinary Analysis, in the Cleveland School of Pharmacy; 
Demonstrator of Pharmacology in the Medical Department of 
Western Reserve University. 1902. 

The object of the present work has been to prepare a manual 
which will give concise but sufficient directions for the examination 
of urine for clinical purposes. It may be compared to a good note- 
book recording thorough work or an abridged dictionary for ready 
reference. The work includes a treatment of the microscopical 
examination of the urinary sediments, as well as qualitative and 
quantitative chemical tests. The whole work is included in forty 
pages and ought to encourage the interest of both physicians and 
pharmacists in a work of this character, which can be performed so 
readily and is so valuable in the diagnosis of disease. 

Revue des Medicaments Nouveaux et de Quelques Medica- 
tions Nouvelles. Par C. Crinon. g e edition. Revue et augmentee, 
Paris: Rueff et Cie, Editeurs, 100, Boulevard Saint-Germain, 106. 
1902. 

This work of Crinon's is quite well known, it having passed to the 
ninth edition. It includes many of the newer medicaments, as 
acetopyrine, agurine, gacamphol (camphorate of guaiacol), arsitriol 
(glycero-arseniate of lime), marsitriol (glycero-arseniate of iron), 
hermophenyl (mercury-phenyldisulfonate of sodium), honthin, iodi- 
pine, lecithine (phospholuteine), purgatol (purgatine), sue musculaire 



3 o8 



PJiarmaceutical Meeting. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1902. 



(myoserum), tetranitrol (tetranitrate of erythrite) and vasoliments. 
Under many of the medicaments is given information concerning 
their preparation, properties, therapeutics, pharmacology and doses. 
The work is well done and will be appreciated, especially on account 
of the treatment of the glycerophosphates and allied compounds. 



PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

The last of the series of Pharmaceutical Meetings of the Philadel- 
phia College of Pharmacy for 1901-1902 was held on Tuesday, 
May 20th. Mr. Wallace Procter, a member of the Board of Trus- 
tees, presided. 

The first paper announced on the program was on " The New 
Contact Method for the Manufacture of Sulphuric Acid," by Prof. 
Samuel P. Sadtler (see page 285), in which he referred to the reac- 
tions involved in the lead chamber process, and said that in this new 
process the reactions are fundamentally the same, the principal 
difference in the process being that the gaseous carrier of oxygen is 
replaced by a solid contact material, which by its catalytic action 
changes the sulphur dioxide to the trioxide. 

The next paper was on "The History and Commerce of Coffee," 
by William B. Marshall, formerly Curator of the Philadelphia 
Commercial Museums. In the discussion which followed the 
reading of this paper Dr. Miller said that perhaps the Moham- 
medans were the most inveterate drinkers of coffee, and that they 
simply added hot water to the pounded and roasted coffee, and 
then drank dregs and all. He said that Mohammed forbade the 
use of alcoholic stimulants of any kind, and while his teachings are 
not strictly followed by the higher classes, still the Bedouins and 
lower classes are still abstemious in their habits. Some of them 
have taken kindly to coffee, hashish and opium, and of these coffee 
seems to be the least harmful, although when first introduced it was 
placed under a religious ban. 

Dr. Lowe said that while coffee could not be looked upon as a 
food, it was a stimulant of considerable advantage, and that he 
thought the better it was clarified the less harmful it was. Mr. Mar- 
shall further said that few people could be said to be addicted to the 
coffee habit as to alcoholic stimulants, and that among life insurance 
companies the use of coffee was not given any consideration except 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1902. 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



309 



possibly where there are certain derangements of the liver, when the 
applicant is advised against its use. He furthermore said that in 
Turkey and in France the coffee was very black, and that perhaps 
it had been colored with graphite, although he had no positive infor- 
mation on this subject. Dr. Miller furthur said that a few years ago 
there was a considerable demand for whole flaxseed, the mucilage 
of which was extracted and used for varnishing coffee. Mr. Procter 
said that he understood that smaller quantities of stronger decoc- 
tions were used in foreign countries than here, which statement was 
borne out in the remarks made by Mr. Marshall. 

The next paper was on " Some Observations on a Recent Trip to 
the Madeira Islands," by Dr. Adolph W. Miller. The speaker 
stated that the name Madeira in Portuguese means wood, and the 
name was given on account of the dense forests which covered the 
islands when they were discovered. In referring to the several 
industries, he said that while the island was famous for its wine 
production, owing to the ravages of the Oidium and Phylloxera, 
the quantity was becoming considerably reduced each year. The 
soil is quite fertile, but owing to the mountainous character of the 
country irrigation is practiced. Dr. Miller referred to the enormous 
proportions of many of the commoner garden plants. The common 
geranium {Pelargonium roseutri) attained the height of 5 to 6 feet ; 
Euphorbia Poinsettia, 15 feet; Ricinus communis, 25 feet; fuchsias, 
6 feet; flowers of callas, 12 inches in diameter; begonias, 6 feet. 
Among the interesting plants noted were Bougainvilleas, Acacia 
farenisiana, Datura Bruganansn, Lagostrcemia Indie -a, Opuntia Tuna, 
Clethra arborea, etc. Over seven hundred species, representing 
nearly four hundred genera, are found on the island. Dr. Miller 
said that the climate was specially adapted to those suffering from 
lung trouble, and that it was largely visited by Europeans. 

M. I. Wilbert, in a paper on the " Progress of Pharmacy," called 
attention to some of the more interesting advances recently made 
in pharmacy and materia medica (see page 290). He also exhibited 
specimens of the following: (1) Carbolic acid and camphor; (2) 
aqueous solutions of quinine hydrochlorate with urethan or chloral 
hydrate, both of which are employed hypodermically. Mr. Wilbert 
also called special attention to the newer arsenic preparations. 

A special vote of thanks was tendered the speakers of the after- 
noon for their valuable papers. 



3 1 o Pharmaceutical Meeting. { Am j^ST™ " 

W. S. Weakley sent a specimen of so-called pure ground flax- 
seed accompanied with the following notes : "The specimen contains 
the following materials: corn meal, wheat middlings, ground meal 
cake, paraffin oil in excess and a slight amount of adhering flax- 
seed oil. Enclosed find specimen of oil (benzin extractive) and 
exhausted meal showing yellowish particles of corn. After having 
made a qualitative examination of this sample it occurred to me 
that it might be interesting to see as to just what extent some 
wholesale houses were selling adulterated ground flaxseed, so I 
obtained three samples from various wholesale houses. Upon 
examination I obtained the following results: 

"No. I. Color in general about normal; upon closer examination 
yellow particles of corn were observed; the odor was quite different 
from that of a pure ground seed; oil found in excess. Microscopical 
examination revealed large quantities of corn and wheat starch, 
together with the characteristic cellular structure of corn and wheat. 
Upon being heated with glycerin the characteristic odor of roasting 
corn was observed The oils extracted by benzin were found to be 
a mixture of flaxseed and paraffin. 

i( No. 2. Corresponded to above analysis excepting the presence of 
a slightly larger percentage of oil. 

"No. 3. Color lighter than samples 1 and 2; presence of corn 
meal demonstrated both macroscopically and microscopically; the 
lighter color being due to the smaller amount of oil present, which 
seemed to be pure flaxseed oil." 

Charles C. Drueding exhibited a number of specimens of 
chamois skins, including both the genuine chamois skin and the 
oil-tanned sheep skin. Mr. Procter, in commenting on the exhibit, 
spoke of the quality of the skins, and said that the gray skins were 
introduced some twelve or fifteen years ago by Drueding Brothers. 
Dr. Miller said that he thought the specimens were of considerable 
intrinsic value. Professor Kraemer announced that Mr. Drueding 
desired to donate the collection to the College and moved that a 
special vote of thanks be tendered him, which motion was unani- 
mously adopted. 

The chairman spoke of the success attending the present series 
of pharmaceutical meetings, and thereupon a vote of thanks was 
tendered the committee having them in charge for their work. 

H. K. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



JULY, 1902. 



CHEAP DRUGS, OR SOME OF THE FACTORS INFLUENC- 
ING THE QUALITY OF VEGETABLE DRUGS. 1 

By Henry Kraemer. 

While the earlier records of trade show that adulteration and sub- 
stitution of articles of commodity were practised, it is very probable 
that this was not done because of the demand for a cheap article, 
but that the needs for the article might be met, particularly when 
the supplies were low. It is also probable that competition was 
instrumental in reducing prices, and that this was followed by the 
cheapening of the products. 

To-day there is a great demand for cheaper articles, or " some- 
thing just as good," and he is an exemplary merchant who can say, 
"we give you what you ask for regardless of our pecuniary interests, 
and we make quality the first consideration and price secondary in 
all our dealings." 

There probably has never been a time when drugs of good 
quality could be so easily obtained in most cases as to-day. But as 
Dr. Rice said : " A great many members of our profession, it is 
feared, are afflicted with a chronic willful blindness in regard to 
purity and genuineness of drugs; many, at least, seem to care but 
little about the quality of the articles they receive, so long as they 
appear to be genuine and are salable." 

A great many are paying the best prices for the poorest articles, 
as aloes, buchu, sarsaparilla, calamus, ginger, etc., and they do not 



1 Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting of the Maryland College of Pharmacy, 
February, 1902. 

(3ii) 



312 



Cheap Drugs. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1902. 



seem to know it. They accept the goods and complain simply of 
deterioration, without even ascertaining the commercial varieties. 
There are others, however, who cannot get drugs too cheap and they 
pay as little as possible for anything that may resemble the genuine 
and can be sold for it. It is self-evident that they who regulate 
their purchases on the basis of price alone will have offered to them 
deteriorated, admixed, adulterated and sophisticated goods, tome of 
which are most ingenious products. 

While it is true that there are some vegetable drugs that are not 
always easy to obtain in any quantity of satisfactory quality, such as 
pilocarpus, ergot, cannabis indica,and possibly others, still the major- 
ity of drugs may be obtained of good quality, providing the proper 
sources are sought and the worthless rejected, in season and out of 
season, and not accepted on an)' plea of the jobber, or because of 
lack of courage on the part of the retail pharmacist. The latter 
must, however, be careful to inquire into the quality of the drugs he 
is likely to purchase before he investigates their prices, To talk of 
prices before knowing the quality of drugs places the pharmacist in 
an unfortunate light, and is likely to deceive the wholesale druggist. 
Then, too, we must all appreciate that the consumer will in nearly all 
instances prefer the best quality, providing he is not led to believe 
that something else will answer just as well. It needs no argument 
to show that, in cases of serious illness, both the interests of the 
physician and the patient demand the best obtainable, and the latter 
is perfectly willing, in most instances, to pay for it. In other words, 
this is a matter of education when dealing with the public, and of 
having a thorough understanding with the wholesale druggist. 

This brings us to the consideration of our subject* namely, "cheap 
drugs, what they are, and what causes them to be cheap." While 
now and then one may obtain a drug of an unusually good quality 
at a low price, still, as a rule, cheap drugs are inferior drugs. Of the 
various causes that make them inferior the following may be men- 
tioned : 

(1) Lack of knowledge or want of care in collecting them. 

(2) Carelessness in drying and caring for them. 

(3) Insufficient care in garbling and preparing them for the 
market. 

(4) Inattention in preserving them and storing them 

(5) Accidental admixture in the store. 



Am ;j J ur y ^ro2 arm 1 Cheap Drugs. 313 

(6) Adulteration or admixture of other substances. 

(7) Substitution of other drugs. 

I propose to devote particular attention to the first four causes, 
as much more attention has in recent years been directed to adul- 
terations and substitutions than the other causes, which I am sure 
are equally deserving of our careful consideration. 

(1) The U. S. Pharmacopoeia designates in a number of instances 
the age that plants shall be to yield the official drugs, as digitalis and 
hyoscyamus, and in some instances states at what time of the year 
they shall be gathered, as in the case of taraxacum and castanea, 
and in one instance even the locality in which they shall be grown, as 
Cannabis Indica. This constitutes a most important part of the defi- 
nition, and will no doubt become more general as our knowledge of 
this subject increases. It should be mentioned in this connection, 
however, that the period in the life-history of the plant, when the 
medicinal principles are either in greatest amount or most efficient, 
should be mentioned rather than the season or the month, as these 
principles change with the life-period of the plant, and are inde- 
pendent of the seasons, the life-period varying with the particular 
locality and climate in which the plant grows. 

Conium and digitalis not infrequently flower the first year, and 
while the drugs yielded by them may not be as active as those 
obtained from biennial plants, still one cannot say what cultivation 
may not accomplish in changing the character of the drug. 

Then, too, we are apt to think of the plant as being inactive during 
the winter season, whereas most important changes of its constitu- 
ents are continually going on, the nature of which in only a few 
instances and in a most general way have we a knowledge. For 
instance, inulin-containing plants have this principle in greatest 
amount from four to six weeks after the plant dies down, or from 
four to six weeks prior to the beginning of its vegetative activities. 
During the winter, as during the summer, larger amounts of other 
carbohydrates are present. In the same way starch-containing 
barks, roots and rhizomes yield before and after this quiescent period 
various other carbohydrates and oily products. 

As a result of some thought along this line I have formulated the 
following general rules for the collection of various drugs : 

(1) Roots, rhizomes and barks should be collected immediately 
before vegetative-life processes begin (in the spring), or immediately 
after the vegetative processes cease (usually in the fall.) 



3H 



Cheap Drugs. 



Am. Jour. Pharrr . 
July, 1902. 



(2) Leaves should be collected when the C0 2 assimilation process 
is most active. Usually about the time of development of the 
flowers and before mature development of fruit and seed. 

(3) Flowers should be collected prior to or just about the time 
of pollination. 

(4) Fruits should be collected near the ripening period (i.e., full- 
grown but unripe.) 

(5) Seeds should be collected when fully matured. 

As showing the influence which the time of collection has on the 
quality of drugs and necessarily on the price, the following illus- 
trations may be given : It is well known that when the fruits of 
conium are green they will yield over 3 per cent, of coniine, but 
when they change to yellow, the alkaloid diminishes rapidly in 
quantity, and therefore much of the commercial drug will not yield 
1 per cent, of coniine. The same thing may be said of santonin : 
when the flower-heads are unexpanded they will yield over 3 per 
cent, of santonin ; but just so soon as the flower matures there 
is a rapid disappearance of the anthelmintic principle. Dealers in 
insect flowers (flores pyrethri) know that those gathered when the 
flowers are closed produce the finest and most powerful insect 
powder, and it is worth nearly twice as much as that made from the 
half-closed or open flowers. Podophyllum should be collected in 
the spring when the plant is just coming out of the ground, the 
resin content being nearly twice as much at this time as at others. 
Geranium, likewise, should be gathered early in the spring prior 
to the flowering period. In a general way, we may say that roots 
and rhizomes should be compact, hard and heavy, instead of being 
light and having a loose and spongy texture. 

It is also important to remember that some of the compositse 
have two flowering periods in one year, as taraxacum and anthemis. 
Flowers of the first crop of anthemis are larger, whiter than those of 
the second crop, and command fancy prices. In the case of taraxa- 
cum this factor has probably not been considered, and may account 
for certain of the difficulties in obtaining a medicinally active drug. 

It may be that the variation in quality of some of the commercial 
aconite is due to improper drying or extraction of the active prin- 
ciples; still there is no doubt but that much of the trouble with this 
drug is due to the variation in the time of collection in various 
countries as well as to its being collected from other species. In 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1902. 



Cheap Drugs. 



315 



England the tuber is collected in autumn from cultivated plants 
after the overground parts have died down, whereas, in Germany, 
the tubers are collected from wild plants during the flowering period, 
this being done to distinguish the particular species yielding the 
drug. The commercial drug may consist, then, of partially ex- 
hausted summer tubers, autumn tubers, or a mixture of both. 

No doubt, much of the early opposition to Rhamnus purshiana as 
compared to Rhamnus frangula was due to the collection of the 
former at improper seasons as well as to the product being collected 
from other species of Rhamnus. It is well known that wild-cherry 
bark varies according to its position on the tree. Then, too, col- 
lectors are not always able to distinguish the species yielding the 
official bark. Stoeder has made the interesting observation that 
the pomegranate bark yielded by trees with white flowers is pre- 
ferred by the natives of Java; next in value is the bark of the trees 
with red flowers, which are most common in Java and Europe ; lastly, 
there is the variety with black flowers producing a bark which is still 
less valuable. 

The age of the plant influences the nature of its products in some 
instances as in the case of coca, there being a slight increase in the 
amount of alkaloids produced in the leaves of the plant up to the 
age of about ten years ; after twenty years there is a diminution in 
alkaloids, although the yield is fair in plants thirty to forty years old. 

The position of leaves, as well as age, in influencing the nature and 
amount of active constituents, offers a most fertile field for investiga- 
tion. In the case of eucalyptus, the product of a tropical tree, the 
Pharmacopoeia specifies the leaves produced on older parts of the 
plant. In herbs it directs in a number of cases that the leaves and 
flowering tops be used. It is likely that there is a difference in the 
constituents of the leaves found on different parts of the same plant : 
for instance, in sumach, the upper leaves contain a larger proportion 
of tannin in June than the lower leaves, and as the season advances 
the decrease in tannin in the upper leaves is also much less than in 
the lower leaves. It is not unlikely that in this climate the older 
leaves of herbs, which are more or less withered and imperfect, are 
like autumn leaves deficient in medicinal activity. 

The influence of the weather in affecting the quality of drugs is 
seen in certain instances. Bad weather at the time of harvesting of 
fennel will produce a drug having the appearance of an exhausted 



316 Cheap Drugs. { Am j J ul^i9 P o2. arm - 

fennel. Hedeoma, that is grown during a moderately dry season, 
produces a larger quantity of oil than when grown in a rainy season. 
On the other hand, a dry season is very unfavorable to the growth 
of certain drug-yielding plants as chamomile, causing a serious fall- 
ing off in supply and a double increase in price. 

It is well known that in the propagation of plants there is a dif- 
ference in some instances in those produced from cuttings and those 
from seedlings. It is said that when rhubarb was first cultivated in 
England, seedling cultivation was employed, and the result was a 
rhubarb of inferior quality, which was greatly improved by propa- 
gation from offsets. 

While we may not be able to make extended generalizations, it 
must be apparent, from the facts here presented, that the subject of 
the proper collection of vegetable drugs is of prime importance, and 
is deserving of the careful consideration of us all. 

(2) Carelessness in drying and caring for drugs after they are 
gathered is a more frequent cause of inferiority than is commonly 
supposed. Quercus alba, when properly dried, has a refreshing odor 
and is very astringent. Kino is much altered if the juice is boiled 
prior to drying. Of course, where drugs are exposed to the weather 
for their preparation for the market the conditions are more difficult 
to control, but even here good judgement and care will save the 
material. In the distillation of lavender flowers, dry weather is 
selected for the work, as otherwise the spikes are less fragrant. 

Preparations made from the fresh or green drug are considered 
more valuable in some cases than those made from the dry drug, 
and command twice the price of the latter. It is probable, that 
there is something in the supposition that the active principles are 
in a combination in nature more efficient than when otherwise com- 
bined or extracted. Unfortunately, experiments made to determine 
the relative value of the preparations of the dry and green drug 
have not been made upon specimens otherwise identical. One can- 
not take a fresh drug and compare its value with a commercial 
article, as the latter may vary considerably. 

In some cases the Pharmacopoeia specifies that the drug shall be 
kept a certain length of time before being used, as in the case of 
frangula. A similar specification should be made in regard to 
Rhamnus purshiana, but since the result of the changes on keeping 
are now ascertained, and since a similar effect may be obtained by 



Am j J uT;-iS)2f rm -} Cheap Drugs. 317 

heating the bark at 100 C. for forty-eight hours, this specification 
seems no longer necessary. 

In some drugs a sort of ripening process takes place in the drying, 
as in tobacco and vanilla. In still others a marked deteriora- 
tion takes place if they are placed in heaps and allowed to fer 
ment, as lavender and most other drugs yielding essential oils. 
Furthermore, in the preparation of oil of peppermint, the yield of oil 
is greater and the quality superior if the plants are allowed to dry 
and are distilled immediately or soon after drying. 

Quite a number of drugs are not infrequently observed in com- 
merce in a moldy condition, as taraxacum, veratrum viride, maranta, 
aconite, etc. The question as to what influence this mold has on the 
quality of the drug has not been cleared up. Some experiments that 
are being carried on at the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy may 
enable us to say something about this later. More than twenty-five 
years ago Dr. Squibb called attention to the fact that micro-organisms 
appeared to destroy the active principles in belladonna, and said that 
" if this be true of aconite, then moldiness would be a cause of inert- 
ness, as it is frequently seen moldy on arriving here, though the ap- 
pearance of the mold soon disappears under the skilful hands of an 
energetic salesman." It should be stated, however, that a micro- 
scopic examination will soon decide the question as to whether a 
drug has been moldy or not. 

The U. S. Pharmacopoeia is very specific in stating that certain 
drugs should be carefully dried, as ergot, cantharides, etc. The Brit- 
ish Pharmacopoeia in the definitions of most of the drugs speaks of 
them as the dried drug. This is a very important matter and one de- 
serving of very careful consideration, particularly in the case of seeds, 
fruits containing seeds, and any other product, as ergot, possessing, 
dormant life. While I have no results to present, I am inclined to 
believe that there is a marked difference in the therapeutic value of 
drugs in which the life is quickly destroyed and those in which the 
vitality is allowed to ebb out slowly. Ricinus seeds would be inter- 
esting material for investigation, the question being whether the oil 
obtained from a lot of seeds in which 80 or 90 per cent, are capable 
of germinating is not bland and agreeable and yet possessed of all 
the purgative properties of the oil ordinarily sold, as compared to 
that obtained from seeds dried at 50 or 6o° C. Investigations have 
shown that in fennel fruits, which are the richest in volatile oil, from 



3i8 



Cheap Drugs. 



Am. Jour. Pharm, 
July, 1902. 



70 to 80 per cent, are capable of germination. Ergot is ordinarily 
supposed to retain its virtues not longer than a year, yet it has been 
suggested that if ergot be dried in thin layers and the last traces of 
moisture removed, by exposure over lime or sulphuric acid, and then 
stored in corked yellow bottles, it will retain its superior quality 
for several years. 

(3) A third cause affecting the quality of drugs is the contami- 
nation naturally occurring with the drug and which has not been 
removed in the preparation of the drug for the market. In the 
trimming ot the roots and rhizomes there is a disposition in many 
instances to leave quite a quantity of the overground stem, as in 
aconite, senega and veratrum viride. I have examined aconite con- 
taining as much as 4 to 5 per cent, of stems, and in belladonna 
found over 6 per cent., while in ipecac nearly 3 per cent, was found. 

In other cases the earth is not removed, and in geranium I have 
found nearly 10 per cent, of fine refuse matter. 

There is a growing tendency to collect the smaller roots with the 
root bark, as in gossypii radicis cortex and rubus. 

In some rhizomes the roots are removed or are present in exces- 
sive amounts. The question of ascertaining the relative value of 
roots and rhizomes is an interesting subject for investigation. Drs, 
Dohme and Schmidt have done some work on hydrastis and found 
the roots less active than the rhizome, though still valuable. It was 
questioned twenty years ago whether the Pharmacopoeia was justi- 
fied in admitting the roots with the rhizome of veratrum viride. 
The German Pharmacopoeia as well as our own Pharmacopoeia admits 
both rhizomes and roots, although considerable veratrum is imported 
consisting entirely of rhizome. The U.S. P. specifies that podophyl- 
lum consists of rhizome and roots, yet it is doubtful if the roots are 
ever seen in the commercial article. On the other hand I have seen 
cypripedium, in which over 50 per cent, consisted of roots and the 
remainder consisted of rhizome with roots attached. 

At the present time a large number of drugs are sold in a com- 
pressed form. This is done to reduce their bulk and thereby reduce 
the cost of freight and space in storage. While there is no special 
objection to this method, unless there is greater liability of the drug 
to become moldy, still it has been pointed out in the case of can- 
nabis indica that the compressed drug called fiat or Bombay ganjah, 
is an inferior product to the loose or " round-bundled drug," known 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1902. 



Cheap Drugs. 



319 



as Bengal ganjah. Holmes has therefore suggested that the latter 
be made official. This is probably due to the fact that an inferior 
drug is more likely to be used, because it is not so readily detected. 

More than ten years ago a patent was taken out to grind the 
chips and sawings produced in cutting rhubarb root, and after mixing 
the powder with some adhesive substance, as gum arabic, the mass 
was then pressed or molded into the desired shape. While the medic, 
inal quality of the drug in this form may not be impaired and is 
supposed to form a more stable product, still the method invites 
admixture of other substances. 

While it may be disputed that commercial drugs are at present 
inferior to those formerly sold, it is a lamentable fact that the 
retail pharmacist does not, as formerly, go over his drugs and select 
the portions fit for use, rejecting the inert and damaged material. It 
is claimed that he has not the time for garbling of drugs, and we may 
well ask, " Who has the time ? " Most pharmacists are purchasing 
their drugs in a broken or powdered condition, and while it cannot 
be denied that the latter may be obtained of a first-rate quality from 
some quarters, still it is admitted that drugs in this condition are 
more likely to be adulterated and of inferior quality ; hence the 
necessity for a more intimate knowledge of this subject. 

Modern methods of commerce require the progressive pharmacist 
to equip himself in order that the integrity of the profession be 
maintained and benefit accrue to humanity at large. While there 
are unusual opportunities for deception there have never been bet- 
ter facilities for its detection. 

(4) The Pharmacopoeia not only considers the subject of the col- 
lection of drugs, how they shall be dried and what portions shall be 
removed, as in aspidium and scilla, but also states how they shall be 
preserved and limits their time of keeping. 

While it is generally considered that most drugs deteriorate on 
keeping, still this depends largely upon the manner of their preser- 
vation. Thus the Pharmacopoeia limits the time of keeping of ergot 
and states how it shall be preserved; still a number of writers call 
attention to the fact that, if properly prepared and preserved, the time 
of keeping may be very much extended. In order to preserve ergot, 
Grover proposed the removal of the oil, and Moss found the drug 
thus treated to retain its therapeutic value for six and a half years. 
Zanon suggests placing the drug in alternate layers with sand and 



320 



Cheap Drugs, 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1902. 



keeping it in a closely sealed jar. Others grind the fresh ergot and 
preserve with chloroform in paraffin paper, while others first extract 
the oil with alcohol or ether. Lately it has been proposed to keep 
the drug by the use of formaldehyde. As to what influence the lat- 
ter has on the therapeutic value of the drug has not been stated. 

In the preservation of vegetable drugs it is necessary to consider 
the influence of temperature, air, moisture, the attacks of insects and, 
possibly, light. 

It is of the first importance that the temperature in the room or 
part of the store devoted to the storage of dry drugs shall be not 
more than 6o-yo° F. and nearly uniform throughout the year. 
Drugs containing volatile principles require to be kept in air-tight 
containers, as the labiate and composite herbs and wild-cherry bark. 

Air-tight tin cans are probably the most economical and satisfac- 
tory containers for the purpose, and Lloyd has suggested painting 
the edges of the cans with melted beeswax. Drugs are sometimes 
stored in wooden boxes or in drawers. This method is objection- 
able, not only because they are liable to deteriorate, but because the 
odors are communicable from one to the other. The storage of 
drugs in parcels is the worst form of preservation, particularly, as is 
usually the case, when the different parcels are stored together. 

Those drugs that are difficult to dry, as the inulin-containing 
drugs, should be kept in containers having a number of apertures, to 
allow evaporation to take place. Unless provision of this kind is 
made, molding of the drug may develop. From experiments that 
I have made I have no doubt but that the spores of ustilago will 
develop on any drug, the reserve materials of which are chiefly 
carbohydrates. 

The preservation of drugs against the attacks ot insects is, unfor- 
tunately, overlooked. Most drugs are subject to their depredations, 
and are usually attacked by the insects in the larval stage. These 
insects belong chiefly to the Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Diptera. 
The Lepidoptera are the most destructive, and include principally 
Tinea zea, or cornmeal moth, which, during its larval (the cater- 
pillar or grub) stage, is known to attack aconite, capsicum, ergot, 
lappa, linum, rheum, taraxacum and many other drugs. Among 
the Coleoptera may be mentioned various members of the Ptinedae, 
as Ptinus brunneus, Anobium paniceum and Lasioderma serricorne, 
which attack the spices chiefly, as capsicum, cinnamon and pimenta. 



Am. Jour. Pharru. 
July, 1902. 



Cheap Drugs. 



321 



Chief among the Diptera is Trypeta arnicivora, which is found in 
arnica flowers. 

For the destruction and prevention of the attacks of these insects 
a number of substances and methods have been employed, the 
simplest method of all being to expose the drug to a temperature 
of about ioo° C. This method is, however, open to objection, as 
there is liability either to decomposition or loss of active principle. 
A weak solution of carbolic acid has also been suggested but, of 
course, this is also objectionable. Camphor and tar-camphor have 
been employed, but it is doubtful if they should be used, unless in 
the case of animal drugs. In some instances, as with nutmeg and 
ginger, the drug is sprinkled in the drying-room, and when packed 
for market, with quicklime. Benzine and carbon disulphide have 
been proposed, but these are of a disagreeable odor as well as inflam- 
mable. Ether has been suggested, but it is very volatile and inflam- 
mable. The use of formaldehyde should proceed slowly until it is 
certain that it has no harmful effects, especially when used in the 
preservation of herbs used for teas for children, and orris root which 
is used for teething infants. The use of chloroform as a preserva- 
tive has been sanctioned by the U.S. P. in the case of ergot, and is 
probably the best preservative that has been proposed. 

It is extremely important to know what to do with drugs that 
have become worm-eaten. Recently it has been suggested to kill 
the larvae, and then sift them out. This may be done in cases 
where the active principle is unimpaired and is to be extracted. 
Schimmel & Co. have shown that the essential oil of nutmeg is 
apparently not altered, even though obtained from worm-eaten 
seeds. In fact, the commercial oil is largely manufactured from the 
worm-eaten seeds obtained in Holland by garbling. But where the 
drug itself is to be used, the drug so affected should not be used. 
Who can determine what the effect on an open sore would be of a 
poultice of flaxseed containing thousands of larvae of Tineae? In 
the light of modern hygiene we should be as scrupulous in our 
selection and care of flaxseed and mustard as we are of drugs 
otherwise used in prescriptions. Even in the giving away of licorice 
root to children we should be careful to hand out only good solid 
pieces. Recently, Sawyer has stated that the mite found in vanilla 
bean does not unfit it for its various uses. This is, however, doubt- 
ful, particularly where it is to be used directly in the material to be 
flavored. 



322 



Cheap Drugs. 



Am. Jour. Pharm, 
July, 1902. 



(5) Additional admixture in the store or warehouse is a subject 
that I do not need to dwell upon. Many admixtures undoubtedly 
arise in this way, for it is only in some such manner as this that the 
presence, for instance, of allium in asclepias could be accounted for. 

On account of the limited time at my disposal, and also because 
this subject has been so frequently and generally considered, I 
merely wish to give one thought in connection with the subject of 
admixture, sophistication, adulteration and substitution. 

The drugs coming from foreign countries are examined at the 
customhouse before they are admitted, and the spurious ones are 
likely to be rejected. This has been most beneficial to the com- 
merce of drugs in increasing their quality. Collectors and distribu- 
tors cannot afford to have the cases of rejected goods thrown back 
on their hands, or finally sold in some quarters at 50 per cent, 
under current rates. Foreign dealers have, therefore, learned the 
wisdom of supplying the better grades of drugs, and adulterated 
specimens, as of opium, are becoming rare. Inferior drugs do, how- 
ever, sometimes find their way into the market. While it is believed 
that considerable laxity has prevailed in the Appraiser's Depart- 
ment, still this inspection on the whole has tended to improve the 
quality of imported drugs. 

From a limited observation I am inclined to consider that Ameri- 
can drugs are equally, if not more, inferior in quality as a rule than 
those imported. It seems to me that if an internal Governmental 
inspection could be made of our domestic drugs, it would have 
a most beneficial influence on their quality. 

I am aware of the difficulties attending legislation of this kind, 
and of some of the reprehensible practices of those vested with the 
authority of the law ; still progress is being made, and the attitude of 
the Board of Pharmacy in New York State is commendable in so 
far as it applies to the retail pharmacist there ; but this does not 
seem to reach the bottom of the trouble. In my opinion there 
should not only be careful and rational inspection of the goods ot 
the retail pharmacist, but also of the products of the jobbers and 
collectors. 

As things are conducted at present, the main responsibility lies 
with the retail druggist ; and while I do not deem it advisable to 
reduce his responsibilities, still the more all concerned share in this 
responsibility, the greater and more rapid will be the improvement, 



Am, j J u°iy?ifo2 arm '} Products of the Century Plants, 323 

in quality and uniformity, in the strength of drugs and their prepa- 
rations. 

Finally, I refer you to the notes by Dr. Squibb on rhubarb in 
the Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association as 
being admirable essays, in that they show the responsibility of the 
pharmacist in buying drugs and making preparations therefrom. 
They contain a lesson which has been learned well by a few success- 
ful pharmacists and manufacturers, but the great rank and file have 
not appreciated the fine points, and the result has been that physi- 
cians who at first prescribed a few of the special products of manu- 
facturers because they knew the care and attention which was being 
devoted to their manufacture, now are specifying certain manufac- 
turers' products for nearly all the ingredients which they need in 
their prescriptions. This will be done until pharmacists generally 
learn the lesson that cheap goods are generally poor in quality, and 
that to shift the responsibility upon some one else is not to their 
credit, and that, furthermore, brains and ability must be coupled 
with conscience and industry in the making of every medicament 
prescribed by the physician or called for by the people. 



USEFUL PRODUCTS OF THE CENTURY PLANTS. 1 

A LESSON ON MEXICO. 2 

By WmiAM B. Marshall, 
Former Curator of the Philadelphia Commercial Museums. 

In recent years Mexico has become a progressive country, and, 
although not ranked among the great powers, it has taken an hon- 
ored place among the nations of the world. Its people come into 
contact with the rest of the world in nearly as many ways as do the 
people of the United States, but in lesser degree. The foreign 
commerce of Mexico, represented by the value of its imports and 
exports, already large, is increasing in importance each year. 

The principal materials imported into Mexico are machinery, 
cotton textiles, iron and steel, wines and liquors, wool textiles, paper, 

Reprinted from Journal of Geography, pp. 6-17, January, 1902. 

2 Continued from the December Bulletin of the American Bureau of Geog- 
raphy, Vol. II, No. 4, p. 328. The electrotypes used in connection with this 
article were furnished through the courtesy of the McCormick Harvesting 
Machine Company, Chicago. 



324 Products of the Century Plants. { Am j J u T^02? rm ' 

textile fibres. Mexican capitalists and industrial leaders are making 
efforts to manufacture more and more of these materials in Mexico, 
in order to gain the profits from their manu r acture, give employ- 




ment to a greater number of their people, lessen the cost of the 
goods, and keep in Mexico the money that must be paid for them. 
The chief exports of Mexico are silver, henequen, gold, coffee, cattle, 



Ani j'lSyy , i9wf rm '} Products of the Century Plants. 325 

copper, lead, hides, precious woods and zacaton root, the values of 
which are usually about as in the order given. In the production of 
silver, Mexico contests first place with the United States. She pro- 
duces all the henequen of commerce. 

Henequen (pronounced hen'e-ken) is a coarse vegetable fibre 
from 3 to 5 feet long. Its color is pale-yellow, nearly white. In 
Mexico the fibre is known by many names, the correct one and that 
most commonly used being henequen. 1 In the United States it is 
often called henequen, but more commonly sisal (pronounced sis'al) 
or sisal grass, or sisal hemp. The name sisal is given it because it 
was formerly exported from the port of Sisal on the northern coast 
of Yucatan. 

The plant which yields sisal fibre is a species of agave (pro- 
nounced ah-ga'va) or century plant, known to the botanists as Agave 
rigida sisalana. When growing in our greenhouses we refer to it as 
a century plant, but not as the century plant. It is very similar to 
the common century plant and belongs to the same group or order 
of plants (Amaryltidacece) y all of which, although there are about 
125 species, resemble each other in a general way, just as all species 
of violets resemble each other. The full grown sisal plant has a 
thick stalk about 3 or 4 feet high, bearing at the top a number of 
long, broad, stout, fleshy leaves, with short, sharp spines along both 
edges, and a longer sharper spine at the tip. The flowers, of which 
there are several thousand, are borne on horizontal branches near 
the top of a pole-like flower-stalk from 20 to 30 feet high. The 
stalk and flowers resemble a tall candelabrum with numerous 
brackets, each bearing hundreds of lights. The fibre occurs as 
threads running the entire length of the leaf from the base to the 
apex. It is embedded in a great amount of white pulp. 



1 There is much confusion regarding the names applied to this fibre. Hene- 
quen is used in a generic sense to include all the long agave fibres grown in 
Southern Mexico. In a restricted sense it is applied to a finer, whiter fibre 
than that usually designated as sisal. There is some doubt as to whether the 
sisal and henequen are yielded by different species of agave or by different 
agricultural varieties. 

Maguey is a term used in a generic sense to designate various species of 
agave and the products obtained from them. In a restricted sense maguey is 
applied to the sap-yielding varieties. Ixtle is a term used to designate the 
short varieties of agave fibre and is applied also to the fibre of various other 
plants. 



326 



Products of the Century Plants. 



j Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I July, 1902. 



THE PRODUCTION OF THE FIBRE. 

The sisal plant grows wild in many parts of Mexico and Central 
America, being hardy and able to thrive in many places where the 
soil is too poor to support other vegetation. Because of its com- 
mercial importance, regularity in the supply of the fibre is necessary 
to meet the demands of manufacturers; hence but little dependence 
is placed upon the wild plants as a source of supply. Nearly all the 
sisal used is grown on large plantations devoted to its cultivation. 

The young plants may be grown from seeds, or from pole-plants, 
t. e., young plants which form on the branches of the flower-stalk 
and drop to the earth and take root ; but the method of propagation 
universally adopted is to transplant the suckers or shoots which 
spring up about the mother plant. The young plants are set out in 
rows from 6 to 10 feet apart. A less distance between the rows 
would render the plantation almost inaccessible because of the sharp 
spines with which the leaves are armed, and which often inflict seri- 
ous wounds on the laborers. At the end of five years the first crop, 
consisting of eight or ten leaves from each plant, is harvested. For 
about twelve to fifteen years after this each plant yields about a 
dozen leaves per year, then dies and is replaced by a young plant. 
The labor is performed by Mexican Indians, usually under the direc- 
tion of white overseers. The leaves are cut close to the stalk of the 
plant, with a curved knife fastened in the end of a handle about 12 
inches long. 

As each leaf is gathered it is trimmed along both edges to remove 
the prickles, and the stout spine at the tip is cut away. The leaves, 
called pencas, are then made up into bundles. On small plantations 
these bundles are removed from the field on the backs of men or 
burros. The large plantations are traversed by tramways on which 
flat cars drawn by burros are run to all parts of the fields to be 
loaded with bundles of leaves to be taken to the factory. 

On a small scale the fibre is extracted by macerating the leaves 
in water to soften the pulp, which may then be easily scratched or 
combed away. In the factories the work is done on a large scale by 
various types of machinery, all of which first crush the pulp and then 
scratch or comb it away from the fibre. After the fibre is extracted 
it is dried in the open air. The drying-yards have in them a great 
number of posts planted in the ground, with pieces nailed near the 
top forming crosses on which the fibre is looped ; or the posts are 



328 Products of the Century Plants. { Am •gjff™- 

connected by a number of rails over which the fibre is hung. When 
dry the fibre is baled in powerful presses in order to make it more 
convenient in handling, storing and shipping. 




Yucatan is the great sisal-growing region — especially the portion 
of it surrounding the capital, Merida. In this district the sisal plant 
is almost the only vegetation. Several towns, notably Merida and 



Am Yuiy?i9o h 2 arm "} Products of the Century Plants. 329 

Progreso, the port from which sisal is exported, are wholly dependent 
upon this industry. Were it not for this industry the whole north- 
western portion of Yucatan would be deserted. 

" Thanks to its trade in henequen, or agave fibre, of which from 
40,000 to 60,000 tons are annually exported, Merida has become 
the converging point of several lines, which, when completed, will 
cover the whole peninsula with a network of railways. For the 
present, however, the capital is connected only by a road with its 
ancient port, the little town of Sisal, at the northwest corner of 
Yucatan. From this seaport the henequen takes its English name 
of sisal hemp, by which it is known to the trade. The price of this 
valuable fibre has increased six-fold since the middle of the present 
century. The roadstead of Sisal, being exposed to the dangerous 
north winds, was abandoned in 1 87 1 , when a new marina was 
founded on the coast due north of Merida, with which it is con- 
nected by a railway 22 miles long. The line is carried over the 
coast lagoon by a strong embankment. The new town, which 
replaces the old Indian village of Tuxula, has already justified its 
name of Progreso, although the only advantage it enjoys over Sisal 
is its relative proximity to the capital. To shipping it is equally 
inaccessible, large vessels having to anchor in an open roadstead 
from 3 to 6 miles from port. So dangerous is the roadstead 
that steamers and sailing vessels are always ready to weigh 
anchor and escape to the high sea. Towards noon every day com- 
munication with the shore becomes almost impossible, owing to the 
violence of the surf under the action of the fierce northern gales." 
— " The Earth and Its Inhabitants," Elisee Reclus, 1891, D. Apple- 
ton & Co., N. Y. 

EXPORT AND MANUFACTURE OF THE FIBRE. 

The United States takes nearly all the sisal hemp exported. Sev- 
eral large manufacturing establishments in this country maintain 
agencies in Yucatan for the purpose of purchasing the fibre and 
keeping thoroughly informed as to the condition of the trade, the 
probable supply and possible variation in price. 

Sisal hemp is one of the few important raw materials of the 
cordage industry in the United States, and almost the whole quan- 
tity imported is used for making ropes and binding twines. In 
Philadelphia and other cities there are extensive cordage works 



Am /u < iyyi9 P oi arn3 "} Products of the Century Plants. 331 

which annually use large quantities of this fibre. Much of the 
binding twine used on harvesting machines, to bind the grain into 
sheaves as it is cut, is made of sisal. Some of the great establish- 
ments which make these harvesting machines, notably the great works 
located in Chicago, have their own twine mills employing hundreds 
of men and women, and their twines are sold in all parts of the 
world wherever modern agricultural machinery is in use. 

Manila hemp of the Philippine Islands is almost its only com- 
petitor in the binding twine factories. In the cordage factories 
Manila hemp, sisal hemp, flax, common hemp, cotton and jute are 
the fibres commonly used. Sisal is preferred for certain uses, and 
because of its price and because of special demand in certain mar- 
kets in which it is to be sold. For other uses it is not so good and 
is displaced by other fibres. 

All the fibre produced is not exported from Mexico, but a very 
large part is retained for home-consumption, being made into a 
great variety of articles which are in everyday use in all parts of 
the country. Twines, ropes, matting, bagging, hammocks, sandals, 1 
harness, baskets and ornaments are the principal articles made in 
Mexico from sisal. ' Rarely are any of these articles sent to the 
United States except as curios. 

Tampico hemp, so named because it is exported from the port of 
Tampico in the State of Tamaulipas on the Gulf Coast, is a shorter 
stirTer fibre obtained from another species of century plant. San 
Luis Potosi is the centre of the district in which this fibre is grown. 



1 "Shoes in Mexico are a foreign innovation, and properly form no part of 
the national costume. The great majority of the people do not wear shoes at 
all, and probably never will ; but in their place use sauaals, composed of a sole 
of leather rawhide, or plaited fibres of the maguey plant, fastened to the foot 
with strings of the same material, as the only protection for the foot needed in 
their warm, dry climate. And these sandals are so easily made and repaired 
that every Mexican peasant, no matter what may be his other occupation, is 
always his own shoemaker. As a general rule, also, the infantry regiments of 
Mexico wear sandals in preference to shoes ; ' not solely for the sake of econ- 
omy, but because they are considered healthier, keep the feet in better condi- 
tion, and are more easily repaired or replaced, and make the marching easier.' 
Very curiously the pegged shoes of the United States and other countries are 
not made and cannot be sold in Mexico, as, owing to the extreme dryness of 
the atmosphere, the wood shrinks to such a degree that the pegs speedily 
become loose and fall out." — " A Study of Mexico," by David A. Wells. D. 
Appleton & Co., New York, 18S7. 



332 Products of the Century Plants. { hm '{^;^ m ' 

The same name is given also to a fibre from a species of yucca. 
Tampico hemp is used for making brushes of various kinds, and for 
door-mats. 

PULQUE, THE NATIONAL DRINK. 

Several species are important because of their sap, which is used 
for making pulque, mezcal and some other liquors of less impor- 
tance. These plants are known as the pulque agaves (pronounced 
pool'ka) and mezcal agaves. The common century plant of our 
greenhouses is one of the most important of the pulque agaves. 

The pulque agaves are cultivated on the plateaus and in nearly 
all parts of the mountainous districts at from 6,000 to 8,000 feet 
above sea-level, but the vicinity of the City of Mexico is the great 
centre of the pulque industry. For a distance of about sixty miles 
on all sides of the capital city there are immense pulque planta- 
tions, many of them containing thousands of acres of land. Many 
small farms also are wholly or partially devoted to raising the 
pulque agave ; and many families who do not make a business of 
growing the plant keep a few growing in their door-yards from 
which to obtain their own supply of pulque. 

The pulque agaves are cultivated in the same manner as the sisal 
agaves. When ready to bloom the plant produces large quantities 
of sap which, under ordinary conditions, would go to form the tall 
stout flower-pole and flowers. But the " pulquero," i.e., the sap. 
gatherer, cuts out the bud and the rosette of leaves in which it 
nestles and scoops out a hollow in the top of the plant. Into this 
hollow a great amount of sweet greenish, yellowish or whitish juice 
exudes. This juice is called aguamiel, meaning honey water, and is 
much liked. The flow continues for three or tour months, some 
plants yielding as much as 2 gallons per day. The pulquero visits 
each plant at least twice a day to collect the sap. The sap is drawn 
by suction into a long gourd and is then emptied into a pigskin bag 
carried on the back of the pulquero or on the back of a burro. Each 
day the sides of the hollow in which the sap is collected are scraped 
in order to permit free exudation. But small quantities of aguamiel 
are consumed, because it so rapidly ferments that transportation to. 
the cities is almost impossible. When fermented it is called pulque. 
The usual method of fermenting is to add an equal amount of milk 
and a small quantity of rennet; pour the mixture into vats made of 



334 Products of the Century Plants. { Am j J u ^i£5 arm ' 

raw cowskins and allow it to stand about thirty-six hours. It 
curdles somewhat and resembles thin buttermilk, has an unpleasant 
odor like partially decayed meat or rancid cheese and tastes like 
stale buttermilk. Persons unaccustomed to its use find it at first 
disgusting and nauseating, but soon acquire a taste for it and find it 
palatable and refreshing. Taken in large quantities it is intoxicat- 
ing. It contains about 7 per cent, alcohol. 

Pulque is the national drink of the Mexicans, just as beer is the 
national drink of the Germans, or as wine is the national drink of 
the French. Large areas of land and many thousands of laborers 
are devoted to its production. The railroads of the pulque district 
run daily pulque trains to the City of Mexico, and to other parts of 
the country, and large quantities are carried on the backs of burros 
into the capital and other cities in the pulque district. The City of 
Mexico has about 1,000 " pulqueras " or " cantinas," ie. t saloons, in 
which nothing but pulque is sold. The daily consumption in that 
city exceeds 50,000 pints. 

Another product of agave is mezcal, a clear, strongly alcoholic 
liquor made by distilling the sap of various species of agave. The 
pulque agaves may be used for the purpose, but most of the mezcal 
is distilled from the juice of other species which are called mezcal 
agaves or mezcal magueys. These plants have thinner and narrower 
leaves than the pulque agaves. Mezcal is called also mexcal r 
aguardiente de maguey, and tequila. In English it is often called 
Mexican brandy. Its taste resembles that of strong rum. It is 
extremely intoxicating and brutalizing. Large quantities are con- 
sumed throughout Mexico, and it is one of the national drinks. The 
entire product of pulque and mezcal is consumed in Mexico. 

Vinegar is made by rapidly fermenting the sap. When com- 
pletely evaporated the sap yields sugar; partially evaporated it 
yields a sweet, honey-like syrup. 

The pulque and mezcal agaves yield fibre similar but much 
inferior to that of the sisal agaves. The plants are grown almost 
exclusively for the sap products. What fibre is extracted is used 
locally. 

A WIDE VARIETY OF PRODUCTS. 

The fibre and the sap are the most important products of these 
plants, and it is for these that they are cultivated. But there are many 



Am ju < i?y , im arm '} Legislation and Judicial Decisions. 33$ 

other uses for which the plant itself and its products, and the 
by-products and wastes of the fibre-extracting mills are adapted. 
The waste fibre of the mills is used for oakum and as packing 
material, and can be used for making coarse paper. A handful of 
the waste serves as a toilet sponge and is quite commonly used in 
this way. The sharp spine at the tip of the leaf is often used as a 
nail. With a strand of fibre left attached to it, it serves as a 
threaded needle and is much used for sewing up bagging, repairing 
harness, sandals, etc. The flower-stalks are used for fishing poles, 
lance-handles, razor strops, and for constructing the walls of huts. 
The leaves are used as fodder and to thatch huts. The roots and 
leaves of several species, especially Agave saponaria, .are used as 
soap substitutes. 

The plants are much used in Mexico for hedges, and in many 
parts of the world in ornamental gardening. 

STATISTICS OF OUR IMPORTS. 

During the year ending June 30, 1900, the principal fibres im- 
ported into the United States were valued at $26,373,805, which was 
distributed among the various fibres, as shown in the following table: 

U. S IMPORTATIONS OF FIBRE FOR THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, I9OO. 





Tons. 


Dollars. 






11,782,263 






7,172,368 






3,956,413 


Flax 


6,967 


1,646,274 






475,090 






450,269 






891,128 




249,307 


26,373,805 



The PrkscotT Portrait. — A life-size oil portrait of Dr. Albert B. Prescott 
was presented to the University of Michigan by the alumni of the School of 
Pharmacy on June 18th. Dr. A. B. Lyons was chairman of the meeting, and 
Mr. A. L. Parker formally presented the portrait to the University. President 
James B. Angell, responding on behalf of the University, alluded to Dr. Pres- 
cott's long connection with it, and said that the University Faculties looked 
forward to the day when a great chemical laboratory should replace the present 
one— one worthy of the University and worthy to bear the name of the Pres- 
cott Laboratory. Dr. Edward Kremers, of Madison, Wis., delivered an address 
on " The State University and Pharmaceutical Education. " An informal recep~ 
tion at the residence of Prof. A. B. Stevens concluded the exercises. 



336 Legislation and Judicial Decisions. { Am ju°£i£& arm " 

LEGISLATION AND JUDICIAL DECISIONS OF INTEREST 
TO PHARMACISTS FOR THE YEAR 1901-1932. 

By J. H. Beal. 
LEGISLATION. 

The winter has been noteworthy tor the fact that fewer measures 
than common have been introduced either by pharmacists or aimed 
at them by antagonistic interests. In several States bills have been 
introduced proposing to register physicians as pharmacists with- 
out examination, and also to admit to the register persons who 
have had a certain number of years' experience. So far as we have 
been able to learn, all such measures have been defeated. 

In at least three States, and possibly in others, attempts were 
made to pass laws prohibiting the charging of soda fountains in 
buildings used for any other purpose. These measures were 
pushed by the bottling interests, and would have absolutely pre- 
vented the charging by druggists of their own fountains. Fortun- 
ately for the drug trade, the bills were all defeated, and a similar 
law passed in New York two years ago was repealed. 

Like measures will doubtless appear in the future, and it behooves 
pharmacists to be on the alert while the general assemblies are in 
session. 

Ohio now has a brand-new poison law, based principally upon 
the poison section of the A.Pn. A. model, a copy of which is printed 
below, and although it does not go into effect until January, 1903, 
its effect is seen in the fact that a number of country grocers have 
already thrown out their stock of drugs, with the statement that if 
they must register the sale of every poison they won't handle such 
articles at all. Thus the public will receive a better measure of 
protection, while the pharmacist will come into his own again. 

OHIO POISON LAW. 

Replacing the former Poison Law, the Poison-Label Law and the 
Morphine Law. 

Section i. It shall be unlawful for any person to knowingly 
sell or deliver to any minor under sixteen years of age, except upon 
the written order of an adult, or to sell or deliver to any person, 
any of the following described substances, or any poisonous com- 
pound, poisonous combination or poisonous preparation thereof, 
to wit : Tne compounds and salts of antimony, arsenic, chromium, 



Am "/u°iyy'i902f rm '} Legislation and Judicial Decisions. 337 

copper, lead, mercury, zinc, the concentrated mineral acids, oxalic 
and hydrocyanic acids and their salts, yellow phosphorus, carbolic 
acid, the essential oils of almonds, pennyroyal, tansy and savin, 
croton oil, creosote, chloroform, chloral hydrate, cantharides, or 
any aconite, belladonna, bitter almonds, colchicum, cotton root, 
cocculus indicus, conium, cannabis indica, digitalis, hyoscyamus, 
ignatia, lobelia, nux vomica, opium, physostigma, phytolacca, stro- 
phantus, stramonium, veratrum viride, or any of the poisonous 
alkaloids or alkaloidal salts or other poisonous principles derived 
from the foregoing, or any other poisonous alkaloids or their salts 
or any other virulent poison, except in the manner following : 

It shall first be learned by due inquiry that the person to whom 
delivery is made is aware of the poisonous character of the sub- 
stance, and that it is desired for a lawful purpose, and the box, 
bottle or other package shall be plainly labeled with the name of 
the substance, the word ''poison," and the names of two or more 
substances which may be used as antidotes. And before delivery 
shall be made of any of the foregoing substances, there shall be 
recorded in a book kept for that purpose the name of the article, 
the quantity delivered, the purpose for which it is alleged to be 
used, the date of delivery, the name and address of the purchaser, 
and the name of the dispenser, which book shall be preserved for 
at least five years, and shall at all times be open to inspection by 
the proper officers of the law. 

Sec. 2. The provisions of Section 1 of this act shall not apply 
to articles dispensed to or upon the order or prescription of persons 
believed by the dispenser to be lawfully authorized practitioners of 
medicine or dentistry, and the record of sale and delivery above 
mentioned shall not be required of manufacturers and wholesalers 
who shall sell any of the foregoing substances at wholesale, but the 
box, bottle or other package containing such substance, when sold 
at wholesale, shall be properly labeled with the name of the sub- 
stance, the word " poison," and the name and address of the manu- 
facturer or wholesaler ; nor shall it be necessary to place a poison 
label upon, nor to record the delivery of sulfid of antimony, or the 
oxid or carbonate of zinc, or of colors ground in oil and intended 
for use as paints, or calomel, paregoric, or other preparations of 
opium containing less than 2 grains of opium to the fluid ounce, 
nor in the case of preparations containing any of the substances 



333 Legislation and Judicial Decisions. { Am juiy^fo2. arm 

named in Section I of this act when a single box, bottle or other 
package, or when the bulk of y 2 fluid ounce or the weight of 
y 2 avoirdupois ounce does not contain more than an adult 
medicinal dose of such poisonous substance; nor in case of prepara- 
tions recommended in good faith for diarrhoea and cholera, when 
each bottle or package is accompanied by specific directions for use 
and a caution against habitual use ; nor in the case of liniments 
and ointments when plainly labeled " for external use only nor 
in the case of preparations put up and sold in the form of pills, 
tablets or lozenges and intended for internal use, where the dose 
recommended does not contain more than one-fourth of an adult 
medicinal dose of such poisonous substance. 

Sec. 3. It shall be unlawful for any person to dispense, sell or 
deliver to any person, any salts of cocaine, morphine or its salts, or 
any of the alkaloids or salts of alkaloids of opium, except upon the 
written prescription of a legally qualified physician or dentist, such 
prescription not to be refilled, except upon the written order of the 
person prescribing the same ; except, however, that sulphate of 
morphine may be sold by a registered pharmacist or assistant 
pharmacist in original packages containing not less than y% ounce 
when registered in accordance with the provisions of Section I of 
this act. 

Sec. 4. The penalty for the violation of any of the provisions of 
any section of this act shall not be less than ten dollars nor more 
than fifty dollars for each separate offense. 

Sec. 5. Section 4238-27, Section 4364-54 and Section 6957 of 
the Revised Statutes of the State of Ohio are hereby repealed. 

Sec. 6. This act shall take effect and be in force from and after 
the first day of January, A.D. 1903. 

The legislature of Ohio also enacted a law prohibiting the pro- 
miscuous distribution of samples of pills and other potent medicines, 
and an anti-cocaine law, prohibiting the sale of cocaine, except upon 
physician's prescription. 

Perhaps the measure which gave the most joy to Ohio druggists, 
however, was the law repealing the infamous Middleton Act. This 
was an act which slipped through the general assembly two years 
ago without its true intent being known. It gave any one the right 
to bring an action against any druggist for violating the Dow 
Liquor Tax Law. Under it a spy would obtain liquor from a drug- 



Am '/u°iy?i902. arm '} Legislation and Judicial Decisions. 339 

gist by false pretense, and then threaten prosecution unless paid a 
certain amount of hush-money. Most druggists would settle 
rather than submit to the scandal and expense of a prosecution, and 
as a consequence the professional spies and informers waxed opulent 
during the two years of its existence. 

In New York the pharmacy law has been again amended, so as 
to increase the number of societies which may take part in the 
election of members of the Board of Pharmacy. 

Maryland, after a contest extending over fifteen years, has at last 
enacted an all-State law, which is printed below. While it may be 
considered as a long step in the right direction, the exceptions in 
Sections 14 a, 15^ and 16 largely nullify the good effect which it 
would otherwise have. 

MARYLAND PHARMACY LAW. 

Section 2. And be it further enacted. That no person on or after 
the first day of July, following the passage of this act, shall open, 
conduct or keep a pharmacy in this State, either as a principal or 
agent, unless such person shall have obtained a pharmacist's certifi- 
cate, as hereinafter provided, and no pharmacy shall at any time be 
left in charge of any person who is not a certified pharmacist, a cer- 
tified acting pharmacist or a certified assistant pharmacist, to com- 
pound prescriptions or sell or dispense poisonous drugs. It shall, 
however, be lawful for physicians and dentists to compound and 
dispense their own prescriptions; but unlawful for any person, 
dealer or firm, not a certified pharmacist, a certified acting phar- 
macist or certified assistant pharmacist, to compound a physician's 
prescription. Any person violating this section shall, upon convic- 
tion, be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and fined not more than 
one hundred dollars for each offense. 

Sec. 3. And be it further enacted, That every store or shop where 
drugs, medicines or chemicals are sold at retail, displayed for sale at 
retail, where physicians' prescriptions are compounded, which has 
upon it or in it as a sign the words u pharmacist," " pharmacy," 
" apothecary," " drug store," " druggist," or any of these words or 
exhibits, the characteristic show bottles or globes filled with colored 
liquids, shall be considered a pharmacy within the meaning of this 
act. 

Sec. 4. And be it further enacted, That on or before the first day 
of May, following the passage of this act, the Governor shall 



340 Legislation and Judicial Decisions. { Am 'j J u o iy''i 9 P 02. arm ' 

appoint five persons who are skilled and competent pharmacists, 
who have had ten years' active pharmaceutical experience, are 
actively engaged in the retail drug business and not connected with 
any school of pharmacy or medicine either as teachers, instructors 
or members of the board of trustees, to be Commissioners of Phar- 
macy, two of whom shall be residents of the city of Baltimore, and 
three residents of the counties of the State. Said commissioners 
shall constitute the Maryland Board of Pharmacy, and shall hold 
office as follows: One to serve five years, one four years, one three 
years, one two years, and one one year from the first of May next; 
in the first instance the Governor to designate in the appointment 
who to serve one, two, three, four and five years, and thereafter 
annually the Governor shall appoint one person to serve as a mem. 
ber of said board for the term of five years. The said commission- 
ers shall, within ten days after notification of their appointment, each 
subscribe to an oath before the clerk of the Superior Court of Balti- 
more City, or the clerk of the Circuit Court of any county, to impar- 
tially and faithfully discharge the duties prescribed by this act. 
The position of any commissioner appointed under this act, who 
shall fail to qualify within the time and in the manner hereinbefore 
named shall be deemed vacant. The Governor shall fill all occur- 
ring vacancies from such sections of the State as will cause the board 
to be constituted as hereinbefore provided. 

Sec. 5. And be it Jurther enacted, That the said board shall or- 
ganize by the election of a president, secretary and treasurer, who 
shall serve for the term of one year, and who shall perform the 
duties prescribed by the board. Meetings for the examination of 
applicants for registration shall be held on the first Thursday in 
April and October in each year, in the city of Baltimore, or at such 
times and places as may be fixed upon by the board ; provided that 
ten days' public notice of the hour and place of each meeting at 
which there is an examination of candidates for registration shall be 
given. It shall be the duty of the board to receive all applications 
for examination and registration submitted in proper form; to grant 
certificates to such persons as may be entitled to the same under 
this act; to report annually to the Governor upon the condition of 
pharmacy of the State, which report shall also furnish a record of 
the proceedings of the board, as well as the names of all persons 
registered under this act; to keep a book in which shall be reg- 



Am j J u ]y!"ifo2 arm '} Legislation and Judicial Decisions. 341 

istered the names and places of business of all persons registered 
under this act, and all facts pertaining to the granting of certifi- 
cates. The said board shall have the power to adopt any rules and 
by-laws not inconsistent with this act, necessary to the transaction 
of the business of this board ; to demand and receive from applicants 
the lees herein provided, which shall by the treasurer of the board 
be paid to the treasurer of the State. 

Sec. 6. And be it further enacted, That the salaries of said board 
shall be fifty dollars per annum to each member, and all legitimate 
expenses incurred in the discharge of official duties. The secretary 
of said board shall receive an additional salary to be fixed by the 
board, and not to exceed two hundred dollars per annum ; he shall 
pay to the treasurer at each meeting, or whenever the board may 
direct, such funds of the board as may be in his possession, and 
take the treasurer's receipt therefor. In its annual report to the 
Governor, the board shall render an account of all moneys received 
and expenses incurred pursuant to this act, and the secretary and 
treasurer shall give such bond as the board shall from time to time 
direct. 

Sec. 7. And be it further enacted, That any person who is at the 
passage of this act registered or entitled to registration in Balti- 
more City as managing owner, managing assistant or relief clerk, 
and shall, on or before the first day of July next following the pas- 
sage of this act, pay to the Maryland Board of Pharmacy a fee of 
one dollar, shall be entitled to registration as pharmacist and receive 
a certificate of such registration. 

Sec. 8. And be it further enacted, That any person who, at the 
passage of this act, is actively engaged as owner or manager, or is 
and has been so engaged as clerk for five years or more, and has 
reached the age of twenty-one years, in compounding drugs and 
dispensing physicians' prescriptions in one of the counties of this 
State, and who shall, on or before the first day of July next follow- 
ing the passage of this act, forward to the Maryland Board of 
Pharmacy an affidavit to that effect, together with a fee of one^dollar, 
shall be entitled to registration as pharmacist and to a certificate of 
such registration. 

Sec. 9. And be it further enacted, That on and after the passage 
of this act, any person who has had four years' continuous active 
experience in a pharmacy where physicians' prescriptions are daily 



342 Legislation and Judicial Decisions. { Am j J u o iyyif 2 arm 

compounded, and has reached the age of twenty-one years, who, 
after examination by the Maryland Board of Pharmacy, shall be by 
it deemed competent, shall be registered as pharmacist and be given 
a certificate of such registration. Such person shall make applica- 
tion to the secretary ten days before any of the meetings of the 
board, and shall pay to the board a fee of five dollars. 

Sec. io. And be it further enacted, That any person over the age 
of eighteen who, at the passage of this act, is employed as a clerk 
or assistant in a pharmacy in this State, and has been actively 
engaged for one year in a pharmacy where physicians' prescriptions 
are daily compounded, and shall, on or before the first day of July 
next following the passage of this act, forward to the Maryland 
Board of Pharmacy an affidavit to that effect, together with a fee of 
fifty cents, shall be entitled to registration as assistant pharmacist 
and a certificate of such registration. 

Sec. i i. And be it further enacted, That any person who has had 
two years of continuous active experience in a pharmacy where 
physicians' prescriptions are daily compounded, and has attained the 
age of eighteen years, who, after examination by the Maryland 
Board of Pharmacy, shall by it be deemed competent, shall be regis- 
tered as assistant pharmacist and be given a certificate of such regis- 
tration. Such persons shall make application to the secretary of 
the board ten days before any of its stated meetings, and pay to the 
board a fee of three dollars. 

Sec. 12. And be it further enacted. That every applicant for exami- 
nation shall, with his application to the secretary of the board, file 
a written declaration, duly sworn to before a justice of the peace or 
notary public, stating the pharmacy or pharmacies in which he has 
had the experience demanded in Sections 9 and 11. Any one 
swearing falsely in the affidavit so filed shall be deemed guilty of 
perjury. 

Sec. 13. Every person receiving a pharmacist's or assistant phar- 
macist's certificate shall keep the same conspicuously posted in his 
place of business. 

Sec. 14. And be it further enacted, That any certificate obtained 
by false representation shall be void, and the offender shall be fined 
not more than fifty dollars, or imprisonment (or thirty days, or both, 
in the discretion of the court. 

Sec. 14A. And be it further enacted, That nothing in this act shall 



Am ju°iy^902 arm "} Legislation and Judicial Decisions. 343 

prevent regularly licensed physicians of the State of Maryland from 
selling and compounding drugs and medicines as a pharmacist. 

Sec. 15. And be it further enacted, That all acts or parts of acts 
pertaining to the practice of pharmacy in the State of Maryland, in 
so far as they conflict with this act, are hereby void. 

Sec. 15%. And be it enacted, That the provisions of this act shall 
not apply to Talbot County. 

Sec. 16. Provided, however, that nothing in this act shall be 
construed as preventing general merchants of the counties of the 
State or of Baltimore City from selling such drugs and medicines as 
have heretofore been handled by the general merchants of the State 
of Maryland, or any registered physician of this State from per- 
sonally compounding and dispensing drugs and medicines. 

The enactment of the Maryland law now leaves Idaho the only 
State in the Union without a pharmacy law. 

Massachusetts druggists are rejoicing in the fact that the " Blue 
Laws" prohibiting the sale on Sunday of candy, cigars and soda- 
water were repealed at the last session of the State law-making 
body. Their repeal illustrates anew the fact that the druggists of 
a State are powerful enough to compel or prevent almost any kind 
of legislation when they work earnestly and harmoniously. 

The preceding acts are the more important of the year's grist of 
legislation affecting pharmacy. Some minor changes and attempted 
changes have been reported from other States, but the writer has 
not yet been able to procure definite information concerning them. 

JUDICIAL DECISIONS. 

An interesting decision has been had in Iowa upon the responsi- 
bility of a vendor for injury caused by dangerous articles sold with- 
out giving notice of their dangerous qualities. 

In this case (the Torbet case) the plaintiff called for phosphorus, 
which he received, properly labeled, but being injured because of 
his ignorance of the properties of the stuff, brought suit on the 
ground that the druggist was negligent in not giving notice of the 
dangerous qualities of the article supplied. The court says : " When 
a person who has reached the age of discretion, and who is appar- 
ently in the possession of his mental laculties, applies to a druggist 
for a certain drug, he represents to the dealer by implication at least 
that he knows its properties and uses and that he is a fit person to 



344 Legislation and Judicial Decisions. { Am jui"om rm ' 

whom sale thereof may be made, and that unless there is something 
connected with the transaction or something previously known to 
the seller, indicating that the would-be purchaser cannot safely be 
entrusted with the substance, a sale of the substance called for may 
be made without explaining its properties or the manner in which it 
may be safely used or handled." 

This decision apparently overthrows the doctrine laid down in 
the case of Wellington vs. Downer (104 Mass., 67), where the court 
says : " It is well settled that a man who delivers an article which 
he knows to be dangerous or noxious, without notice of its danger- 
ous qualities, is liable for any injury which may reasonably be con- 
templated as likely to result therefrom to that person or any other 
who is not himself in fault." 

This was a case where naphtha was sold to a person ignorant of 
its nature, and who was injured by an explosion. The injured per- 
son was held entitled to recover damages. 

A decision by the Kentucky Court of Appeals is of interest in 
that it decides that the prerogatives of a physician give him no 
right to sell drugs indiscriminately. The court says that a physi- 
cian " cannot sell indiscriminately to persons calling for prescrip- 
tions, nor compound drugs and sell them indiscriminately to all who 
may call for them." 

This seems just doctrine, and it is to be hoped that it will be fqU 
Lowed by other courts which may have to pronounce upon such 
cases. 

Much has been said of several decisions in cases brought by the 
Phenyo-Caffeine Company to prevent the sale of their goods at cut 
prices, and of the effect which these decisions will have upon the 
so-called Worcester Plan, made famous by the decision in the case 
of Garst vs. Harris, decided in Massachusetts about a year ago. 
So iar as we can determine from the published accounts, these 
cases do not in the least infringe upon the integrity of the doctrine 
laid down in Garst vs. Harris. The latter case established the doc- 
trine that a vendor may lawfully contract with his vendee that the 
latter shall not sell the articles bought under the contract below a 
certain price. This was a marked departure from the old common- 
law rule that all contracts restricting prices were against public 
policy and void, and the decision was justly hailed as a great step 
in the direction of price-protection. The later decisions referred 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1902. 



Magnesium Citrate. 



345 



to do not contravene this doctrine in the least, but hold — and no 
doubt justly — that a mere purchase of goods marked to be sold at 
a certain price only is not sufficient evidence of the assent of the 
vendee to the terms printed on the wrapper. 

In other words, the late cases merely affirm the good old rule 
that a man cannot be held for a breach of contract unless it can 
first be proved that he expressly or impliedly assented to the terms 
of the contract. 

The N.A.R.D. plan has received a setback in the decision of the 
Georgia Supreme Court in the Jacobs conspiracy case. This was 
a suit brought by Joseph Jacobs, of Atlanta, against the local asso- 
ciation for conspiracy to prevent him from obtaining goods from 
jobbers. The court in its decision affirms the old common-law 
doctrine that any combination to maintain prices is illegal, and that 
contracts designed to make such combinations effective are void, 
as against public policy. 

The general tendency of courts, however, as shown by the case 
of Garst vs. Harris mentioned above and other cases, is to relax 
the strictness of the common-law doctrine of contracts in restraint 
of trade, and it is hardly probable that the Georgia decision will be 
universally followed. 

In addition to the cases above mentioned, several others of 
interest are pending in several States and will receive mention when 
decided. 



THE STERILIZATION OF SOLUTION OF MAGNESIUM 

CITRATE. 1 

By Herbert J. Watson. 

This solution should have first place among those which are en-^ 
titled to rank among the preparations of elegant pharmacy. With 
the proper manipulations, in which a complete destruction of the 
deleterious microscopic organisms is affected, this solution may have 
this position. 

Some contend that the use of heat injures the flavor, but this 
contention is not founded on any statements that have been pub- 
lished, so far as the author is aware. 



x Read at the Delaware Pharmaceutical Society, June 5, 1902, and com- 
municated by the author. 



346 



Magnesium Citrate. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1902. 



The solution of magnesium citrate is a favorable medium for the 
development of these micro-organisms, and while its preparation has 
caused a very wide diversity of opinion among pharmaceutical 
writers, still some appear to have pursued rational methods of prepa- 
ration. Some suggest the boiling of the water before adding to the 
syrup and magnesia solution, stating that it will thus keep indefi- 
nitely. Fifteen minutes' boiling for three successive days would be 
required for this method, the entire solution being used. Others 
suggest placing the filled bottles into a pan of boiling water for half 
an hour. This method would be effective if the bottles were placed 
in an Arnold sterilizer for three consecutive days, fifteen minutes 
each. Samples sterilized by this method in our laboratory, with an 
Arnold form, kept ior three months without the formation of the 
slightest sediment. Another method, without the aid of steriliza- 
tion, is to place the syrup in the bottles, then the solution of mag- 
nesium carbonate, water next, the crystals of potassium bicarbonate 
being the last addition. Stopper and set aside without the slightest 
agitation. The sediment in this solution appeared a few days later 
than in the pharmacopceial solution. 

Experiments showed that the micro-organisms appear in three to 
five days in the official preparation. Samples made from tap and 
distilled water, with varying amounts of syrup of citric acid, required 
the same number of days' incubation at room temperature. 

As a result of his experiments the writer proposes a method as fol- 
lows : " Place the filtered magnesium citrate solution in bottles with 
the syrup of citric acid and distilled water, then small plugs of cotton 
between the rubber stopper and neck of the bottle and sterilize for 
three days, fifteen minutes each day. The autoclav, or the pres- 
sure sterilizer, requires but twenty-five minutes no° C. under 6 
pounds pressure. 

Take small vials, 2 drachms each, add 35 grains potassium bicar- 
bonate, plug with cotton, and place in a dry oven or sterilizer for 
one hour at 150 C. or 302 F. When the bottles containing the 
solution and salt are cool enough, carefully remove cotton from each, 
adding the contents of the vial to the syrupy solution, stopper 
tightly and dispense as needed. The solution thus prepared is a 
stable and pleasant cathartic, a sweet, aromatic, effervescing and 
carbonated beverage, and yields a profit of 65 per cent. 

The organisms predominating in the different specimens ex- 



Am. Jour. Pharm.") 
July, 1902. / 



Blood Examination. 



347 



amined were represented in the molds, yeasts, and bacteria. Penicil- 
lium glaucum was the mold found, Saccharomyces ellipsoideus the 
yeast, and the bacteria were indefinite. 



BLOOD EXAMINATION AS AN AID TO THE GENERAL 
PRACTITIONER. 1 



By Warren S. Simmons, M.D. 



Read before the Medical Society of the County of Kings, November 19, 1901. 

In calling attention to the value of the examination of the blood 
in our everyday work, it is impossible to give an exhaustive account 
of the many departures from normal that are found in this fluid. 

At the present time the various medical journals contain many- 
articles on this important subject, although the majority of them 
are practically confined to discussing its relation to surgical dis- 
ease, and completely ignore the fact that there are other condi- 
tions where the blood examination furnishes us with a very exact 
knowledge of the patient's condition, or at least gives us certain 
clues that are of inestimable value in establishing a diagnosis and 
applying proper treatment. 

As regards the value of a blood examination, the profession at 
large appears to be divided into four important groups. 

First, there are those who have made their diagnoses and insti- 
tuted successful treatment before this subject was given the atten- 
tion and prominence which it now occupies, and, considering their 
past successes, believe that it is of no value, or at least an added 
trouble, and deem themselves capable of treating their cases as well 
at the present time without its aid as they have done in the past. 

A second class have confined their diagnoses almost entirely to 
the knowledge which is furnished by the condition of the blood, and 
in their enthusiasm for this one condition have completely lost sight 
of other symptoms which would act as a check upon mistaken prem- 
ises. 

There is still another group, men who, by the records and papers 
of the enthusiasts, have been led to believe that the knowledge thus 



1 Reprinted from the Brooklyn Medical Journal, 1902, p. 17. 



348 



Blood Examination. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1902. 



gained is of more importance and value than is seemingly the case. 
Having laid too much stress upon this point, they have been mis- 
taken in their deductions and have often found conditions opposite 
to those one would naturally expect, and in their disappointment 
have rejected it. 

The fourth and last class are those who I think rightly estimate 
this clinical phenomenon, and attribute to it in the majority of 
instances its true value as being one symptom that goes to make up 
the completed whole, weighing it carefully as regards the other 
findings in each individual case and giving to it only the considera- 
tion which is given to any other one fact. 



Normal human blood consists of plasma, red and white cells, 
blood plates and blood dust. 

The red cells or erythrocytes are bi-concave discs and contain no 
nucleus. They are derived in extra-uterine life practically almost 
entirely from the red bone-marrow. In the early and late stages of 
the fetus, however, they are found developing respectively in the 
newly forming capillaries, the liver and spleen. The number of 
erythrocytes averages about 5,000,000 per c.mm. in men and a 
slightly less number are found in the blood of women. Their prin- 
cipal constituent is hemoglobin. In diseased conditions the ery- 
throcytes may be altered in shape, size, number, percentage of 
hemoglobin and the appearance in the blood of nucleated corpuscles 
(normoblasts and megaloblasts), or the cells themselves may contain 
micro-organisms. 

The white cells or leucocytes are colorless, nucleated bodies. 
They are derived from the lymph nodes, spleen and marrow. Their 
number is variously estimated from 5,000 to 10,000 per c.mm., the 
average ot 16 independent observers being about 7,900. These 
cells are divided into groups and named in accordance with their 
size, shape of nucleus and reactions to acid, basic and neutral stains. 
The principal varieties are lymphocytes, large mononuclear leu- 
cocytes, polynuclear leucocytes and eosinophile leucocytes ; and are 
also classed as basophile cells, neutrophile cells and eosinophile 
cells. 

The basophile cells are the lymphocytes and the large mono- 
nuclear leucocytes. The neutrophile cells are the polynuclear leu- 
cocytes. The eosinophile cells are the so-called eosinophile leu- 
cocytes. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1902. 



Blood Examination. 



349 



By a combination of these terms we arrive at those which are 
commonly used in expressing pathological findings. In diseased 
conditions, besides their increase in number, either relative or abso- 
lute, myelocytes also appear. 

The proportion of the various leucocytes, according to Ehrlich's 
figures, are: Lymphocytes, 22, 25 percent.; large mononuclear and 
transitional leucocytes, 2, 4 per cent.; polynuclear neutrophile leu- 
cocyces, 70, 75 per cent., and eosinophile leucocytes, 2, 4 per cent. 

The blood plates are considered to be the extruded nuclei of the 
red blood cells, and for our purpose have no pathological signifi- 
cance ; neither has the blood dust. 

The technique of a blood examination is distinctly in the realm 
of the specialist in pathology, and to him should be intrusted the 
responsibility of this important procedure. I wish to emphasize 
markedly that he alone is the person to perform this work, for I 
truly believe that the blood examination as conducted by the aver- 
age practitioner will be of no value whatever. Certainly there are 
not more than 25 physicians in Brooklyn who can perform this task 
satisfactorily and upon whose pathological report any reliance can 
be placed. 

Such an examination should be conducted by men who possess 
the necessary knowledge, exact methods, special laboratory facilities, 
and above all, a skill in their work that only comes from an exten- 
sive experience, for certainly no good would accrue to our patients 
if we were to mistake small particles of dirt for malarial organisms, 
and in choosing a wrong time for a blood examination, report to the 
surgeon a marked leucocytosis, which is only the normal result of 
digestion. 

I would add, too, that it is much better for the pathologist to 
secure the specimen himself, and also that he be instructed upon 
just what particular points information is desired ; whether the 
number of cells — red or white — the percentage of hemoglobin, the 
presence or absence of micro-organisms or certain serum reactions 
which are now obtained. 



The principal diseases in which we are aided in diagnosis by the 
changes in the red cells are the primary and secondary anemias. 

In simple anemia or chlorosis the red cells are slightly decreased 
or increased in number and the hemoglobin is markedly decreased. 



350 



Blood Examination. 



Am. Jour. Pharm r 
July, 1902. 



The color index is usually low. This color index is really an estima- 
tion of the amount of hemoglobin in each cell on a percentage basis, 
and is obtained by dividing the percentage of hemoglobin by the 
percentage of the red cells present, 5,000,000 of the erythrocytes 
being considered 100 per cent. 

Therefore, given a case with 3,000,000 red cells and 50 per cent, 
of hemoglobin, the color index would be -83 (found by dividing 50 
per cent, hemoglobin by 60 per cent, red cells present), the normal 
color index being represented by 1. 

In pernicious anemia, the number of red cells is markedly reduced, 
even to 1,000.000 or less. They are altered in size, shape and 
appearance of nucleated forms, namely, megaloblasts, large nucleated 
red cells and normoblasts, or nucleated red cells of nearly normal 
size. 

In the secondary anemias, namely, those following hemorrhages, 
acute or chronic infectious febrile diseases, malignant growths, some 
intestinal parasites, etc., the conditions of the red cells are identical 
with those found in simple and pernicious anemias, varying in de- 
gree according to the severity of these secondary causes. 

An increase in the number of the white cells or leucocytosis is 
normally present in the newly born, during digestion, the latter part 
of pregnancy, after parturition, after violent exercise, massage, cold 
bathing and in the moribund state. 

Pathological leucocytoses are post-hemorrhagic, inflammatory 
toxic, those found in malignant disease, and those due to therapeutic 
and experimental influence. According to Cabot we have the fol- 
lowing subdivision : 

Inflammatory. — (a) Infectious diseases with comparatively slight 
local inflammatory processes : Asiatic cholera, relapsing fever, 
yellow fever, typhus fever, scarlet fever, bubonic plague, ery- 
sipelas, secondary stage of syphilis, diphtheria and true follicular 
tonsillitis. 

(b) Infectious diseases with more extensive local lesions : Pneu- 
monia, smallpox, malignant endocarditis, trichinosis, glanders, 
actinomycosis, septicemia and all conditions that are the result of 
suppurative inflammation. 

The febrile state of acute multiple neuritis : Acute articular rheu- 
matism, cerebro-spinal meningitis, cholangitis, cholo-cystitis, empy- 
ema of gall-bladder, acute pancreatitis, endometritis, some cases of 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July, 1902. j 



Blood Examination. 



351 



cystitis and gonorrhea, serous and purulent non-tubercular inflam- 
mations, such as pericarditis, peritonitis, conjunctivitis, etc., gan- 
grenous inflammations of the appendix, lungs, bowels, mouth, etc., 
and many inflammatory skin diseases. 

The principal toxic leucocytoses are those found in illuminating 
gas poisoning, quinine poisoning, uric acid diathesis, rachitis, acute 
yellow atrophy of the liver, and those cases of hepatic cirrhosis as- 
sociated with jaundice, acute gastrointestinal disorders, the uremic 
state of cases of chronic nephritis, after the injection of tuberculin 
and thyroid extract, after intravenous injection of normal saline 
solution, after ingestion of the salicylates. 

In certain diseases leucocytosis is absent, namely, typhoid fever, 
malaria, most cases 01 grippe, measles, mumps, some cases of 
cystitis, tuberculosis, including muary tuberculosis and incipient 
phthisis and tubercular inflammations of the peritoneum, pericar- 
dium, the bones, periosteum and pleura. 

A lymphocytosis is an increase in the number of lymphocytes in 
the blood ; the remaining forms of the leucocytes may or may not be 
increased in this condition. Its principal diagnostic value lies in 
the fact that it is ar aid to us in obscure syphilitic disease, and also 
it is a most important symptom in the lymphatic leukemia. 

Micro-organisms are found in the blood in malaria, as the 
Plasmodium malariae; relapsing fever, its spirillum; elephanti- 
asis, the Filiaria sanguinis hominis ; and septicemia, the pyogenic 
micrococci. 

The so-called serum reactions are the phenomena observed when 
certain bacteria are brought in contact with the diluted serum of a 
patient suffering from the disease which they invariably cause. 
This reaction consists of a loss of their motility and the fact that 
they become clumped together in groups. 

The most important diseases in which these reactions occur are : 
Typhoid fever (usually after the tenth day), accomplished by a 
dilution of serum in the strength of I in 30 or less. 

Bubonic plague (in the second week) with a dilution of 1 in 10, 
and an increasing dilution as the disease goes on. 

Relapsing fever and leprosy. 



352 Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. { ^ m ' /u ^ 'i 902? r m ' 
RECENT LITERATURE RELATING TO PHARMACY. 

THE NATURE OF THE ENZYMES. 

There appeared in the Pharmaceutische Centralhalle , for October, 
1 901, an article upon the nature of the enzymes, in which the 
author, Th. Bokorny, gives quite a comprehensive treatise, in a 
tabular form, of the most important of the enzymes, together with a 
short theoretical consideration as to their source and probable 
admixtures as contained in the protoplasm, together with methods 
for their extraction and effect upon their fermentative activity as 
produced by physical and chemical means. 

The separation of the enzymes from their admixtures is very dif- 
ficult, and in fact can rarely be accomplished without damage to or 
destruction of their fermentative power. As the protoplasms consist 
of nucleoalbumins, the enzymes obtained from them are likewise 
nucleoalbumins, because the splitting of albuminous material, carbo- 
hydrates, etc., is carried out by the protoplasmic material given off 
by the living protoplasm, and consequently, for fermentation, the 
direct contact of the living protoplasm is not necessary. 

Halliburton and Pekelharing have confirmed the theory as 
regards the nucleoalbuminous nature of some of the enzymes. J. 
R. Green accepts the same theory and practically demonstrates it 
in regard to the majority of the enzymes, in his book upon the 
subject. 

"The agreement of enzymes with the protoplasm as regards 
ability of reaction toward outside influences, slight loss of endur- 
ing activity (degeneration), existence of an active, for a time inac- 
tive, enduring active condition, indicates, as the editor has shown 
further on, that it is about active albuminous material or about 
protoplasmic proteid." 

In the following tables is seen the remarkable parallelisms that 
exist between the protoplasm and enzyme as regards their behavior 
toward light, temperature, desiccation, poison, etc. " How is this to 
be otherwise explained than by the acceptation that both consist of 
one and the same enegmatic material out of active protein?" The 
yeast contains in its protoplasm, according to the author, perhaps a 
dozen different plasmaproteids. 

The name of the protoplasm or enzyme, together with the factors 
influencing its activity, might be given in the following form so as 



Am j J u°i?y'i902 arm '} Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 353 

to serve for a reference if needed when reading the table following : 
A. — Name of the protoplasms or enzymes. 
B— The effect of light and temperature. 

C. — Injury by means of desiccation and treatment with alcohol. 

D. — Consequences of a separation from their natural admixtures. 

E. — Acceleration by means of small additions of salts, acids, etc. 

F. — Injury in general by means of powerful protoplasmic poisons. 

G. — Effect of acids and alkalies. 
H — Effect of various antiseptics. 

A. — Bacteria and fungi protoplasm. 

B. — Nageli found that bacillus subtilis could be boiled in water 
for eleven hours without notable injury. In a vegetative condition 
they are mostly killed by a temperature of 55°-6o° C. Light also 
injures many bacteria (H. Biichner). 

C. — As is known, spores withstand desiccation for a long time. 

D. — Consumption of the reserve food makes the protoplasm more 
delicate. 

E. — Small additions of phosphates, calcium salts, etc., act as nutri- 
ment, larger amounts (e.g., 10 per cent.) are injurious and produce 
osmosis of the protoplasm. A feebly alkaline reaction is useful 
with bacteria, acid reaction with fungi. 

F. — The bacilli of lactic acid are injured by 0*00 1 per cent, sodium 
fluoride (Effront) ; 1 per cent, of sodium fluoride absolutely kills 
putrefactive fungi. Mercuric chloride o-i per cent, is a sure disin- 
fecting medium, kills immediately upon one application (R. Koch) ; 
02 per cent, is usually sufficient. Formaldehyde kills all fungi in 
O 1 per cent, strength, when it is allowed to act for one hour. Silver 
nitrate is not nearly so destructive as mercuric chloride. 

G. — Fungi grew in acid up to 1 per cent. Most bacteria become 
sensitive when the smallest amount of acid is present ; however, the 
bacillus of anthrax grew in a 1 per cent, solution of HC1 for forty- 
eight hours. Bacteria grow in feebly alkaline solutions. 

H. — With 0-002 per cent, (saturated solution) of oil of turpentine 
the formation of mould was prevented ; putrefaction was only 
retarded. Carbolic acid 1 : 850 prevented the germination of 
anthrax spores (Koch) and meat-water bacteria (de la Croix). Car- 
bolic acid 0-5 percent, killed the anthrax bacilli; with an abun- 
dance of a 5 per cent, solution the spores were not entirely killed. 

A. — Protoplasm of yeast (Saccharomyces and others con- 



354 Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy, { Am, j J u iy^ifo h 2 arm ' 

tained in the German yeast. The varieties grown considered by the 
author). 

B. — Direct sunlight of long duration caused death. 25°-30° C. 
is the most favorable temperature for their development. Young 
vegetative yeast cells die at 50°-6o° C, spores at 6o°-65° C. ; in a 
dry condition they will stand a maximum temperature of 125 C. 
(Kaiser). 

C. — When dried they die, only the spores remaining alive. 

D. — Consumption of the reserve food makes the protoplasm more 
delicate. 

E. — Small additions of acid promote the development of yeast 
(e. g., 0-002 per cent, sulphuric acid, M. Heyduck). Salts act as with 
bacteria and fungi. 

F. — Budding yeast is a little more sensitive to sodium fluoride than 
bacteria ; with 0-005 P er cent, of sodium fluoride their fermentative 
activity was increased. Mercuric chloride 0-02 per cent, killed the 
yeast within twenty-four hours. Silver nitrate the same. Formal- 
dehyde o*i per cent, killed within sixteen hours, 0-05 per cent, was 
very injurious. 

G. — Beer yeast was not killed after remaining in 5 per cent, of 
sulphuric acid for sixteen hours, but the cream yeast was killed 
during this time of exposure. In o-i per cent, the beer yeast did 
not in the above time appear to have lost any of its generative 
power. Also injured in 5 per cent, of lactic acid; 0-5 per cent, o 
sodium hydrate is deadly within sixteen hours, o-l per cent, is not. 

H. — Turpentine water (solution 1 : 75,000) destroyed the genera- 
tive power within twenty-four hours. Thymol water (about O-i per 
cent.) killed the yeast within two hours. I per cent, of carbolic acid 
killed the pressed yeast within fourteen hours. Chloroform killed 
yeast; 10 per cent, alcohol was for a long time produced; 30 per 
cent, killed the pressed yeast within three weeks. 

A. — Protoplasms of the lower plants and animals. 

B. — Spirogyra was rapidly killed in water heated to 45°-55° C 
Many species of algse live in the Carlsbad thermal springs as well 
as the warm spring from Ischia with a temperature ranging from 
$3°_85° C. Sea- water animalculae die at 35° C, fresh- water amceba 
at 40°-45° C. (Kiihne). Too strong light is injurious. 

C. — Spirogyra die in about twelve hours when in dry air (over 
sulphuric acid). Absolute alcohol kills immediately. Many lower 



Am j J uiy!'i902 arnj '} Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 355 

animals, as is well known, withstand the desiccation for a longer 
time. 

D. — Through fourteen days of starving (in the dark), whereby 
the admixtures of the protoplasms are consumed, the spirogyra die 
(according to Loewand Bokorny, Chem. Kraftquelle, page 64). The 
protoplasm of spirogyra is very sensitive, due to the admixed leci- 
thins. 

E. — Sodium chloride acts upon the lower plants as before stated, 
calcium salts enhance the C0 2 assimilation. Caffein o-i per cent, 
or less produced rapid movement of the paramcecium. 

F. — Mercuric chloride 0*005 per cent, kills spirogyra, cladophora, 
paramcecium and vorticella within six hours and 0-002 per cent, 
within two days. Small animalculae are killed within twenty-four 
hours by a 005 per cent, solution. Silver nitrate is more powerful; 
even a dilution of 000 1 per cent, kills many individuals of the 
named animal and plant species within twenty-four hours, o-i per 
cent, sodium fluoride kills the various algae within twenty-four hours. 
Formaldehyde 0-005 P er cent, kills spirogyra within a few days. 1 

G. — O-i per cent, acid kills spirogyra within thirty minutes; a 
O'l per cent, alkaline solution kills it within ten hours. Amoeba 
are immediately killed by a ro per cent, ammonia solution, but not 
by 02 per cent.; 013 per cent, of lime water kills spirogyra. 

H. — Ether or chloroform vapor kills spirogyra in a very short 
time. Absolute alcohol kills it immediately, 20 per cent, of which 
kills in a very short time. In O-I per cent, copper sulphate solution, 
according to O. Loew, the algse remain alive for a longer time. 

A. — Zymase (the ferment of alcoholic fermentation discovered 
by E. buchner). 

B. — At 25 C. fermentation succeeds the best; at 53 C. it is 
destroyed; at 0° C. it is not harmed. 

C. — A dried soft-pressed yeast loses its fermentative capacity in 
about three weeks (E. Buchner). Exhausted yeast, when treated 
with a large quantity of absolute alcohol has, after eight days, some 
fermentative capacity when the alcohol is removed. 

D. — Pressed yeast, when dried at 25 C. and triturated, retained 
its fermentative power for eight weeks; dried soft-pressed yeast for 
only three weeks. 



1 For further information see Vol. 64 of this Journal. 



356 Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. { Am, / U °iyj9oo arm ' 

E. — Small additions of sodium fluoride act as a stimulus and in- 
tensify the fermentative activity. 

F. — Mercuric chloride destroys in 0-02 per cent, amounts; silver 
nitrate 00 1 per cent, within twenty-four hours. Formaldehyde 
2 per cent, is fatal within twenty-four hours. Sodium fluoride I 
per cent, is destructive, but 005 per cent, accelerates the action 
of the zymase. 

G. — 0-5 percent, sulphuric acid destroys the zymase within twenty- 
four hours; o*i per cent, destroys it in five days, but not in twenty- 
four hours. 0-3 per cent, hydrochloric acid destroys in twenty-four 
hours. 1 per cent, acetic acid does not destroy in twenty-four hours, 
but in five days. 0-5 per cent, sodium hydrate injures in twenty-four 
hours, but does not entirely destroy. 

H. — 1 per cent, carbolic acid destroys in twenty-four hours; with 
o-i per cent, it does not. Water saturated with oil of turpentine 
destroys within twenty-four hours, o-i per cent, thymol also 
destroys within twenty-four hours. Chloroform does no injury within 
twenty-four hours. A small amount of copper sulphate has no inju- 
rious effect (Fiechter). 

A. — Maltose, that is, glucose (in the yeast and other materials). 

B. — Yeast maltose is destroyed by 50 C. (Lieber and Krober). 
Corn maltose, according to Geduld, works best at 35 C. 

C. — Yeast maltose does not stand desiccation. 

D. — Injurious. 

E. — 0-02 per cent, sodium hydrate promotes the action of the 
yeast maltose. 

F. — 0-0 1 per cent, of silver nitrate or 0-02 per cent, mercuric 
chloride destroys in twenty-four hours, o-i per cent, formaldehyde 
injures in twenty-four hours; I per cent, destroys in twenty-four 
hours; 5 per cent, destroys in thirty minutes. 

G. — 1 per cent, sodium hydrate destroys the yeast maltose within 
eight hours; o-i per cent, or 002 per cent, has no injurious effect 
within twenty-four hours; 0-5 per cent, is not fatal within twenty- 
four hours; 0-02 per cent, even accelerates. 1 per cent, of hydro- 
chloric or oxalic acid gradually destroys yeast maltose. I per cent, 
acetic acid does not entirely destroy it. 

H. — 1 per cent, carbolic acid destroys yeast maltose within 
twenty-four hours ; O f i per cent, does not destroy it. Chloroform 
water does not destroy in twenty-four hours. Turpentine water 



ABQ 'jifiy''i9Sf rm '} Recent Literature Relating to Pharmacy. 357 

severely damages within twenty-four hours; O-i per cent, thymol 
destroys its fermentative power. 

A. — Yeast invertase (invertin). 

B. — With 70 C. moist heat it is rapidly destroyed ; at 50 a 
longer time is required. It works best, according to A. Mayer, at 
3 1 C. ; according to Kjeldahl, at from 5 2°-56° C. (These statements 
certainly have reference to different invertases.) 

C. — In entirely dried yeast there is still active invertin present. 
O'Sullivan and Thompson have prepared it from powdered beer 
yeast. 

D. — The purer the invertase the more it is injured by alcohol 
(O'Sullivan and Thompson). And it is said to be easily dissolved 
out of the yeast by means of water. The invertase in cane-sugar 
solution can be heated 25 C. higher than the temperature at which 
it was destroyed in pure water (O'Sullivan and Thompson). 

E. — The ammonia salts, even in higher concentration, accelerated 
the production. Very small additions of sulphuric acid act favor- 
ably (0 001 to 002 per cent., according to O'Sullivan and Thomp- 
son). 

F. — 01 per cent, mercuric chloride does not entirely impede the 
inversion of cane sugar, but 0-5 per cent, prevents it in two days, 
0-02 per cent, silver nitrate does not impede it, but 01 percent, 
prevents it entirely. 5 per cent, of formaldehyde does not destroy 
in t\>\enty-four hours. 

G. — I per cent, sodium hydrate destroys the fermentative power 
in twenty-four hours; 5 per cent, does not destroy it even within 
four days. 0.5 per cent, sulphuric acid damages, but does not 
entirely destroy the fermentative power within twenty-four hours, 
hydrochloric acid acting the same. 1 per cent, oxalic acid does not 
perceptibly damage within twenty-four hours. 

H. — 1 per cent, carbolic acid does not damage within twenty-four 
hours; the same with o-i per cent, thymol. Borax damages. Even 
absolute alcohol does not destroy by an action of twenty days. 

W. S. Weakley. 

THE VALUATION OF CORTEX GRANATI. 

Stoeder (Pharm, Weekblad., 1902, 21) gives the following method 
for the valuation of this bark : Twenty grammes of the dry pow- 
dered bark are shaken well with 100 c.c. of chloroform and 5 c.c. 



35* 



Editorial. 



Am. Jour. Pharni. 
July, 1902. 



of ammonia for twelve hours, when 20 c.c. of water is added and the 
whole allowed to separate. Seventy-five cubic centimeters of the 
chloroformic solution are filtered (=15 grammes bark) and from 
the filtrate about two-thirds of the chloroform are distilled off. The 
remainder is transferred into a separator, and the flask washed with 
5 c.c. of chloroform, and the alkaloids are shaken out with dilute 
hydrochloric acid. They can now be estimated by weighing and 
by trituration. The mean molecular weight of the alkaloids is found 
to be 147- 5. — Chem. and Drug., May 17, 1902. 



EDITORIAL. 

THE AMERICAN PHARMACEUTICAL ASSOCIATION. 

The American Pharmaceutical Association enters upon the work 
connected with the celebration of its fiftieth anniversary with un- 
usual enthusiasm upon the part of the members and with a more 
or less marked manifestation of interest by the pharmacists through- 
out this country. During the past year the pharmaceutical and 
drug journals have published numerous articles containing sugges- 
tions intended to benefit this association in adding to its member- 
ship and usefulness. 

The presidents of the various state pharmaceutical associations 
are calling attention this year in their addresses to the coming 
jubilee meeting of this parent association. This is seed sown in 
places where it is likely to bear fruit. 

Mr. Cliffe, President of the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation, well said that, " At Philadelphia, commencing on Septem- 
ber 8th next, there will be held the fiftieth anniversary of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association, the parent of all pharmaceu- 
tical bodies in the United States. If the aims and purposes of this 
organization could be reduced to a single phrase, it would probably 
be nearly correct to say that they were to make better pharmacists 
for pharmacy. For fifty years this association has gone steadily on 
in its alio ted work, leaving in its trail only that which reflects 
honor, profit and glory on American pharmacy and American 
pharmacists participating in its deliberations. There is no entrance 
fee charged, and the yearly dues of $5 are more than returned to 
its members through the publication of an annual report of its 
proceedings, which is a complete collation of the advances in phar- 



Am. Jour. Pharir. 
July, 1902. 



Editorial. 



359 



maceutical knowledge for the year — a yearbook of pharmacy. It 
is a publication that any one practically interested in the applica- 
tion of scientific pharmaceutical knowledge to commercial purposes 
can appreciate at all times in the busy activities of his work." 

The special delegates appointed by the President of the A.Ph.A. 
to the various state pharmaceutical associations are also active in 
attesting to the value of membership in this association. The 
address of Mr. Ebert at the recent meeting of the Illinois Pharma- 
ceutical Association illustrates the point we have in mind. He 
said, among other things, "The history of the American Pharma- 
ceutical Association is the history of pharmacy in this country. 
With the advancing years it becomes necessary, in order to keep 
up the life and vigor of the association, constantly to infuse new 
blood, to gain new and younger members to carry on the necessary 
and vitally important work of the organization. Membership in 
the American Pharmaceutical Association is an honor to be coveted 
by every pharmacist who respects himself and his profession. By 
allying himself with the organization, he comes in touch with the 
brightest men in pharmacy and keeps himself abreast of the latest 
and best scientific thought in his profession. Aside from all this, 
the annual reports of the proceedings of the association form a 
library of invaluable information to every pharmacist, each volume 
of which will be worth to him many times the sum of $$ he pays 
as the amount of his annual dues. 

" During the many years of its useful life the association has met 
in nearly every city of prominence in America, and the social and 
entertainment features at each meeting are. not the least of the 
many advantages which membership carries with it. Those who 
join the association and attend its annual conventions meet their 
brethren from various parts of the country, discuss questions of 
interest and combine business with pleasure on their annual vaca- 
tions in a manner both pleasant and profitable, invigorating alike 
to the mind and the physique. We urge you to join and will wel- 
come you as members, assuring you that, should it be possible for 
you to attend our meetings, you will find the outlay one that you 
will never regret." 

The Committee on Membership, as well as the President, are very 
active in their endeavors to increase the membership of the associa- 
tion. Mr. Lewis C. Hopp, Chairman of the Committee on Member- 



360 Personal Notes. { Am ' J «!y, r i9oi arm ' 

ship, has offered a prize of a $5 gold-piece to the druggist giving 
the best ten reasons why a druggist should be a member of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association. 

The various other committees of the association are hard at work 
in their endeavors to make the Jubilee Meeting one of unusual interest 
and profit to all those interested in the professional as well as com- 
mercial welfare of pharmacy. In our next issue we hope to give 
some details of the plans that are being arranged. Suffice it for 
the present to say that all those attending the meeting will be 
given a most cordial reception, and that arrangements are being 
made for the most successful convention that the association has 
ever held. 



PERSONAL NOTES. 

Prof. S. P. SadTXER had conferred upon him, at the commencement of 
Gettysburg College, on June 18th, the degree of LL D. honoris causa. He 
received the degree of A.B. from this College in 1867, and in 1870 he received 
B.S. from Harvard University, and in 1871 Ph.D. from Gottingen University. 

Dr. H. M. Gordin, well known for his researches in pharmaceutical assay- 
ing, has been appointed Professor of Chemistry in the School of Pharmacy of 
Northwestern University. He was born in St. Petersburg, Russia, in ]86o. 
He graduated from the University of Moscow in 1884, and then emigrated to 
the United States, establishing himself in San Francisco as a practising phar- 
macist, and after a few years of successful business returned to Europe, where 
he studied chemistry at Paris, Geneva, Munich and Berne. He graduated with 
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the University of Berne. Switzerland, in 
1897. 

Dr. E. R. Kennedy has been appointed Instructor in Materia Medica at the 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. He is a graduate of the Zanesville (Ohio) 
High School, of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and of Jefferson Medi- 
cal College. 

David C. Ecci.ES, the newly appointed Instructor in Chemistry of the 
School of Pharmacy of Northwestern University, is the only sou of Dr. R. G. 
Eccles, of Brooklyn, N. Y. He is a graduate of the Brooklyn High School 
and Columbia University; from the latter he has received the degrees B.S. 
(in chemistry) and A.M. 

Francis B. Hays, associate editor of the Druggists Circular for eleven years, 
is now editor of the new publication, Southern Drug Journal, the first number 
of which appeared in April. With the reorganization of the South and the 
development of its industrial and educational facilities, the need of a drug 
journal representing its particular interests has been felt for some time. We 
therefore congratulate the editor and proprietors of the Southern Drug Jour- 
nal upon the prospects and possibilities that lie before them. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



AUGUST, i go 2. 



COFFEE: ITS HISTORY AND COMMERCE— AN OUTLINE, 
By William B. Marshali,. 

I. BOTANY. 

Generic name, Coffea. Several species belong to the genus, but 
only two, C. Arabica, L. and C. Libaica, Hiern., have commercial value. 
Coffee belongs to the plant order Rubiaceae, which includes also the 
cinchona or quinine trees, the ipecacuanhas, madders, bedstraws, 
woodruffs and many other useful plants. Coffee and ipecacuanha 
belong to the sub-order Cinchonacese, of which, as the name would 
indicate, Cinchona is the type genus. All three are famous for their 
alkaloids — quinine in the bark of cinchona ; caffeine in the seeds 
and leaves of coffee; emetine in the root-bark of ipecac. 

II. THE PLANT. 

(1) Stem usually from 3 inches to 6 inches in diameter. In very 
old trees it may be more. Height of tree naturally from 15 to 25 
feet. In cultivation it is kept within 6 to 10 feet. 

(2) Leaves large, thick, tough, leathery, glossy, evergreen, placed 
opposite to each other on the branches. 

(3) Flowers small, pure white, tubular, very fragrant. Corolla 4 
to 5 cleft in C. Arabica, 9 cleft in C. Liberica. Clustered in the axils 
of the leaves. Bloom so profusely and simultaneously as to give 
the trees the appearance of being loaded with snow. 

(4) Fruit, when ripe, resembles a cherry. Normally it contains two 
seeds, which are elliptic in outline, rounded above, flat below, and 
placed with the flat side of one against the flat side of the other. 
Each seed has a deep groove running lengthwise on the flat face. 

(361) 



362 Coffee: Its History and Commerce. { A ^u|£ s r ^ I ^)? m ■ 

Frequently but one seed develops in a fruit and it is then nearly 
oval. Coffee of this kind is known in commerce as pearl, pea-berry 
or male-berry. The seeds of Arabian coffee are greenish, brownish, 
yellowish or whitish. The seeds of Liberian coffee are much larger 
than those of the Arabian, are generally brownish, and have the 
groove deeply wrinkled along its edges. 

Each seed is enveloped in a thin transparent tissue, called the 
silver skin. Outside of this is a thick, tough, parchment-like envel- 
ope called the parchment skin or husk. Enclosing both seeds is 
the pulp, which is moderately soft when fresh, but becomes hard and 
woody .when dry and is then called the hull (and frequently also, by 
coffee dealers, the " pod"). The outer surface of the fruit is a skin 
which resembles the skin of a cherry. 

The fruit is commonly called the berry, not because it is a true 
berry, but because it resembles one. The seed also is called the berry, 
as for example " flat-berry," " male-berry," " pea-berry," etc. The 
seed is called also the bean, possibly because it resembles a bean, and 
possibly from the Arabic word bunn, the name of the coffee tree in 
Arabia. The dried hull is called the pod, but there is nothing legu- 
minous about it. The names cited for the various parts are bad 
botany, but good technical English for the coffee trade and good 
vernacular for all of us. 

III. GEOGRAPHY. 

(1) Origin. — Nearly all the evidence points to Abyssinia as the 
original habitat of Arabian coffee. " Coffea Arabica is wild in Abys- 
sinia, in the Soudan, and on the coasts of Guinea and Mozambique, 
Perhaps in these latter localities, so far removed from the centre, it 
may be naturalized from cultivation. No one has yet found it in 
Arabia, but this may be explained by the difficulty of penetrating 
into the interior of the country. If it is discovered there, it will be 
hard to prove it wild, for the seeds, which soon lose their faculty of 
germinating, often spring up round the plantations and naturalize 
the species. This has occurred in Brazil and the West Indian 
Islands, where it is certain that the coffee plant was never indige- 
nous." — De Candolle, " Origin of Cultivated Plants." The botanic 
name, Arabica, and its English equivalent, Arabian, applied to this 
coffee are most probably misnomers, due to the fact that Arabia 
took a prominent part in introducing the use and cultivation of 



Al AiXi9<ey m '} Coffee: Its History and Commerce. 363 

coffee to the world at large. The use of those names has, in a great 
measure, helped and fixed the prestige which had already attached 
to Arabia as the original source of commercial supply. At the 
present day Arabia produces but a small and unimportant part of 
the world's supply, while in Abyssinia coffee has no importance 
whatever. Liberian coffee, as its name truly tells, originated in 
Liberia, and grows wild throughout that region. 

(2) Spread of Cultivation. — The Dutch introduced coffee-growing 
in the East Indies, and began to send coffee to market from there 
about the beginning of the eighteenth century. In 171 8 they began 
growing coffee in Surinam, South America, but general cultivation 
of coffee in the new world is not believed to have spread much from 
that source. It is generally believed that Martinique is the point 
from which cultivation spread on all sides, and that most of the 
coffee trees in America are descended from a slip which Le Clieu, a 
French naval officer, brought to Martinique from the Paris botanic 
garden in 1720. At the present time the number of coffee trees in 
Mexico, Central America, South America and West Indies is esti- 
mated at about 1,000,000,000. 

(3) Present Coffee Regions. — At the present day coffee is cultivated 
generally throughout the tropics, viz., the lower half of Mexico, all 
of Central America, the West Indies, Northern South America — on 
the west coast as far as Peru, on the east almost to Northern Argen- 
tina — West Africa, East Africa, Southern India, Java, Borneo, Phil- 
ippines, Hawaiian Islands, etc. Table No. 3, showing the sources 
of United States imports for 1900, will give a fair idea of the relative 
importance of the various coffee countries. 

IV. CULTIVATION. 

(1) Arrangement. — The trees are planted in rows 6 to 10 feet 
apart. On many plantations the plants are placed near each other 
in the row, the resulting growth being more or less hedge-like. 

(2) Shading. — To prevent the soil from baking and cracking and 
thus breaking the tender rootlets, it is a common practice to plant 
quickly growing shade trees among the coffee. Bananas and rubber 
trees are much used for this purpose, as being valuable not only for 
their shade but also for their products. Among others, the legumes 
are favorites because the folding of their leaves at night permits the 
damp air to reach the soil. Frequently the coffee plantation is 



364 Coffee: Its History and Commerce. { Am Atgusi, P ml m 

formed on land already covered with full-grown trees. Often when 
the coffee trees have become large enough to shade the soil the 
other trees are cut out. 

(3) Pruning. — Naturally the coffee trees would become 15 to 25 
feet high. By " topping " — i.e., cutting off the top of the main 
stem — they are kept within 6 to 10 feet, chiefly for convenient 
picking. Naturally the branches would begin at about 4 feet trom 
the ground and the top would be spherical. By pruning and train- 
ing the tree is made nearly conical, the primary branches horizontal 
and to begin close to the ground. The pruning has the effect also 
of making new branches shoot out, thus increasing the yield of 
fruits. 

(4) Bearing begins about the end of the third or fourth yea r , 
increases until the eighth or ninth year, after which it is nearly uni- 
form. Profitable crops are yielded until the tree becomes 25 to 30 
years old, and in some cases much longer. 

(5) Yield. — From 2 to 3 pounds of merchantable coffee per annum 
seems to be a fair average for a good tree. Some authorities say as 
much as 8 pounds, while others place it as low as 1^ pounds. 

(6) Times of Harvest. — The whole crop does not ripen at the 
same time, nor do the berries on each tree, hence several pickings 
are necessary. In Java the picking begins in January and continues 
three or four months. In Ceylon the chief crop is gathered from 
April to July and a smaller crop from September to December. In 
Brazil the harvest begins in April or May and continues until 
September. 

V. PREPARATION FOR MARKET. 

(1) Pulping. — In the primitive method of preparing the coffee the 
fruits are allowed to dry. When the pulp and parchment become 
brittle they are easily removed from the seeds by a pestle and mortar 
or other crushing process. The coffee thus prepared is called sun- 
dried or thick hull and is inferior. The best coffees are pulped as 
soon as picked. The fresh berries are placed in a tank from which 
a gently flowing stream of water feeds them to the pulping-machine. 
A common type of pulper consists of two metal plates with their 
surfaces close to each other and made to revolve in opposite direc- 
tions. Projections catch and tear or crush away the pulp as the 
berries are fed between the plates. 



At3 AS,iSS m '} Coffee : Its History and Commerce. 365 

(2) Fermenting. — The pulped coffee Is placed in piles for a few 
hours in order that fermentation may take place in the matter 
which clings to the outside of the parchment. 

(3) Washing. — It is then placed in tanks of water and vigorously 
stirred in order to wash away the slimy material resulting from the 
fermentation. 

(4) Drying. — It is then placed on large cemented or bricked yards, 
called barbecues, and exposed to the sun. On many plantations 
each section of the drying yards has a little shed into which the 
coffee may be hurried in case of rain, and tarpaulins or mats are 
kept at hand for use at such times and to cover the nearly dried 
coffee in case the atmosphere becomes very damp. While drying 
the coffee is frequently turned by shovels and rakes or by shuffling 
among it with the feet. On some of the large plantations the use 
of the drying yard has been done away with, the coffee being dried 
on large shallow pans over steam coils. The advantage of this 
method is that it makes the operation independent of weather con- 
ditions. But the coffee dried on the barbecues has the advantage 
of being of better quality. 

(5) Hulling. — This consists in removing the parchment skin which 
surrounds each seed. In drying the parchment becomes brittle, 
and the seed within it shrinks away from it, so that it will rattle 
like the nut in a peanut shell. Hence pressure will crack the parch- 
ment and free the seed. The machines used in hulling work on 
this principle. 

(6) Milling. — This consists in rubbing off and winnowing aside 
the delicate silver skin. This skin is so thin and delicate that the 
slightest touch is sufficient to break it, and a little friction will 
remove all of it except a little which clings to the groove. Even 
in roasted coffee traces of the silver skin may be seen adhering to 
the groove. 

(7) Sorting. — The coffee is now sorted according to size in revolv- 
ing cylindrical or conical sieves, with small meshes near the entrance 
and larger meshes further along. A spiral channel or the slope o 
the sieve or the flare of the conical ones carries each grain along 
until it comes to a mesh large enough to permit it to fall through 
into the bin below. It is easy to tell coffees which have been sorted 
in this way, because they usually vary in size, contain some imper- 
fect grains, and some male-berry in the pod. The male-berry fruits 



366 Coffee: Its History and Commerce. { Ai 55S.iSb™ 

are smaller than the common two-seeded variety and many of them 
pass through the pulping and other processes without change, 
because the machinery is gaged for larger fruits. On many plan- 
tations the sorting is done entirely by hand, or first by the sieve 
and then by hand. The work is entrusted to women and children, 
and so painstaking are they that nearly every grain is separately 
handled, and the beans in each of the various grades into which 
they separate the coffee are remarkably uniform in size, color and 
shape. The sorting and inspecting really begins with the picking 
of the fruit and is continued through all the processes. At every 
stage defective and inferior fruits and beans are removed whenever 
noticed. 

(8) Shipping. — The coffee is bagged and sent to the nearest 
exporting point. The means of transportation used include all 
kinds, from the most primitive up to steam. Each coffee country has 
one or more principal coffee ports or markets, as for instance Rio 
and Santos in Brazil, Laguayra and Maracaibo in Venezuela, Vera 
Cruz in Mexico, Kingston in Jamaica, Aden in Arabia, Batavia in 
Java, etc. 

(9) Roasting. — This important process develops the volatile oil to 
which most of the taste and aroma are due. The oil is not present 
in the raw bean; but in roasting, it develops to the extent of one 
part of oil to fifty thousand parts of coffee. The roasting is impor- 
tant also for making the coffee brittle, so that it may easily be 
ground. The roasting causes an increase of 30 to 50 per cent, in 
bulk. The decrease in weight amounts to about 18 per cent, when 
the coffee is roasted chestnut brown, or from 23 to 25 per cent, 
when it is nearly black. Various types of roaster are in use. Per- 
haps the most common is that in which a perforated cylinder slides 
in and out of the furnace on an iron rod, on which it may be 
revolved. The turning of the cylinder insures equal roasting and 
prevents burning. Some roasters are spherical and have a com- 
pound motion which tumbles the coffee about in all directions. 
After roasting, the coffee is spread in thin layers for rapid cooling. 
If piled, it steams or sweats. Some roasters strew sugar over the 
coffee while it is still hot to give it a glaze, which will keep the 
aroma from escaping. Various other glazing materials are in use. 
Raw coffee improves with age. Roasted coffee rapidly loses in 
quality. 



i m '} Coffee : Its History and Commerce. 367 



VI. COMMERCE. 
Table No. i. — WORLD'S PRODUCTION OF COFFEE IN TONS. 



Year. 


Brazil. 


Other Countries. 


Total. 












120,000 


135,000 


255,000 


1855 • • - • 


163,000 


158,000 


321,000 


1865 


200,000 


222,000 


422,000 




255,000 


233,000 


488,000 


1SS5 


389,000 


329,000 


718, oco 




440,000 


260,000 


700. oco 


1897 


590,000 


250,000 


840,000 




6So,ooo 


260,000 


940,000 



At the present time Brazil produces about three-fourths of the 
world's supply. Coffee is the most important product of that coun- 
try. The product of other American countries added to that oi 
Brazil constitutes about nine-tenths of the world's entire supply. 



Table No. 2.— CONDENSED ANALYSIS OF U. S. IMPORTS OF COFFEE, YEARS 
ENDING JUNE 30, 1899. 1900, 1901.* 



From 


Pounds, 

1899. 


Dollars. 

1899. 


Pounds, 
1900. 


Dollars, 
1900. 


Pounds, 
1901. 


Dollars, 
1901. 








35.327.921 


3,312,608 


20,432,539 


1,959,994 


Central America 


45,298,800 


5,368,711 


43,7S6,494 


4,356.407 


60.630,913 


6,H5.335 




11,701,202 


945,622 


9,249,729 


731,323 


7,324.n6 


579,327 




628.417,812 


35.253,834 


601,520,169 


34,333.762 


666,470,673 


45,004,299 


Other South America . . . 


90,332,351 


-217,590 


58,662,464 


4.595.75I 


72,272,403 


5,874,326 


Total from America .... 


803,074,992 


51,472.005 


748,546,777 


47.329.851 


827,130,644 


59,533,281 




10,504,177 


i,502,493 


23.263,971 


3,383,921 


14,576,640 


1,763,370 


Other Asia and Oceania . . 


5,290,164 


840,736 


3.929.624 


602,075 


3, 112. 175 


472,814 


Total from Asia and Oceania 


15,794,341 


2,343,229 


27,193.595 


3.985,996 


17,688,815 


2.236,184 




642,003 


104,971 


125,151 


15.025 


64,028 


6,580 




10,743.666 


1.138,385 


12,049,015 


1,128.962 


9,948,827 


1,078,828 




1,572,061 


216,880 


77,373 


8,109 


3S,936 


6.576 


Total imports 


S31. 827,063 


55,275,470 


787,99i.9n 


52,467,943 


854,871,310 


62,861,499 



* While the totals for the year 1900 as shown in Tables 2 and 3 agree, there are discrepancies 
n some of the items. For instance, in Table 2 Brazil is credited with 601,000,000 pounds, while 
in Table 3 it is credited with only 596,000,000. Both tables were prepared from data published 
by the Bureau of Statistics of the Treasury Department and the discrepancies occur in those 
data. 



3-3 Coffee : Its History and Commerce. 



Table No. ia. — ESTIMATED PRODUCTION OF COFFEE— 1S98. 



Country. 


Pounds. 




- 

1-533-840.000 




116,407.800 




60,238,000 




57,000,000 




48,145,492 




35,461,407 




34,849,639 




26,400,000 




16,500,000 




13,200,000 




9,858,892 




2,733-305 




2,400,700 




924,000 




726,000 




612.480 




495,000 




343,407 




219,766 




132,000 




132,000 








101,904,000 




31,680,000 


Padang 


5,940,000 


Celebes 


5,940,000 




145,464,000 


Grani total 


2,106,083,288 



v. m '} Coffee : Its History and Commerce. 369 



Table No. 3.— U. S. IMPORTS OF COFFEE- YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1900. 



Frcm 


Pounds. 


Dollars. 


Av. Value 
per lb. , Cts. 






3,312,608 


9-38 




17,528,262 


2,089,313 


1 1 '92 




17.319,329 


1,478,334 


8'53 




6,616,775 


570,002 


8-6i 




1,748,042 


169,250 


9-68 




579,849 


50,039 


8-63 




20,725 


1,888 


9-11 




5.348,612 


412,645 


771 




3o4i,930 


265,966 


7-22 




479,716 


36,736 


7 66 




103,261 


10,236 


9'09 




36,210 


3.588 


9-91 




29,950 


2,156 


7-20 




5° 


6 


I2'0O 




596,231,207 


33,905,059 


5*69- 




42,444,443 


3.532.5II 


8- 3 2 




20,050,195 


1,397,684 


6*97 




750,854 


62,458 


8-32 




409,601 


31,699 


774 




i,c6o 


102 


9 '62- 




L7I9.639 


284,215 


i6'53 




5,950,243 


448,380 


7 - 53 


Dutch East Indies . . . r 


17,313,728 


2,935,66i 


16-95 




146,711 


21,536 


14-68 




1,286,512 


184,272 


14 32 


Oceania — Guam . . • 


Soo 


120 


15-00 


Hawaii 


448,119 


64,428 


14-38 




34,353 


2,936 


8-54- 




5,000 


690 


13'So 




79'248 


10,000 


1260 


Via non-producing countries- 








3,003,487 


325-9I8 


10-85 




2,657.990 


215,704 


8-n 




2,597,49° 


250,504 


9 "65 




2,159,254 


180,117 


8-35 




944,7 6 4 


99.131 


10-49 


Portugal 


556,049 


42,789 


7-69 


Austria-Hungary 


119,100 


I3, 6 99 


n-50 


Italy 


8,880 


1,000 


11-26 




31,001 
19,857 


2,676 
3,014 


8-63 
15/18 


British Columbia 


Chinese Empire 


329,444 


47,004 


14-27 




12,250 


1,769 


14-44 






52,467,943 


6-66 


U. S. Exports for same period 


39.191,140 


3,690,817 


9-42 



37° Coffee: Its History and Commerce. { Xm kt^i*S?*' 

Table No. 4.— NET IMPORTS, TOTAL VALUE, AVERAGE VALUE PER POUND AND 
PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION DURING CERTAIN YEARS, 1850-1901. 



Year ending June 30th. 


Net Imports 
in Pounds. 


Value of Net 
Imports in 
Dollars. 


Average Value 
of Imports— 
Cts. per lb. 


Per Capita 
Consumption 
in U. S. in lbs. 




129,791,466 


9,918,472 


7*6 


5 '60 




I75,i5°.44° 


15,486,423 


8-8 


6'43 




182,049,527 


19,615,106 


10*8 


5'8 




84,316,045 


5,525,653 


6-6 


2-4 


1870 


231,173,574 


23,824,043 


10-3 


6-o 




311,136,651 


49,3H,334 


I5'8 


7-08 


1880 


440,128,838 


59,416,196 


I3'5 


878 


1885 


. 539,264,356 


43,389,270 


8-2 


9*60 




490,161,900 


76,750,979 


i6 - o 


7-8 3 




643,234,766 


94,599,880 


147 


9 "33 




748,800,771 


48,777,126 


6-5 


9'8i 




854,871,310* 


62,861,499* 


7*3* 


10.10* 



* Gross imports. 



Rank of Coffee among our Imports. — In value coffee is near the 
front among our imports. It usually holds second, third or fourth 
place. Sugar generally holds first place ; silk, coffee and wool hold- 
ing second, third and fourth places. In recent years the imports of 
wool have dwindled, and various other articles exceed in value the 
value of the wool imported. 



Table No. 5. — IMPORTS OF SOME IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN MILLIONS 
OF DOLLARS. 



Calendar Year. 


Sugar. 


Silk. 
(Raw & Mfd.) 


Coffee. 


Wool. 
(Raw & Mfd.) 






90- 


60-9 


84-4 


69-4 


1895 . 




67-9 


60 -6 


96'5 


94-1 






79'6 


69-6 


70-1 


29-6 



VII. CHEMISTRY. 

It is an interesting fact that the great table beverages — coffee, tea, 
cocoa and yerba mate (also kola and guarana) — -agree in having in 
their composition the alkaloid theine (caffeine), or the analogous 
one, theobromine in cocoa. All have also tannic compounds, and 
in each the taste is principally due to extremely small quantities of 
essential oil. Richter gives the percentages of theine as follows : 



' A ^Sus r tj902f m '} Coffee: Its History and Commerce. 371 

In beans and leaves of coffee, y 2 percent.; in tea, 2 to 4 per cent.; 
in yerba mate, 5 per cent. ; in guarana, 5 per cent. According to 
Payen, cocoa contains 2 per cent, theobromine. Reports of analyses 
vary much, but there seems to be no doubt that coffee contains 
less of the alkaloidal principle than any of the other beverages. 
The changes effected by roasting are shown in the following 
analyses : 

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF COFFEE (PROF. HASSAEE). 

Raw. Roasted. 
Per Cent. Per Cent. 

Caffeine (theine) no ro6 

Fat 11*42 8*30 

Extractives (caramel, gum, tannin) ....... 14*03 26*28 

Gluten io*68 12*03 

Cane sugar 8*i8 1*84 

Water 8*26 0-36 

Cellulose, etc 42*36 44*96 

Ash 3*97 5*17 

100*00 100*00 

AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF ROASTED COFFEE (a. H. CHURCH). 

In One Pound. 
Per Cent. Ounces. Grains. 

Caffeine (theine) i'o o 70 

Pat or oil 12*5 2 o 

Tannin 5*0 o 350 

Minor extractives 14*4 2 133 

Albuminoids 12*5 2 o 

Water 2*0 o 140 

Cellulose 48*0 7 297 

Mineral matter 4*6 o 322 

ioo*o 1 lb. 

FOOD ANALYSIS OF UNROASTED COFFEE ( PAYEN ). 

Per Cent. 

Flesh-formers i4'75 

Heat-givers 66*25 

Water 12*00 

Mineral matter 7*00 

100*00 

VIII. EFFECTS. 

In the United States coffee is an extremely popular beverage. It 
is estimated that about 70 per cent, of our people are habitual coffee 
drinkers. As a rule we use a decoction of only one-half the strength 
of that used in Brazil, France, Turkey and some other countries. 



372 Coffee: Its History and Commerce. { Am ^JustS m ' 

As used in those countries it is believed to be injurious to the nerves 
and stomach, but the weak decoction used here is non-injurious, but 
rather beneficial. It cheers and refreshes and gives zest to other 
foods. The caffeine is mildly stimulating and has a restful effect 
upon body and mind and tends to restore them to normal condition 
after they have undergone exertion. The most important effect of 
coffee is its tendency to diminish the waste of tissue which is going 
on at every moment, and as Doctor Hutchinson says, " it conse- 
quently permits the performance of excessive labor upon an economi- 
cal and inadequate diet." Laborers are great coffee drinkers, and 
the military departments of many governments give coffee a place 
in the regular rations of army and navy. 

Dr. Kane says of the use of coffee during his Arctic explora- 
tions: "After repeated trials the men took kindly to coffee in the 
morning and tea in the evening. The coffee seemed to continue its 
influence throughout the day and they seemed to grow hungry less 
rapidly than after drinking tea, while tea soothed them after a day's 
hard labor and the better enabled them to sleep. They both oper- 
ated upon fatigued men like a charm, and their superiority over 
alcoholic liquors was very decided." Temperance advocates would 
gladly see coffee displace beer, rum, whisky, etc. 

Coffee contains less astringent principle than tea and conse- 
quently tends less to retard the action of the bowels, a tendency 
which is still further diminished by the aperient effects of the vola- 
tile oil. Von Liebig's investigations show that coffee is valuable in 
increasing when necessary the secretion of bile. On the other hand, 
when bile is superabundant the use of the beverage should be sus- 
pended. Occasionally coffee gives heartburn or other forms of 
indigestion, or causes sleeplessness ; but this is generally due to an 
unwise or untimely use of it. 

With tobacco, opium, alcoholic liquors and some other materials 
our desire will not admit that plenty is enough. Take a little, the 
system hints for more; take more, it asks for more, then demands 
more, insists on more and pleads for more until, figuratively speak- 
ing, one becomes a mere skinful of nicotine, or a seesaw from dream- 
land to despair, or, like Duke Clarence, is drowned in a butt of 
Malmsey. But with coffee, tea and cocoa, as with water, enough is 
enough in nearly all cases, and victims of these beverages are rare. I 
have heard of tea-topers and coffee-topers, but have never known one. 



A ^gust,im m '} Coffee: Its History and Commerce. 373 

Notwithstanding the scare advertisements of health-substitutes 
for coffee, there is no cause tor apprehending danger to the race at 
large from coffee- drinking. After generations of almost universal 
coffee-drinkers, our own times see men of gigantic intellect in all 
realms of activity ; our athletes are able to make sudden bursts of 
effort equal to any in history, and our soldiers acquit themselves 
manfully in fatiguing campaigns in torrid climes. It is not notice- 
able that physicians taboo the use of coffee at their own tables. 
The li'e-insurance companies, constantly warring against all that 
lessens longevity or conduces to abnormal organs, nerves and 
actions, seem content to accept the use of coffee as one of the ordi- 
nary elements of everyday life. 

Users of tobacco find that the stimulating effect of coffee offsets to 
a considerable extent the depressing effect of the tobacco. We may 
liken this to urging a horse forward with the whip while restraining 
Jiim with the reins, thus getting average speed. 

Table No. 4, showing the per capita consumption in this country, 
tells that the beverage has popular approval, or at least that there 
is determination to use it, whether its effects be good, bad or 
indifferent. 

IX. COMPETITORS. 

Tea, cocoa and yerba mate or Paraguay tea are the competitors of 
coffee. All resemble each other in essentials of composition, in 
the manner of infusing, in the way they are used and in their 
effects. In eastern Asia coffee has small hold, tea holding the affec- 
tions of the people. In the lower half of South America yerba 
mate is in everyday use. In our own country tea is hardly a com- 
petitor, but rather a colleague, the two beverages having their own 
distinct fields of usefulness. With us cocoa ranks rather as a dainty 
than as a daily drink. But few of our people have ever heard of 
yerba mate and efforts to introduce its use do not appear to have 
been very successful. During the calendar year 1901 we imported 
1,072,000,000 pounds of coffee at $70,100,000; 68,200,000 pounds 
of tea at $8,700,000 ; 50,400,000 pounds of cocoa at $6,700,000. 

X. ADULTERANTS AND SUBSTITUTES. 

Among the adulterants are chicory root, dandelion root, acorns, 
etc. Some years ago imitation coffee beans were molded from 



374 Coffee: Its History and Commerce. { A ^j£J s \uo" m - 

flour, bran, etc., and used to adulterate the unground coffee. Chicory- 
root, mogdad or negro coffee (the seeds of cassia occiden talis), the 
seeds of several other species of cassia, the seeds of the wax palm, 
the seeds of several species of astragalus, roasted dates and figs 
are common substitutes for coffee, and there are many others. It is 
an interesting fact that some substitutes are in use in even the great 
coffee region ; as, for instance, the seeds of the wax palm in Brazil. 
None of the substitutes contain caffeine. 

Several kinds of health " coffees,'* made principally of cereals — 
wheat, rye and barley — roasted, are on sale in many of our groceries. 

The leaves of the coffee tree contain a large quantity of caffeine 
and are often used in Sumatra in place of the seeds. 

XI. HISTORY OF THE USE OF COFFEE. 

It has been used in Abyssinia since time immemorial. In Arabia 
it was probably first used early in the fifteenth century at Aden, 
whence its use spread to Mecca, to Cairo, to Damascus, to Aleppo 
and finally to Constantinople, where the first coffee house was 
established in 1554. The first coffee house in Great Britain was 
opened in 1652 by a Greek named Pasqua Rossie, who " was servant 
to an English merchant named Edwards, who brought some coffee 
with him from Smyrna, and whose house, when the fact became 
known, was so thronged with friends and visitors to taste the new 
beverage that to relieve himself from annoyance, Edwards estab- 
lished his servant in a coffee house." In France coffee was first 
used in Marseilles in 1658 by Thevenot, a citizen who on returning 
from travels in the East " regaled his guests after dinner." The 
first coffee house in France was opened in Marseilles in 1671 and 
the first in Paris in 1672. The Germans began to use the beverage 
about 1756, more than a century after it had come into common 
use in England and France. In England and Germany coffee-drink- 
ing met opposition of a political nature. In Turkey it was opposed 
by the Mohammedan priests, but in all those countries it bounded 
into popularity. In France it received the patronage of persons in 
high station, but its progress in popularity was very slow as com- 
pared with that in the countries offering opposition. Cocoa was 
the first of the dietary beverages to come into use in Europe, com- 
ing from South America through the Spaniards ; coffee came next, 
from Arabia by way of Constantinople ; tea came third, from China 
through the Dutch and Portuguese. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
August, 1902. J 



Drops as Dose Measures. 



375 



DROPS AS DOSE MEASURES. 

By M. I. Wii^bert, 
Apothecary at the German Hospital, Philadelphia. 

Drops have been the subject of such a number of contributions 
to medical, as well as pharmaceutical literature, that any further 
addition would appear to require some valid excuse for being pre- 
sented. 

Such an excuse is found in the fact that despite the vast amount 
of work that has been done in this direction, practically the only 
point that all investigators agree on is that drops differ materially 
in size and weight. To get some idea as to the present status of 
the question, the writer has attempted to make a comparative study 
of the views held by different investigators, and will endeavor to 
present the essential features of these different views in as compact 
and condensed a form as possible. 

The question that suggests itselt at the outset is, " What is a 
drop ? " 

As answer we might give a definition, somewhat in the manner 
of the dictionary, as follows : "A drop is a self-constituted mass of 
liquid matter held together by the attractions of its molecules and 
having a marked tendency of assuming a spherical form." While a 
definition of this kind describes the physical properties, shape and 
composition of a drop, it gives us little or no indication of what is 
meant when a doctor directs a medicine to be taken in drop doses. 

Drops have been in use by medical practitioners for a great num- 
ber of years, but have always been considered a more or less unsat- 
isfactory quantity, on account of the almost insurmountable diffi- 
culties that are encountered in attempting to bring them within the 
bounds of any rule or law by means of which their size or weight 
might be regulated or determined. 

In Volume I of The American Journal of Pharmacy we find an 
exhaustive paper by Elias Durand, in which the writer calls atten- 
tion to the variation in the size of drops and their unreliability as 
measures of capacity. Besides giving a list of the number of drops 
necessary to equal 20 minims, or to weigh 20 grains, the writer also 
makes some interesting observations, a few of which we will have 
occasion to refer to later. He also makes an interesting historical 
statement, but unfortunately does not give any dates. According 



376 



Drops as Dose Measures. 



( Am. Jour. Pkarru 
1 August, 1902. 



to this paper by Durand, a Doctor Shuttleworth of Liverpool was 
the first to call attention to the danger attending the administration 
of potent remedies in doses. Dr. Shuttleworth, in an elaborate 
paper, is said to have called attention to the variation or difference 
in the weight of drops of different substances. According to 
Durand, the discussion that ensued from this particular paper was 
the direct cause of the adoption, by the College of Physicians ot 
London, of the minim, this latter, as is well known, being the 
sixtieth part of a fluid drachm. 

That this term was soon confounded with being the equivalent of 
a drop is evident from the definition of a minim given by W. T. 
Brande, a writer on chemical subjects, in the early decades of the 
nineteenth century. Brande describes the minim as being " the 
smallest liquid measure — generally regarded as being about equal 
to one drop." 

Among the men who have contributed to the confusion and mis- 
apprehension that exists at the present time on the subject of 
drops, probably no one individual has contributed more than 
Hahnemann, the founder ot homeopathy. As is well known, he 
adopted the drop as the standard of capacity in making dilutions. 
According to Hahnemann, the weight of a drop of water, or of a 
solution of a substance in water, is the equivalent of one grain in 
weight; a drop of alcohol, or alcoholic liquid, is the equivalent oi 
hall a drop of water, or half a grain in weight. These equivalents 
are still used by homeopathic practitioners, and are made the basis 
of the formulas for dilutions as given in the latest edition of the 
Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia by Schwabe. 

Hahnemann, however, was not alone in making general state- 
ments of this kind. Among others, the " Pharmacopoeia of the 
Massachusetts Medical Society, Boston, 1808," says that " 6o drops 
of water, ioo of diluted alcohol, or 120 of alcohol are equal to a 
drachm by measure." 

These general statements or teachings gradually gave way, in 
regular practice at least, to a more or less complete acceptation ot 
one or the other of the numerous drop-tables that have been pub- 
lished from time to time. The first of these that was generally 
adopted in this country was the one by Durand, mentioned above. 
In including this in the different formularies and dispensatories it 
was generally revised so as to make it read : " The approximate 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
August, 1902. J 



Drops as Dose Measures, 



377 



number of drops in a fluid drachm." In addition to this we find in The 
American Journal of Pharmacy alone, drop-tables by J. J. Ber- 
nouilly, 1859, page 442; Barnard S. Proctor, i860, page 430 ; S. L. 
Talbot, 1880, page 337, and A. H. Kinsey, 1884, page 181. 

In view of the fact that drop-tables have been incorporated in 
many of the pharmaceutical textbooks, and are considered as being 
more or less authoritative, it will probably be of more than passing 
interest to compare the essential features of a few of these different 
tables, with a view of determining whether or not any general deduc- 
tions may be drawn from them. 

TABLE NO. I.— GIVING THE NUMBER OF DROPS OF DIFFERENT SUBSTANCES 
NECESSARY TO WEIGH ONE GRAMME ACCORDING TO THE 



AUTHORS QUOTED. 



Author. 


Published in or 
quoted by 


Water. 


Alcohol. 


Ether. 


Chloroform. 


Fowler's 
Solution. 


Tincture of 
Digitalis. 


Wine of 
Opium. 


Durand 


Ellis' Formulary 


13 


49 


59 • 




■ 17 


35 


22 


Bernouilly 


A. J. P. 


14 


39 


53 


33 






18 


Hager 


Hager's Handbook 


16 


40 


50 


25 


16 


25 


20 


Dorvault 


I/Officine 


20 


59 


76 


54 


23 


58 


34 


Talbot 


U. S. Dispensatoi-y 


16-5 


51 


69 


48 


16 


37 


28 


Raymond 


Druggists Circular 


20 


61 


90 


56 


23 


53 


33 


Deaman 


Meyer Bros. Druggist 


28 


80 


107 


76 . 


35 


63 


44 


Eschbaum 


Ber. Der. Pharm. 
Gesellschaft 


10 


33 


42 


26-5 








Harnack 


Proc. G. Ph. A. 


14 


4i 


47*5 


33 


21 


34 


23 


Eschbaum 


Ber. Der. Pharm. 
Gesellschaft, 1902 


I3'8 


45 


57 


37 


22 


37 


21 


Wilbert 


With Fixed Dropper 


10 


30 


41 


28 






I9'5 


Wilbert 


Dropping Bottle 


10 


42 


60 


44 


15 


31 


23 



Table No. I will give us a very fair idea as to the reliability of 
these various drop-tables. It will be noted that the quantities given 
are all figured out for the number of drops that are required to 
weigh 1 gramme; this has been done to facilitate comparison. The 
tables, according to Durand and Talbot, have been calculated accord- 
ing to the weight of a drachm of the respective preparations in 
grammes, as given in the later editions of the United States Dis- 
pensatory. The table by Bernouilly was based on the number of 
drops required to weigh a drachm, and this in turn was calculated 



3/8 



Drops as Dose Measures. 



( Am. Jour. I'harm. 
I August, 1902. 



to grammes. The table in Dorvault's L'Officine is in the metric 
system, as are the remaining ones that are quoted. The additional 
series, made by the writer, were added to demonstrate the possible 
variation that may be obtained by using different dropping surfaces, 
the fixed dropper being an adaptation of the " Decigramme pipette" 
(mentioned on page 133 of the American Journal of Pharmacy, 
1902) to a separating funnel, and this in turn was clamped in a 
burette stand, with the object of eliminating any error due to vibra- 
tion. The dropping bottle was of the ordinary type, but with rather 
a pointed lip or outlet, causing marked reduction in the dropping 
surface tor the more volatile liquids. 

A careful study of even this limited number of liquids should 
convince any one that there is little or no promise of being able to 
generalize on the relative sizes of drops that should be dropped 
from different surfaces or different dropping devices. 

If we take, for instance, the relative weight of distilled water and 
Fowler's solution, we will find that this varies from I- to 0-969, as 
given by Talbot, or I- to r, as given by Hager, all the way up to 
I- to 1-592, as given by Eschbaum in his latest list. Some of the 
other variations are so apparent that it will not be necessary to go 
into detail regarding them. 

One other interesting feature, in this same connection, might be 
illustrated by making a selection from the triple drop-table by 
Kinsey (A. J. P., 1884, page 181). This writer gives a long list of 
preparations, from which we have selected the following instructive 
list: 

TABLE NO. 2. — NUMBER OF DROPS NECESSARY TO MEASURE ONE FEUID 

DRACHM. 





Shop 


Glass 


Minim 


Dropped from 


bottle. 


Stopper. 


Measure 




57 


65 


70 


Acid hydrochloric dilute 


70 


50 


62 




63 


60 


8l 






92 


92 




..... 58 


. 61 


7.7 1 




10S 


87 


139 




124 


I20 


98 




. ... . .116 


88 


143 




66 


80 


124 






79 


145 



This selection, 01" course, illustrates primarily that drops differ 
materially in size. If the original work on the table, however, was 



Am. Jour. Phariu. \ 
August, 1902. J 



Drops as Dose Measures, 



379 



carefully done (and there is every reason to believe that it was), the 
main object-lesson to be obtained from it is, that we can expect little 
or no uniformity in comparative results or the number of drops to 
be obtained from different dropping surfaces. It will be noted that 
drops of the first liquid quoted, from a shop bottle, are apparently 
smaller, while those of the second, tor no evident reason, are larger 
than those dropped from either a glass stopper or a minim measure. 
There are other discrepancies of the same kind in the list as quoted ; 
in fact, the irregularities are so apparent and so great that they 
would certainly appear to suggest that every dropping surface is a 
law unto itself with each and every liquid. So that, even if we know 
the comparative number of drops of one or more liquids, dropped 
from two different surfaces, we cannot with any degree of certainty 
predict what the number of drops of any additional liquid would 
be, calculating from the available data for only one of the dropping 
surfaces. 

Despite this evident variation in the different results obtained, it 
has been proposed that the coming Pharmacopoeia include a defini- 
tion of a standard drop and a description of a standard dropper, 
this official standard to be based on that adopted by the French 
Codex. This latter authority says that 20 drops of distilled water 
should weigh 1 gramme. The Swiss Pharmacopceial Revision Com- 
mittee is also considering a proposal for an official definition. This 
is, that a drop of distilled water is the one twenty-fifth part of a 
gramme, or that 25 drops of distilled water should weigh 1 gramme. 
The Germans, however, have demonstrated to their own satisfaction, 
that neither of these quantities are reasonably constant, and, accord- 
ing to one investigator, a drop of distilled water is the fourteenth 
part of a gramme, while, according to another, it takes 13-8 drops 
to weigh a gramme. In our own country, at the present time, it is. 
popularly supposed that a drop is equivalent to about the sixteenth, 
part of a gramme, or 1 minim. 

A more reasonable and practical standard would be to accept a 
drop of water as being equivalent to the tenth part of a gramme. 
This would certainly be a convenient number to remember, and 
would also be in harmony with the metric system of weights and 
measures. In addition to this, it would represent the most readily 
obtained drop of water, dropping in seconds, from the greatest 
variety of dropping surfaces, iruch a drop might be defined as 



380 



Drops as Dose Measures. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 August, 1902. 



being "the largest drop of distilled water readily obtained from any 
available surface, more than 5 mm. in diameter, dropping not slower 
than 1 drop a second." 

Another advantage to be found in accepting this low number of 
drops as a popular equivalent, would be the placing of all possible 
error on the side of safety. 

, The following tables illustrate a series of experiments that were 
made with different dropping surfaces, in everyday use, with the 
object of determining their probable average and their possible 
variation. In this connection the writer would also call attention to 
the table on page 133 (A. J. P., 1502), mentioned above. 

TABLE NO. 3. — NUMBER OF DROPS OF DISTILLED WATER THAT WERE 
REQUIRED TO WEIGH I GRAMME, DROPPED IN SECONDS, FROM 
THE SURFACES INDICATED. 

Diameter of Number ol 
Neck of Drops. 
Bottle. Low. High. 







9 to 12 






9 " 11 


50 " 


24 


10 " 14 




26 " 


9 - 11 


150 ■" " 


28 " 


9 " 12 




..... .-29 " 


9 " 11 




...... 32 " 


11 " 13 






11 " 13 


2 " " " " 


34 " 


15 " 15 




38 . 


9 " 12 


16 " " " " 


42 " 


9 «' 11 


32 " « " " • '. • • • 


. . ... .49 " 


9 " 11 



TABLE NO. 4. — NUMBER OF DROPS OF DISTILLED WATER THAT WERE 
REQUIRED TO WEIGH I GRAMME, DROPPED IN SECONDS, FROM THE 
DIFFERENT DROPPING DEVICES INDICATED. 



T. K. dropping bottle, flat stopper 13 to 16 

............ 13 " 15 

" " heart-shape stopper 14 "20 

American dropping bottle 9 "12 

German " " 9 "11 

" " " thin lips 10 "15 

Sallerones dropping flask ..... . 15 "18 

Proposed standard dropper (outlet 3 mm.) .10 "26 

Decigramme dropper 9*5 " 11 

Same principle applied to a dropping funnel 10 • 



. It will be apparent to every one that these figures are at variance 
with the results of investigators as usually published. They can 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
August, 1902. I 



Drops as Dose Measures. 



381 



readily be verified, ho wever, by any one who has access to a reliable 
prescription scale, a number of bottles and some distilled water. 
The figures given here represent the highest and lowest of the 
results that were obtained. In each case, upwards of ten experi- 
ments were made, the object being to determine the effect different 
quantities of water would have on the size of the resulting drop. 
From the writer's experiments it would appear that the difference 
in the space and thickness of the lip of a vial is a greater factor in 
the size of the resulting drop than in the quantity of liquid that 
the vial contains. In this series the larger drops were sometimes 
obtained with a vial nearly full to the neck, while in some of the 
experiments the drops from a half-filled vial were the largest. 
The observation made by Durand, and mentioned in his paper, 
that the first drops from a fresh dropping surface were the smallest 
was found to be correct. This is, of course, readily explained when 
we remember that the size of the drop depends largely on the area 
from which the drop grows, or on which it is being formed, irre- 
spective of the available amount of suriace from which it might 
grow. There are so many factors that enter into the possible 
attraction or lack of attraction that a given substance has for any 
particular liquid, that we cannot enter into a discussion of this subject 
in a paper of this kind. Suffice it to say that a rough or ground- 
glass surface offers more attraction for the spread of a liquid, and 
would give a larger and more uniform drop of water than one that 
is quite smooth. A clean smooth surface, however, would give 
more uniform and larger drops than one coated even with the 
slightest trace of fat or oil. 

The amount of variation in the weight of the drop, as obtained 
from the T. K. dropper, Table No. 41,1s also interesting, particu- 
larly in view of the tact that nearly all of the recent drop experi- 
ments in Germany have been made with dropping bottles of this 
type. While it is true that by means of this device drops are 
readily and steadily formed, the great accuracy and uniformity that 
are claimed for them are not apparent from the results obtained by 
the writer. From the available data it is evident, that before we 
can expect to lay down any fixed or definite rule as to the size and 
weight of a drop we must have a device or means by which we can, 
under various conditions, obtain correlating results. There are, of 
course, even at the present time, several ways by means of which we 



3?2 



Drops as Dose Measures. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I August. 1902. 



can obtain drops that will vary little or not at all from any desired 
standard that we care to name. Let us consider, for example, the 
equivalent adopted by the French Codex. The original standard 
was no doubt established by the use of a so-called " Sallerones drop- 
ping flask." This device is usually figured in French and also in 
German books on Pharmacy, but is practically unknown in this 
country. It consists of a small Florence flask, with a tubulature at 
the side placed at such an angle that the drop is formed squarely 
on the end or mouth of the tube. In the more reliable flasks the 
end of this tube is ground flat so as to prevent any tendency of the 
fluid to creep upward and in this way increase the dropping surface 
of the tube, and also the weight of the resulting drop. 

A second reliable method of obtaining correlating results is to 
have a pipette, or dropping funnel, with an opening of the required 
outside diameter (3-3 mm.) and having the lower end ground, as in 
the case of the Sallerone dropper. If this apparatus is firmly fixed 
in a burette holder, and the portion above the outlet or dropping 
surface be kept dry, we can secure, with a reasonable amount of 
accuracy, 20 drops of distilled water to a gramme. 

A tube on the pipette principle is not so satisfactory. This is 
partly due to the quiver and shake that is necessarily imparted by 
compressing the bulb or nipple, but more largely to the gradual 
creeping up of the liquid and the consequent increase in the cross 
section of the dropping area, resulting in a corresponding increase 
in the size and weight of the drop. As has been pointed out on a 
previous occasion, a slight tilting of the pipette has a somewhat simi- 
lar effect, by increasing the surface from which the drop is being 
formed. 

• Admitting then that drops, as ordinarily produced, are necessarily 
variable, and that it is practically impossible to obtain uniform 
results, the question naturally arises, Why should we not dispense 
with drops entirely and endeavor to introduce some more definite 
measure of capacity? While this is no doubt possible in some 
cases, still it must be remembered that drops are of advantage in 
the administration of many forms of remedies. For instance, in 
cases where the relative amount of a drug or preparation is of 
importance, or where the dose of some potent remedy is to be 
alternately increased and decreased. Among remedies that are 
occasionally given in this way, we might mention the different solu- 



Am. Jour. Pharru. > 

August, 1902. X 



Drops as Dose Measures. 



383 



tions of arsenic and its salts, solution of potassium iodide, tincture 
of digitalis, or tincture of nux vomica. 

With several of these preparations the initial dose is of compara- 
tively little importance, the object that is usually sought being to 
find out the amount that will be readily tolerated by the patient. 
For this purpose the dose is gradually increased until marked evi- 
dences of physiological action manifest themselves, then the dose is 
either decreased slightly and continued, or in some cases decreased 
again gradually to the starting point. The advantages possessed 
by drops as dose measures in practices of this kind are quite appar- 
ent, especially it we consider that the actual dropping would prob- 
ably be done by the same person and in the same way, so that 
there would be little or no probability of any serious error or differ- 
ences in the quantities measured out. 

This practical use or application of drops would also appear to 
offer another reason for adopting, as the popular idea of a drop, the 
maximum quantity that may be obtained by any of the usual 
methods of dropping. 

There are two points, or lessons, to be derived from this com- 
parative study of drops that the writer would like to call particular 
attention to. 

The first, of course, is, that the dropping of approximate quantities, 
where weights or measures are directed, is a habit that is reprehen- 
sible, and should not be countenanced or practiced under any con- 
ditions. For use at the dispensing counter a graduated pipette, as 
suggested by the late Dr. Squibb, is the most reliable instrument 
for measuring out small quantities of a liquid. 

The second point is, that it would appear impracticable at the 
present time to adopt a fixed standard for a drop or dropper ; 
unless, of course, we were able to compel every one to use an accu- 
rately made and somewhat complicated dropping device. Other- 
wise the factors that enter into and govern the size of the drop are 
too numerous to be brought under control in the present state of 
our knowledge. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Among those which will be found to contain interesting information 
for any one who wishes to pursue this subject further, the writer would 
like to call particular attention to contributions by the following : 



384 



Rules in the Pharmacopoeia. 



/Am. Jour. Plaarro, 
i August, 1902. 



Elias Durand, American Journal of Pharmacy, 1829, p. 165. 

Dubois and Eckfelt, Ibid., 1857, p. 173. 

J. J. Bernouilly, abstracted in Ibid., 1859, p. 441. 

Barnard S. Proctor, abstracted in Ibid., i860, p. 428. 

Ch. W. Quinn, Ibid., 1864, p. 522. 

S. L. Talbot, Ibid., 1880, p. 337. 

Prof. Chas. I. Himes, Ibid., 1883, p. 394. 

G. H. Kinsey, Ibid., 1884, p. 181. 

Dr. E. R. Squibb, " Ephemeris," Vol. 2, p. 842. 

M. Marc. Raymond, Repertoire de Pharmacie, 1883. 

Translation in Druggists Circular, 1884, p. 36. 

B. Studer, Ibid., 1884, p. 185. 

Dr. G. F. Payne, Ibid., 1897, P- I2 5- 

S. W. Williams, Ibid., 1899, p. 220. 

Dr. W. H. Leaman, Meyer Brothers Druggist, 1899. 

Oswald Schreiner, Pharmaceutical Revieiu, Vol. 19, No. 7. 

F. Eschbaum, Berichte Der Deutschen Pharmaceutischen Gesell- 
schaft, 1900, p. 91. 

Abstracted in American- Journal of Pharmacy, 1901, p. 140. 

Same author, Berichte Der Deutschen Pharmaceutischen Gesellschaft, 
1902, p. 32. 

E. Harnack, Mue?ichener Medizinische WocJienscJirift, 1897. 
Abstracted in " Proceedings of the Am. Phar. Asso., M 1898. 



SHOULD PHARMACISTS ALWAYS FOLLOW OUT THE 
RULES LAID DOWN IN THE PHARMACOPCEIA ?\ 

By Joseph P. Remington. 

Upon seeing this query in the list the writer felt a little shock, be- 
cause it at first seemed to give the authority of this Association to 
what might be termed disloyalty to the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, and 
this was undoubtedly not the intention of the framer of the query. 
It, however, furnishes a text for some remarks. The necessity of a 
pharmacopoeia is universally recognized, for the same reason that 
we acknowledge the absolute need of laws for the governing of our 
conduct as citizens of the Republic and for the protection of all, 



1 Read at the annual meeting of the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion, June, 1902, in reply to query No. 29. 



Am A^S/i£ m '} Rules in the Pharmacopoeia. 385 

and it might be well to continue this parallel; for although the 
U. S. Pharmacopoeia is not published by any government or legal 
authority, it is accepted by the Government and most State laws as 
authoritative. We must have a standard, not only to determine 
the strength and purity of medicines, but if the processes of the 
Pha r macopceia can be replaced at the will of the operator by any 
substitutes which occur to his mind, there is great danger of so 
weakening its authority that a loose, chaotic condition may justly 
be feared. It is true that many laws on our statute books have been 
called " dead letters," because they have been found to be inopera- 
tive, defective, or thoroughly against public opinion, and thus dif- 
ficult to enforce ; but this is not paralleled in the case of the U. S. 
Pharmacopceia. Very few errors, comparatively speaking, were 
found in the U. S. Pharmacopceia of 1890, and most of these were 
corrected after the first edition appeared. It seems to be abso- 
lutely impossible to produce a book which is absolutely free from 
errors, but in a careful study ot hundreds, and possibly thousands 
of criticisms which have been made in the last ten years of this 
book, it can safely be said that 75 per cent, of these are worthless. 
This is due to various reasons. One man writes that the proc- 
ess for solution of ferric chloride is defective, because it pro- 
duces a blackish turbid liquid. The operator has used nitric acid 
not up to the official requirement, or he has heated it too strongly 
and evaporated a portion of it, so that there has not been sufficient 
left to convert all of the ferrous salt into the ferric modification, and 
ferrosoferric chloride has been produced. Another man writes that 
the formula for tincture of calumba won't work ; it becomes clogged 
in the percolator. Investigation shows that he had a stock of finely 
powdered calumba root, and disregarded the official direction to use 
No. 20 powder ; and so it goes. Some detail of the process has 
usually been overlooked or considered unnecessary, and the habit 
of deviating from the strict letter of the Pharmacopceia is one which 
grows rapidly. 

Then, again, some druggist believes that wood alcohol is just as 
good for making many of the preparations, and is much cheaper, 
and he thinks that the rules of the Pharmacopceia are not binding ; 
it has only been lately that it has been shown that wood alcohol, 
when taken internally, will cause blindness. Some druggists find 
that laudanum made by the official process uses up too much opium, 



386 Treatment of Contusions and Wounds. { Am ^|usM?o2 rm ' 

and that customers prefer the kind made of the strength of one 
ounce in the gallon, and besides it is cheaper. It is needless to 
refer in extenso to the various excuses which are given for not 
adhering to the Pharmacopoeia. But it may be said, " Has not the 
advance in pharmaceutical knowledge shown that many improve- 
ments can be made in the processes, and can I not take advantage 
of these improvements ? " The answer which can be made to this 
is, that first it must be proved absolutely that it is an improvement, 
and produces a finished product identical with that of the Pharma- 
copoeia, for physicians have a right to demand that official prepara- 
tions must be uniform throughout the country. It cannot be urged 
with propriety that a so-called " improved " preparation is made 
according to the U.S. Pharmacopoeia ; but of course, if it is not claimed 
to be made according to the Pharmacopoeia, or dispensed or sold 
as such, and the doctor or customer is not misled, there can be no 
fault found with the procedure. But the writer earnestly deprecates 
the habit which many fall into of systematically replacing and 
cheapening pharmacopceial products, and defending this course of 
action by various excuses which are often absurd and irrational, 
when the real reason is that a greater profit is made by such devia- 
tions from this standard. 

The query is therefore answered by saying that pharmacists, in 
making official preparations, should always follow out the rules laid 
down in the Pharmacopoeia, exceptions being made only where some 
error has been found, which renders the following out of the rule an 
impossibility. 



THE TREATMENT OF CONTUSIONS AND WOUNDS BY 
THE APOTHECARY. 1 

By Clement B-. Lowe. 

It is hardly necessary to argue the question whether this work 
should be done by the apothecary or not. Suffice it to say that there 
are times when it will be thrust upon him by the absence of the 
physician. If he is competent to do this work in an intelligent 
manner his reputation will be greatly enhanced thereby. 



1 Read at the annual meeting of the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion, June, 1902 



Al A?g?s r t, iSb!™*} Treatment of Contusions and Wounds. 387 

Contusions or bruises are injuries generally caused by some blunt 
instrument, e.g., a stone, club or fist. There is more or less destruc- 
tion of tissue followed by swelling, subcutaneous hemorrhage and 
frequently discoloration. The treatment is, first, to prevent any 
further escape of blood in the tissues; this may be effected either by 
cold or hot applications, both of which ultimately reduce the calibre 
of the bloodvessels. If ice is used it should not be applied for too 
great a length of time, as the circulation may be interfered with to 
so great an extent as to injure the vitality of the part. Secondly, 
to antagonize the pain, shock or inflammation. This may be done 
by rest, elevation and cold, as already alluded to. In severe cases 
warmth would probably be more agreeable and safer. After the in- 
flammatory stage, absorption may be promoted by massage or friction 
with liniments. It may be said in passing that the best methods of 
treating a sprain is to keep the injured part (which is generally an 
ankle) immersed in water as hot as it can possibly be borne for 
some three hours. Ammonium chloride (8 ounces to a bucketful of 
water) is a valuable adjunct. 

The wounds that the apothecary will be most apt to see are the 
incised, generally caused by some sharp instrument, such as a knife 
•or razor ; the lacerated, in which the tissues are more or less torn, 
as a scalp wound; and wounds produced by animals, usually dogs. 

In the case of incised wounds, if they are properly treated and 
the edges of the wounds closely approximated, healing always takes 
place by what is called " union by first intention," frequently in 
seventy-two hours. In the case of lacerated wounds, healing takes 
place more slowly by granulation ; that is, the formation of new 
material from the bottom of the wound called " union by second 
intention." 

It is hardly necessary at this late day to argue in favor of the 
antiseptic treatment of wounds, but it should be said, and said as 
strongly as possible, that any apothecary who is not willing to go to 
the trouble to treat wounds in this way should not treat them at all. 

The following articles will be needed for the antiseptic treatment 
of wounds, unless they are of a very trivial nature : Solution cor- 
rosive sublimate, 1 : 1000 or 1, 12000. In deeprseated or extensive 
wounds weaker solutions must be used, or there will be danger of 
poisoning; but it must be borne in mind that in the drug store 
where perfect antisepsis cannot be attained, fairly strong solutions 



388 Treatment of Contusions and Wounds. {^iiJust.S™' 

had best be used. Solution carbolic acid (carbolic acid fgj, glycerin 
fgj, mix thoroughly and add water t.^xxxviij), corrosive sublimate 
or iodoform gauze, oil-silk, iodol, iodoform or thymol iodide, absor- 
bent cotton, bandages for fingers y± inches x I yard, for extremities 
2 to 3 inches x 8 yards, for the body 4 inches x 12 yards, for the 
head 2 to 2'j£ inches x 6 yards, sponges (absorbent cotton can otten 
be used in place of the latter in minor surgery), scissors (one pair 
curved on the flat for cutting hair from the scalp), needles (those 
curved on the point being the most useful), forceps for inserting the 
needles, silk for sutures, a clean towel (not the ordinary drug-store 
towel), fountain syringe, and basins (porcelain lined). 

METHOD OF PROCEDURE IN TREATING WOUNDS. 

(1) Wash hands thoroughly and dry them on a perfectly clean 
towel, (2) prepare antiseptic solutions, (3) put instruments, oil-silk 
and needles threaded in carbolic solution, (4) cleanse wound thor- 
oughly by solution corrosive sublimate and fountain syringe, (5) in 
case of scalp wounds first remove the hair, (6) if wound gaps, 
approximate the edges by oxide of zinc plaster or by suturing. In put- 
ting in a suture, grasp the needle firmly, introduce it into the flesh, 
taking a good hold, and bring it out the other side. Sutures may 
be of the interrupted or the continuous type. After the several 
threads are introduced, the edges of the wound are pulled together 
and each thread is tied in a reef or surgeon's knot, the knots being 
pulled to one side over the sound flesh, then one end is cut and one 
left long, to be used in pulling out the stitches after the wound has 
healed. 

After the wound has been sewed, it should again be cleansed by 
the antiseptic solution, then the oil-silk (previously rendered aseptic) 
should be applied, then the medicated gauze, absorbent cotton and 
bandages, the part thus being placed at rest. The oil-silk is applied 
directly to the wound, so that the new tissue which is formed will 
not become adherent to the dressing and be torn up when the dress- 
ing is removed. 

The treatment of a lacerated wound is about the same, with the 
exception that there is usually considerable destruction of tissue, 
which must be trimmed away; on account of the dirt which is apt 
to be ground into such a wound it should be very carefully cleansed. 
Before applying the dressing to the wound, it should be dusted with 



Am. Jour. Pharm."! 
August, 1902. J 



Gasometric Analysis. 



389 



iodoform, etc. ; this is not done in an incised wound, as it would 
prevent the approximation of the edges of the wound. 

In the case of a wound caused by the bite of an animal it should 
be cauterized by nitric acid. Nitrate of silver is worse than useless, 
because, through the formation of an albuminate of silver, its action 
is greatly limited, and the caustic may not penetrate to the bottom 
of the wound ; in fact, some of the poison may be locked up at the 
bottom. Sulphuric and phosphoric acids, through their affinity for 
water, are unnecessarily severe. Popular superstition demands the 
killing of a dog at once to prevent his victim from acquiring hydro- 
phobia; this is decidedly unwise, as it prevents a decision as to the 
dog being rabid ; the dog should be securely chained but not killed. 
Those wounds which the druggist will be called to treat will not 
need to be redressed inside of three days, and in many cases a week 
may be allowed to intervene. 

Some of you may object to antiseptic surgery on account of the 
close attention which must be given to details, but in actual practice 
these are not burdensome, and the knowledge once acquired becomes 
a mere routine. By no other treatment can you assure your patient 
of the speedy healing of a wound without unpleasant complications. 
In conclusion, let me say that the laborer is worthy of his hire. If 
you perform your work in a first-class manner, you should charge a 
first-class price for it. Don't cut the ground from under the phy- 
sician's feet by charging only a nominal fee. 



GASOMETRIC ANALYSIS. 1 

By Frank X. Moerk. 

Two years ago the writer presented before this association a paper 
on gasometric analysis, in which a simple and inexpensive apparatus 
was described which had given very satisfactory results. For those 
estimations, as in the case of the nitrites, in which all air has to be 
removed from the apparatus in order to obtain correct results, the 
former paper contains the necessary details, and no change has been 
suggested ; on the other hand, for the estimation of urea, hydrogen 
dioxide and, particularly, for the estimation of the substances to be 



1 Read at the annual meeting of the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion, June, 1902. 



390 



Gasometric Analysis. 



{ Am. Jour. Phariru 
I August, 1902. 



described in this paper, the use ot the homeo-vial had been found a 
source of more or less trouble, and this has been superseded by- 
transferring the tunnel-tube from the reservoir d to the generator £\ 
The illustration will clearly show the new arrangement. 

A piece of iron wire, sharpened at one end, is stuck into the cork, 
the other end is bent into a circle so as to support the funnel. 
Attention is directed to the following points to prevent likely sources 
of error : 

(1) The small tube e, to which the funnel-tube is attached, should 
project about y 2 inch below the lower surface of the cork, otherwise 
it may happen that in allowing liquids to enter through this tube 
some may be carried along the cork and escape into the exit tube c y 
causing loss. 

(2) The following order, in preparing for a determination, should 



be observed : Disconnect apparatus at c and remove stopper from 
g; charge the generator g with the specified materials; adjust the 
lunnel-tube by filling the funnel with the proper liquid and, by com- 
pressing the rubber tubing at the position ot the small glass plug a, 
allow the liquid to fill the small sections of rubber and glass tubing 
and displace the air (when this has been accomplished allow the 
liquid to drop from the glass tube until the liquid in the funnel is 
on a level with the upper end of the rubber tubing b) ; replace the 
ccrk in the generator ; fill the reservoir d with water after removing 
the stopper, replace the latter and place the outer end of the siphon- 
tube / into a vessel containing water ; by applying suction at c this 




Apparatus for Gasometric Analysis. 



Am. Jonr. Ptaarm. \ 
August, 1902. J 



Gasometrtc Analysis. 



391 



siphon-tube can and must be perfectly filled with water, although it 
is not necessary to have d perfectly filled ; connect the two bottles 
at c and remove the siphon-tube from the vessel containing water ; 
see that the apparatus does not leak by watching the siphon-tubt ; 
should this, by a slow dropping of water, indicate a leak, this can 
generally be stopped by pouring a little water over the corks ; place 
the siphon-tube in the vessel used to collect or measure the water 
displaced by the gas evolved in the experiment ; if this vessel is 
graduated it should be dry at the beginning of the experiment; it, 
on the other hand, it is not graduated, rinse it with a little water 
and allow to drain before using. By this precaution the quantity of 
water used to moisten the vessel, and which would be lost in trans- 
ferring to a graduated vessel, is first added. 

(3) In handling the apparatus, as in connecting and agitating, 
hold the bottles at the lip, so as to take advantage of the thickest 
portion of the glass as a nonconductor of heat, and prevent expan- 
sion of the air or gas by the heat of the hand. 

(4) After the apparatus has been adjusted and prepared for a 
determination, a record must be kept of the liquids allowed to enter 
through the funnel-tube, and this volume subtracted from the volume 
of the displaced water to obtain the volume of the evolved gas ; it 
is, therefore, important, in introducing a definite quantity of solution, 
to see that there is still the same quantity of liquid in the funnel- 
tube as at the beginning of the determination ; should the liquid go 
below the adjustment at b, more than the intended quantity of liquid 
will enter. In agitating after the addition of the reacting substances, 
this should not be so violent as to throw the liquid in g against the 
cork, because some of the liquid escaping through c into d will be 
so diluted by the water as to stop the reaction, and some of the 
liquid in the funnel-tube will react with the material in g (one of 
these entails loss of reacting substance, the other increases the 
same). 

Estimation of Urea. — Place 40 c.c. Labarraque's Solution in gener- 
ator g; adjust the funnel-tube with urine. Add 4 c.c. urine through 
funnel-tube ; agitate until effervescence ceases and allow to stand 
10 to 15 minutes; measure the displaced water, subtract 4 c.c. and 
multiply remainder by 0-002686 for the quantity of urea in 4 c.c. 
To obtain the percentage, multiply the number of cubic centimeters 
of urine taken by the specific gravity, then the resulting weight of 
urine taken : weight ot urea found ^h- 100 : x. 



392 



Gasometric Analysis. 



I Am. Jour. Pharru. 
\ August, 1902. 



No correction is applied for the volume of gas being under other 
than normal conditions, for the reason that in the decomposition of 
urea there is involved a loss of about 9 per cent, nitrogen, and this 
loss is just about balanced by the effect of temperature, pressure 
and tension of aqueous vapor under ordinary conditions. 

In the following estimations in which oxygen is evolved*, a cor- 
rection has to be made tor the increase in volume of the gas through 
the influence of temperature and the tension of aqueous vapor. The 
following table is taken from the previous paper : 









Error of 




For Exact Correc- 


For Approximate 


Approximate 




tion. Volume of 


Correction, Subtract 


Correction. 


Temperature. 


Gas is Divided by 


from Volume of Gas. 


Per Cent. 


IO° C. 


I-0488 


1 

2"2 


4- o*ii 


15° C. 


1-0719 


1 

T5 


+ 0-05 


2O C. 


1-0967 


TT 


— 0-30 


25° C. 


1-1236 


1 

9 - 


— 0'12 


30° C. 


1*1533 


\ and add T l Q 


— o - i6 


35° C. 


r 1866 


I and add T ^ 


— 013 


• 40 C. 


1-2245 


£ and add - 5 \ 


— 0-09 



V 0-0030385 H 2 0. 2 
1 c.c. oxygen under normal conditions is equiva- j 0-0031684 CI 

lent to 1 0-0038841 Mn0 2 

0-0075613 Ba0 2 



Estimation of Hydrogen Dioxide. — Place 10 to 20 c.c. of a satu- 
rated solution of potassium bichromate in generator ; adjust funnel- 
tube with hydrogen dioxide. Add 5 c.c hydrogen dioxide through 
funnel-tube ; agitate and allow to stand until the solution in the 
generator assumes its original color. Example : 67 c.c. water dis- 
placed less 5 c.c. liquid added through funnel-tube gives 62 c.c. gas 
at 25 C. cr 55-12 c.c. corrected; 55-12 5 (c.c. H 2 2 used) = 
11-02 volume or 55-12 X -0030385 = 015557 H 2 2 in 5 c.c. or 
3.349 per cent. 

As the potassium bichromate suffers no permanent change in this 
estimation, quite a number of determinations of the same H 2 2 can 
be made by simply filling up the reservoir again, as the water in 
this runs low, before adding the next portion of H 2 2 through the 
funnel-tube. 

The following determinations are made possible by the ready 
decomposition of hydrogen dioxide in the presence of other chem- 
icals, thus we have: 

. (L) Cl 2 -f 2NaOH = NaOCl + NaCl + H 2 0. 

(2) (NaOCl + NaCl) + H 2 2 = 2NaCl + H 2 4- 2 . 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
August, 1902. J 



Gasometric Analysis. 



393 



(3) CaOC! 2 -f H 2 2 = CaCl 2 + H 2 + 2 . 

(4) BaG 2 -f 2H 3 ?0 4 = BaH 4 (P0 4 ) 2 -f H 2 2 . 

(5) Mn0 2 + H 2 S0 4 + H 2 2 = MnS0 4 + 2H a O -f 2 . 

The strength ot the hydrogen dioxide is not material, providing 
a sufficient quantity be used; this is best determined by making a 
gasometric estimation of the sample of H 2 2 to be used. The quan- 
tity of gas evolved should exceed that evolved in the estimations 
of available chlorine in chlorine water, chlorinated lime and Labar- 
raque's solution ; in the estimations of manganese dioxide and 
barium and dioxide one-half of the evolved gas is to be compared 
with the volume evolved from the H 2 2 . 

AVAILABLE CHLORINE ESTIMATIONS. 

In Chlorine Water. — Place 5 c.c. solution of soda (5 per cent.) and 
20 c.c. chlorine water in generator; adjust funnel-tube with H 2 2 . 
Add 5 c.c. H 2 2 through funnel-tube as rapidly as possible, agitate 
the generator for a few seconds only, and as soon as the dropping 
of the displaced water ceases (the apparatus for the determination 
of available chlorine should be raised so that the end of the siphon- 
tube will not be immersed in the displaced water), measure the dis- 
placed water. After standing less than two minutes a slow decom- 
position of the excess of H 2 2 commences, which is to be diregarded. 

An old specimen of chlorine water by volumetric titration gave 
0-0669 per cent. ; by the gasometric method 0-062, 0-069 and 0-0655 
per cent ; a more recent specimen 017 per cent, by titration, against 
01 79, 0-172 and 0-172 per cent, by gasometric method. 

In Solution of Chlorinated Soda. — Place 5 c.c. Labarraque's solu- 
tion and 5 c.c. H 2 in the generator; adjust funnel-tube with H 2 2 . 
Add 5 c.c. H 2 O a and proceed as under chlorine water. 

With a specimen (sp. gr. 1-050) i-io per cent, available chlorine 
was found against 1094 per cent, by volumetric titration. 

In Chlorinated Lime. — This substance varying considerably in 
strength in different portions of the same lot, about 2 grammes are 
to be weighted off after mixing, triturated in a mortar with water 
and finally made up to 100 c.c. Place 10 c.c. of this turbid mixture 
in the generator; adjust the funnel-tube with H 2 2 . Add 5 c.c. 
H 2 2 and proceed as under chlorine water. 

1-8352 grammes treated as above gave uniformly 30-07 per cent, 
against 30-08 per cent, by volumetric titration. 



394 



Gasometric Analysts. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I August, 1902. 



Estimation of Manganese Dioxide. — This substance should be finely- 
powdered to facilitate the reaction. 0-2 — 0-3 gramme are placed 
in the generator along with 10 c.c. diluted H 2 S0 4 (if the sample con- 
tains carbonates allow the effervescence to cease before proceeding) ; 
adjust funnel-tube with H 2 2 . Add 5 c.c. H 2 2 through the funnel- 
tube and agitate repeatedly until all black particles disappear and 
effervescence ceases. 

0*3404 gramme of a specimen liberated 56*43 c.c. gas corrected = 64*39 P er cent. 
0-3164 " " " 52-45 " " =64-39 " 

0*2226 " " " " 36*89 " " " =64-37 " 

By a volumetric titration 64-40 and 64-52 per cent, were obtained. 

Estimation of Barium Dioxide. — Thoroughly mix the sample and 
weigh off about 2 grammes; add 10 c.c. H 2 and then sufficient of 
a cooled mixture of 10 c.c. H 3 P0 4 and 30 c.c. H 2 to make 50 c.c. 
Place about 0-5 gramme manganese dioxide and 10 c.c. diluted 
H 2 S0 4 in the generator (if there is any effervescence wait until it 
ceases before proceeding) ; adjust funnel-tube with water. Add 
5 c.c. of the barium dioxide, or rather hydrogen dioxide solution 
prepared from the barium dioxide, through the funnel-tube ; follow 
this with 10 c.c. water to perfectly rinse the former solution into the 
generator ; agitate repeatedly until effervescence ceases. Subtract 
15 c.c. from the volume of water displaced. 2-7352 grammes dis- 
solved as above gave 85-28, 85-75, 86-75, 85-75, 87-96, 87-71 and 
86-99 per cent. Volumetric titration before and after the above 
determinations gave 86-22 per cent. The varying figures are easily 
explained when it is remembered that for the strength of solution 
used, an error of I c.c. in reading the volume of displaced water is 
equivalent to 2-76 per cent. 

In conclusion the writer would state that the object of this paper 
is to show the pharmacist that it is not essential to have a well- 
equipped laboratory in order to do a little experimenting ; and I 
venture to say that one taking up for instance the hydrogen dioxide 
assay will become interested in this little apparatus and take up < 
some of the other determinations. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.\ 
August, 1902. J 



Adulterated Asafetida. 



395 



ADULTERATED ASAFETIDA. 1 
By Charles H. LaWau,. 

Asafetida is a drug which is used as an antispasmodic medicinally 
in this country, and as condiment in the far East. The source of 
supply comes from Persia, Afghanistan and Turkestan, and by far 
the largest consumption of it occurs in India, where the Moham- 
medan population and the vegetarian Hindoo classes use it lavishly 
in sauces to give their food a relish. 

In India the two grades, which occur on the market, are known 
respectively as " Hing," which is the better grade, and " Hingra," 
which is the poorer grade. From the state of the American market 
at the present time it certainly appears as if all the i< Hingra " came 
to this country, there being little or no material that might be said 
to be of " prime " quality. 

The requirements of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia call for 60 per cent, 
of alcohol-soluble material. That these requirements are excessively 
high has been shown by the protest which has been registered in 
recent years against the requirement, which is so high as to be 
impracticable to comply with. 

John Uri Lloyd, in the Pharmaceutical Review, for March, 1896, 
called attention to this, and reported having examined six samples, 
only one of which came up to the U.S. P. requirement. 

Mr. Umney, in the Chemist and Druggist, for December 16, 1899, 
complained similarly regarding the requirements of the British 
Pharmacopoeia, which are even higher than the U.S. P., the former 
requiring 65 per cent, soluble matter. 

In the Journal for the Society of Chemical Industry, for 1900, page 
981, Pvussell W. Moore reports that the quality of the asafetida on. 
the market has improved wonderfully during the last decade, and 
quotes figures in support of this claim. He shows that out of 164, 
samples examined in 1890, only 6 showed a percentage of alcohol- 
soluble material over 50 per cent.; while out of 150 samples 
examined in 1900, 71 of the samples contained 50 per cent, or over 
of alcohol-soluble material. The standard of 50 per cent, was taken 
by him because the U. S. Treasury regulations, which are usually 
based on the Pharmacopoeia as a standard, allow a deviation of 10 



1 Read at the annual meeting of the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion, June, 1902. 



39^ 



Adulterated Asafetida. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I August, 1902. 



per cent, from this standard in the case of asafetida ; that is, the 
Treasury Department is supposed to reject and refuse importation 
to all asafetida which contains less than 50 per cent, of alcohol- 
solubje material. 

In the American Journal of Pharmacy, for March, 1901, M. I. 
Wilbert published an article on this same subject, of the quality of 
commercial asafetida, in which he showed that most of the samples 
examined were far below even 50 per cent., and that price was no 
indication whatever of quality; the price of the best sample he 
examined being somewhat less than the price of the poorest sample. 

During the past spring the author had occasion to examine samples 
of asafetida which were taken from 46 cases, which was held up by 
the custom authorities as being below the Treasury requirements. 
The custom authorities referred to are those of the port of Philadel- 
phia. The cases were carefully sampled and the samples thoroughly 
mixed. This material was of prime appearance and would pass 
anywhere for first-class asafetida ; but upon estimating the alcohol- 
soluble material it was found to fall below 33 per cent. 

In consequence of this deficiency in quality, the entire lot was pre- 
vented from coming into this port and was sent back to Europe to 
be sold there. Other samples were obtained, and a selection made 
from them, when it was found that the best-appearing sample sub- 
mitted showed a percentage of only 30 per cent, alcohol-soluble 
material. The only specimen which has come under the author's 
notice recently, which has exceeded 50 per cent, soluble materia^ 
was a small lot which had been held by the seller for at least a dozen 
years, which was badly discolored from having been through a fire, 
and which had nothing to do at all with the present market 
supply. 

Investigations are being made now, which cannot be reported at 
this time, regarding the status of all the asafetida on the American 
market at the present time. The question before the author's mind 
at the present moment is : How does the poor asafetida get into the 
New York and other markets, if the custom authorities of the port 
of Philadelphia are so strict as to reject it when below 50 per cent, 
and when one can turn round and purchase elsewhere material 
which contains less soluble matter than that rejected in Philadelphia ? 
Surely there is a laxity somewhere in enforcing the Custom House 
regulations which should be looked after. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
August, 1902. J 



William Martindale. 



397 



WILLIAM MARTINDALE— PHARMACIST. 
By E. H. Gane. 

By the death of William Martindale, which occurred at his home 
in London, in February last, pharmacy has lost one of its leading 
exponents. 

William Martindale was born in 1840, near Carlisle, in which city 
he received his early education and served his apprenticeship to the 
drug business with the late Mr. Andrew Thompson. In 1862 he 
went to London and, after attending a course of lectures at the 
School cf Pharmacy in Bloomsbury Square and qualifying as a 
pharmaceutical chemist, he became an assistant in the old-estab- 
lished house of Thomas Morson & Son, of Southampton Row, 
This firm he left in 1868 to take up an appointment as dispenser 
and teacher of pharmacy at University College Hospital. In 1872 
he was appointed one of the Board of Examiners to the Pharma- 
ceutical Society of Great Britain, retaining this appointment until 
1882. 

The most important part of his career commenced in 1883, when 
he took over the retail store of Messrs. Hopkin & Williams, at 10 
New Cavendish Street, W., which place has since become a phar- 
maceutical Mecca for the British Empire. In 1889 Mr. Martindale 
was elected to the Council of the Pharmaceutical Society, and the 
esteem in which he was held by his confreres is shown by the fact 
that he was usually returned to the Council at the head of the poll. 
His colleagues upon the Council elected him treasurer in 1898, and 
in the following year he was elected to the presidency of the Phar- 
maceutical Society of Great Britain, succeeding Mr. Walter Hills, 
Unfortunately, about this time ill-health supervened and he was 
compelled to take frequent periods of change and rest. Even dur- 
ing these periods he was not idle, as the sea voyages which he took 
for the benefit of his health led to investigations upon the materia 
medica of the countries visited, with subsequent contributions 
either to the Pharmaceutical Society's meetings or to the trade pub- 
lications. 

Mr. Martindale early took an interest in the meetings of the 
British Pharmaceutical Conference. Elected in 1869, he was soon 
appointed to the Executive Committee, and in 1886 became Chair- 
man of its Formulary Committee, which post he held for many 



393 



William Martindale. 



f A.m. Jour. Pharm. 
(. August, 1902. 



years. He was twice elected to the presidency of that body and 
did much to make its meetings a success. He was also a Fellow of 
the Chemical and Linnean Societies and of the Society of Arts, and 
incidentally found time to devote to archeological studies and to 
municipal affairs, being Mayor of Winchelsea, in which town he 
had a country residence, and became, by virtue of this office, a 
" Baron " of the Cinque Ports. His work was recognized by the 
Government, which appointed him a member of the Committee of 
the Privy Council, which was engaged in considering the subject of 
the regulation of the sale of poisons, and only the day before his 
death he was engaged upon the work of this committee. 

Among British pharmacists William Martindale was, as one of 
his colleagues aptly said, "facile princeps!' While his name is 
known to pharmacists the world over, probably few outside of Eng- 
land could point out upon just what his reputation was based. His 
contributions to pharmaceutical literature were by no means volu- 
minous nor yet of high scientific import. His strength lay in his 
devotion to the art of pharmacy per se, and in his eminently practi- 
cal character. The keynote to his reputation is perhaps best shown 
by mention of his first paper contributed to the Pharmaceutical 
Society in 1868. It was entitled "Carbolic Acid Plaster," and was 
read at a time when Lister was attracting attention by his advocacy 
of the antiseptic treatment of wounds. Thereafter followed a long 
series of notes and papers devoted almost entirely to the problems 
which confronted the pharmacist in his everyday work. Much of 
this work seems to-day to be of a very simple character, but it was 
of immense value to dispensers at that date, and many of the meth- 
ods which are in daily use at the present time, while not specifically 
identified with Mr. Martindale's name, are nevertheless the result of 
his painstaking devotion to the detail work of the pharmacy. Mr. 
Martindale was fortunate in the location of his store, being brought 
into close touch with the leading practitioners of Great Britain, and 
thus being among the first to meet and solve the problems which 
the advance in medical science is constantly bringing before phar- 
macists. Herein lay the secret of his popularity among his con- 
freres in that he was always willing to impart to them the results of 
his own experience. 

Much of this is embodied in the " Extra Pharmacopoeia," a work 
which he first published in 1883 in conjunction with Dr. Wynn 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
August, 1902. / 



Editorial. 



399 



Westcott. Since that date the work has gone through ten editions, 
increasing in value and usefulness, so that to-day there are few stores 
in the British Empire in which the " Extra Pharmacopoeia " is not 
in almost daily requirement. Even among the best American 
pharmacists the book is held in high esteem. Another little work on 
" Coca and Cocaine," published some fifteen years ago, ran through 
severaLeditions, and was of great value to pharmacists at the time 
when the excitement over the discovery of cocaine was at its 
height. 

Mr. Martindale, personally, was a man of high character and 
kindly disposition. He was a tireless worker, and while at times 
hasty, he was nevertheless always prompt to make amends. To 
students he was always willing to impart advice and imformation, 
and many a candidate during the trying ordeal of the examination- 
room will remember the kindly manner in which he would try to 
set him at ease. While not a fluent speaker, he was always a wel- 
come one, and generally managed to leave his audience with 
an Oliver-Twist desire for more. His successful business career is a 
striking example of the possibilities of devotion to the art of phar- 
macy, and his untimely end leaves a gap in the ranks of pharmacy 
which will not soon be filled. 



EDITORIAL. 

THE AMERICAN PHARMACEUTICAL ASSOCIATION. 

As the annual meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion, to be held in Philadelphia, beginning Monday, September 8, 
1902, will be the semi-centennial meeting of the Association, it may 
be of interest to refer to some of the features connected with its 
organization, at this time, as well as to its development, and the 
features of the coming meeting. 

At the second session of the convention of the pharmaceutists 
and druggists of New York, Philadelphia and Boston, in New York 
City on October 16, 1851, the following resolution was adopted. 

u Resolved, That a convention be called consisting of three dele- 
gates each from incorporated and unincorporated pharmaceutical 
societies to meet at Philadelphia on the first Wednesday of October, 
1852, when all the important questions bearing on the profession 
may be considered, =and measures adopted for the organization of a 
National Association to meet every year." 



400 



Editorial. 



(Am, Jour. Ptaarm. 
I August. 1902. 



The convention met at Philadelphia, October 6, 1852, in compli- 
ance with the above resolution, and on October 7th adopted a consti- 
tution and code of ethics. The earlier proceedings contained less 
than fifty pages, and are interesting in a number of respects. Among 
other things, two prizes were offered consisting (1) of twenty-three 
volumes of the American Journal of Pharmacy, and (2) six 
volumes of Gmelin's Handbook of Chemistry. 

The Association has grown to a membership of more than 1,200, 
publishes an annual volume of more that 1,000 pages, has a life 
membership fund of more than $12,000, a centennial fund of over 
$1,200, the interest of which is "used for defraying the expenses 
incurred in conducting original investigations in pharmacy or an 
allied science," and offers eight prizes for original investigations and 
papers. 

The meeting in September promises much for pharmacy and 
pharmacists. All those interested in pharmacy and who can pos- 
sibly arrange to attend should be present. The following pharmacists 
who joined the Association during or prior to i860 are expected to 
attend : 

Henry Thornton Cummings, Tacoma, Wash.; Geo. Luther Dear- 
born, New Market, N. H.; William Wells Goodwin, Newburyport, 
Mass.; William John Maclester Gordon, Cincinnati, O.; Alpheus 
Phineas Sharp, Baltimore, Md.; Robert Restieaux Kent, New York 
City; Thomas Roberts Baker, Richmond, Va.; Philip Charles Can- 
didus, Mobile, Ala.; Evan Tyson Ellis, Philadelphia, Pa.; Edwin 
Oscar Gale, Chicago, 111.; William Henry Gale, Chicago, 111.; 
Edward Hance Hance, Philadelphia, Pa.; Henry Haviland, Brooklyn, 
N. Y.; William Huntington Peabody, Brooklyn, N. Y.; Thomas 
Morris Perot, Philadelphia, Pa.; Henry Norman Rittenhouse, Phila- 
delphia, Pa.; George White Sloan, Indianapolis, Ind.; Thomas 
Snowden Wiegand, Philadelphia, Pa.; Joseph Augustus Heintzel- 
man, Philadelphia, Pa.; William Jenks Jenks, Philadelphia, Pa.; Jos. 
Lyon Lemoerger, Lebanon, Pa.; Edward Leon Milhau, New York 
City; Ichabod Bartlett Patton, Boston, Mass.; Dr. Enno Sander, 
St. Louis, Mo.; William Beatty Thompson, Philadelphia, Pa.; Louis 
Dohme, Baltimore, Md.; Thomas Doliber, Boston, Mass.; Henry 
Alexander Elliott, Baltimore, Md.; John Ferdinand Grossklaus, 
Navarre, N. D.; Noah Sparhawk Harlow, Bangor, Me.; James 
Theodore King, Middletown, N. Y.; Robert Henry Land, Augusta, 



Am. Jour. Pharrn. \ 
August, 1902. / 



Editorial. 



401 



Ga.; George Moore, Somersworth, N. H.; Joel Stone Orne, Cam- 
bridgeport, Mass.; John Francis Rollins, Dover, N. H.; James 
Gurden Steele, Cordelia, Cal.; Henry Martin Whitney, North 
Andover Depot, Mass.; Benjamin Osgood Wilson, Boston, Mass.; 
John Ransom Drake, Milwaukee, Wis.; Christian Fried. Gottlieb 
Meyer, St. Louis, Mo.; Augustus Theodore Moith, Fi-hkill-on- 
Hudson, N. Y.; Joachim Bonaparte Moore, Philadelphia, Pa.; 
Richard John Owens, Brooklyn, N. Y.; Henry McEwen Pettit, 
Carrollton, Mo.; William Saunders, Ottawa, Can.; Giles Green 
Craycroft Simms, Washington, D. C; James Thomlin Shinn, Phila- 
delphia, Pa.; and Benj. Franklin Stacey, Charlestown, Mass. 

The following ex-presidents of the Association have promised to 
be in attendance : 

J. W. M. Gordon, Cincinnati, O. (1864); Frederick Stearns, 
Detroit, Mich. (1866); E. H. Sargent, Chicago, 111. (1869); Enno 
Sander, St. Louis, Mo. (1871); Albert E. Ebert, Chicago, 111. (1872); 
John F. Hancock, Baltimore, Md. (1873) ; C. Lewis Diehl, Louis- 
ville, Ky. (1874) ; Wm. Saunders, Ottawa, Can. (1877); Geo. W. 
Sloan, Indianapolis, Ind. (1879) ; James T. Shinn, Philadelphia, Pa. 
(1880); John Uri Lloyd, Cincinnati, O. (1887); A. K. Finlay, New 
Orleans, La. ( 1 891 ) ; Joseph P. Remington, Philadelphia, Pa. (1892) ; 
Edgar L. Patch, Stoneham, Mass. (1893); Wm. Simpson, Raleigh, 
N. C. (1894); James M. Good, St. Louis, Mo. (1895) ; Joseph E. 
Morrison, Montreal, Can. (1896) ; Henry M. Whitney, North And- 
over Depot, Mass. (1897); Charles E. Dohme, Baltimore, Md. 
(1898); Albert B. Prescott, Ann Arbor, Mich. (1899), and John F. 
Patton, York, Pa. (1900). 

The Permanent Secretary, Professor Caspari, writes that Mr. G. 
Claridge Druce, president and Mr. N. H. Martin, vice-president of 
the British Pharmaceutical Conference will come over to represent 
that body at our Jubilee Meeting. 

The following provisional program has been arranged : 

Monday, September 8th. — 9.30 a.m., Meeting of the Council; 3 
p.m., First General Session ; 8 p.m., Reception at Horticultural Hall 
tendered to the delegates and ladies. 

Tuesday, September 9th. — 10 a.m., Second General Session; in 
the afternoon, visits to places of interest ; 3 p.m., Meeting of Section 
on Commercial Interests. 

Wednesday, September 10th 10 a.m., Session devoted to dis- 



402 



Editorial. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
(. August, 1902. 



cussion of exhibits; 2.30 p.m., drive through Fairmount Park along 
the banks of the Schuylkill and Wissahickon to Chestnut Hill, 
returning by trolley cars through Germantown ; 8 p.m., First Session 
of Section on Scientific Papers. 

Thursday, September nth. — 10 a.m., Second Session Of the Sec- 
tion on Scientific Papers; 3 p.m., Golden Jubilee Meeting; 8.30 p.m., 
Jubilee Banquet. 

Friday, September 12th. — 9.30 a.m., Session of Section on Prac- 
tical Pharmacy and Dispensing ; 1.30 p.m., Steamboat Excursion and 
Lunch on the Delaware River, tendered by the Philadelphia Asso- 
ciation of Retail Druggists; 8 p.m., Third Session of the Section on 
Scientific Papers. 

Saturday, September 13th. — 10 a.m., First Session of the Section 
on Education and Legislation; 3 p.m., proposed Excursion of Dele- 
gates to Atlantic City, returning Monday morning. 

Monday, September 15th. — 10 a.m., Second Session of Section on 
Education and Legislation ; 3 p.m., Last General Session. 

'Tuesday, September 16th, to Monday, September 22d, will be 
devoted to social sessions and special committee meetings. 

The officers of the various sections are doing all that they can to 
make the work in their respective sections of benefit to those in 
attendance. 

The officers of the Scientific Section are arranging for an inter- 
esting program. Papers will be received from two of the honorary 
members of the Association, viz., Prof. E. Schmidt, of Marburg, 
and Prof. E. Schaer, of Strassburg. It is extremely desirable that 
all those having papers in preparation, notify as soon as possible 
the Chairman, Lyman F. Kebler, or the Secretary, Joseph W. 
England, 35 Poplar Street, Philadelphia. Papers to be printed in 
advance of the meeting should be received on or before August 
1 2th. 

The Special Committee on Drug Market, the chairman of which 
is E. L. Patch, Boston, Mass., will make its report to this sec- 
tion. This committee was appointed to report all variations lrom 
pharmacopceial or other recognized standards, either in quality, 
description, solubility, fusing point, etc., discovered by published 
statement in any medical or pharmaceutical journal, or by personal 
examination by any member of the committee. Such data should 
be of value to subsequent Committees of Revision of the U.S.P., 



Am. Jour. Phann. \ 
August, 1902. / 



Editorial. 



403 



and should show to manufacturers and dealers the desirability of a 
-closer approach in quality to the advertised claims. 

It is well known that not a few chemical products are marketed 
below the official standard, and it is impossible for the pharmacist 
to obtain a quality that will exempt him from breaking the health 
laws that adopt the Pnarmacopceia as a standard. The use of the 
terms " pure," " purified," "chemically pure" is very loose in the 
ordinary channels of trade and in many cases is meaningless. The 
buyer assumes that they have a positive significance when they may 
have a relative meaning only. A systematic examination and state- 
ment of this condition should be of practical benefit to pharmacy 
and medicine. 

In the Section o?i Education and Legislation papers are expected 
giving the progress in these fields during the past fifty years in this 
country. Brief papers relating to interesting questions during their 
respective terms of office will be read by all the living ex-presidents 
of the Association. The special committee appointed by the Asso- 
ciation to look into the matter of the acquirement of drug habits, 
of which the chairman is H. P. Hynson, Baltimore, Md., will make 
an interesting report with practical recommendations to this sec- 
tion. Various other subjects, as methods of teaching and the 
extension of the curriculum in colleges, will be considered. Papers 
or titles should be sent as soon as possible to either the Chairman, 
E. G. Eberle, Dallas, Tex., or the Secretary, J. W. T. Knox, Detroit, 
Mich. 

The officers ol the Section on Practical Pharmacy and Dispensing 
are likely to receive a liberal number of papers in response to the 
list of suggestions sent out by the committee in the early part of 
the year. Indeed, the Council has been asked to make some pro- 
vision for holding two sessions of the section instead of only one, as 
provided in the by-laws. Besides the discussion of prescription 
difficulties and notes on dispensing, the committee expects to have 
several papers relating to pharmacy and dispensing as practised 
fifty years ago. Papers should be sent to either the Chairman, 
George W. Sloan, Indianapolis, Ind., or to the Secretary, VVm. F. 
Kaemmerer, Columbus, O. 

The Committee on Exhibits has arranged for an unusual exhibi- 
tion of rare, curious and interesting relics that relate to pharmacy 
and which will serve to illustrate the advance made in the profes- 



404 



Editorial. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm„ 
I August, 1902. 



sion during the last fifty years or more. Manufacturers, pharma- 
cists and members of some of the colleges have contributed much 
interesting material, and the committee has taken care to exclude 
all exhibits that might lead to fault-finding by the most critical 
visitor. The chairman of this committee is Thomas P. Cook, 114 
William Street, New York City. 

At the St. Louis meeting, Professor Caspari offered a resolution : 
" that at the next annual meeting of this Association, in 1902, a 
special jubilee session be held to commemorate the fiftieth anni- 
versary of its organization, and that Dr. Frederick Hoffmann, of 
Berlin, Germany, be invited to preside over this session and to 
deliver the address of the occasion." A special committee has been 
appointed to look after this jubilee session and is arranging for an 
interesting program on Thursday afternoon, September 10th. The 
committee also proposes to have a special commemorative exhibit, 
and it is proposed to make this of a dual character — one section 
to illustrate the advance in the practice of pharmacy and pharmaceu- 
tical manufactures. And in this connection will be exhibited inter- 
esting relics, old apparatus, obsolete or old drugs and methods of 
manipulation. The other section will exhibit the advances made in 
pharmaceutical literature and education, the pharmaceutical and 
allied works of members of the American Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion, books relating to pharmacy, certificates, medals, diplomas, 
portraits of officers and illustrious pharmacists, etc. 

Materials donated or loaned should be sent to the Committee on 
Semi-Centennial Celebration, George M. Beringer, Chairman, in care 
of Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, not later than August 20th, 
that they may properly arrange and catalogue this exhibit. 

The Association has a standing Committee on Transpottation, which 
is appointed by the Council, and consists of the following members : 
Charles Caspari, Jr. (Chairman), Baltimore, Md. ; Albert £. Ebert, 
Chicago, 111. ; Caswell A. Mayo, New York, N. Y. ; Charles M. Ford, 
Denver, Col. ; Charles G. Merrell, Cincinnati, O. ; S. A. D. Shep- 
pard, Boston, Mass. ; George F. Payne, Atlanta, Ga. ; H. ML 
Whelpley, St. Louis, Mo. ; William M. Searby, San Francisco, Cal. ; 
Charles T. Heller, St. Paul, Minn. ; Max Samson, New Orleans, La- 

The president has named Paul L. Hess, of Kansas City, and 
Charles R. Sherman, of Omaha, Neb., to look after the transporta- 
tion arrangements in their respective localities. Those intending to 



Am iu°Sst woY™"} Pennsylvania PJiarmaceutical Association. 405 

attend the meeting should correspond with the member of the 
Transportation Committee nearest them. Full information will be 
published shortly. It is likely that arrangements will be perfected 
for an A. Ph. A. train, with special cars from Chicago, St. Louis^ 
Cincinnati, and some other points. Reduced railroad rates will be 
secured and announced by the Committee on Transportation. 



PENNSYLVANIA PHARMACEUTICAL ASSOCIATION. 1 

The twenty- fifth annual meeting was held at Buena Vista Springs, 
Franklin County, Pa., June 24th-27th. The address of welcome by 
the Local Secretary, H. J. Mentzer, was replied to by Dr. C. B. Lowe. 
The President, W. L. Cliffe, made the annual address. In this he 
advised the repeal of the initiation fee for new members with the 
hope of increasing the membership in the Association. He also sug- 
gested that the Association pass resolutions favoring the Jov Bill 
(House Representatives, No. 178), which provides for a tax of 70 
cents a proof gallon as against the present tax of $1.10. In regard 
to the work of the County Associations and their relationship to the 
State Association, Mr. Cliffe said : 

" To the State Association logically belongs the settlement of all 
those questions that affect the pharmacists all over the State in a 
nearly equal manner, such as legislative matters, looking alter proper 
appointments to the State Board and educational matters. To the 
local or county organization should be delegated the work of cor- 
recting trade evils and abuses, the adjustment of price difficulties 
and the bringing together of its members for a better understanding 
of their commercial relations generally. Properly managed there is 
no connection of interests and complete harmony and co-operation 
should result. 

In regard to the " Bottle Act " of April'28, 1899 (which has been 
referred to in the Report of the Committee on Legislation for 1899)^ 
and copies of which had been distributed during the past year 
among the druggists of the State, the President said: "This dis- 
tribution was evidently the work of the people who engineered this 
bill through the legislature for their own personal ends, under the 



1 Credit is due to Dr. J. A. Miller, Wm. L. Cliffe and Prof. C. B. Lowe for 
courtesies in the preparation of this report. 



406 Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association. { K ™Lllllx*wfi™~ 

flimsy pretense of legislating for the protection of the public health. 
It is a veritable absurdity as a legislative enactment, but it stands as 
a menace to the interests of the drug trade of the State and should 
be repealed." 

Mr. Cliffe also said that, "some years ago, one of the presidents 
of this Association suggested the advisability of establishing a 
medal to be awarded annually for the best paper upon a pharma- 
ceutical topic, or for a new pharmaceutical device or implement, or 
for an improvement upon one already in use. Just where the sug- 
gestion originated does not seem to be a matter of record, but the 
plan is one that commands attention as being well adapted for 
increasing the value of the work of your Committee on Papers and 
Queries, which has contributed so materially to the high standing 
of this Association in the past. It is probable that the low state of 
the finances at the time it was proposed practically precluded con- 
sideration of the plan. Now, however, a majority of the ex-presi- 
dents have, after a consideration of the question, offered to donate 
the funds necessary to purchase a die for such a medal if it is the 
desire of the Association to institute such a prize. The only expense 
to the Association under this plan would be the small sum annually 
for the casting and such engraving as might be necessary. It would 
seem to be a proper method of perpetuating the memory of some 
deceased and honored member of the Association." 

The reports of the Secretary and Treasurer were then received, 
the latter reporting a balance of about On Wednesday morn- 

ing, Harry L. Stiles, Chairman of the Committee on Trade Interests, 
made a very interesting report of the excellent work done this past 
year in assisting in the organization of numerous local societies of 
pharmacists. A unanimous vote of thanks was tendered the com- 
mittee. Short speeches were then made by various members rep- 
resenting some of these , local societies. The conditions on the 
whole were quite encouraging, especially so in Western Pennsylva- 
nia and in Dauphin County ; quite a discussion was had upon the 
evil effects of purchases made by mail agents which have proved to 
be a somewhat disturbing factor. The subject was referred to the 
committee for investigation and advice as to the action to be taken. 

The Executive Committee made an interesting report of the work 
done by them the past year. The Committee on Adulterations 
reported having investigated a number of drugs the past year, 
amongst them being asafetida and flaxseed meal. 



AX AugusMfe™'} Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association. 407 

The Committee on Nominations presented the names of the fol- 
lowing who were afterwards unanimously elected : President, Chas. 
L. Hay, Dubois ; Vice-Presidents, H. L. Stiles, Philadelphia and 
H. J. Mentzer, Waynesboro ; Secretary, J. A. Miller, Harrisburg ; 
Treasurer, J. L. Lemberger, Lebanon ; Executive Committee : Wm. 
O. Frailey, Lancaster ; E. E. Heck, Pittsburg and C. E. Griffith, 
Johnstown; Local Secretary, David Horn, Jr., Harrisburg. 

The following resolution was unanimously adopted and ordered 
to be sent to the Pharmacopceial Revision Committee : u Be it 
resolved by the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association in annual 
session assembled, That whereas the U. S. Pharmacopoeia standards 
of strength and purity have come to be recognized by the courts as 
those to. which all chemicals and preparations must conform, there- 
fore, we would most strongly urge upon the U. S. Pharmacopoeia 
Revision Committee the wisdom and necessity of fixing those stan- 
dards at readily attainable points, and not at ultra-scientific heights 
which it is almost impossible to reach, or if attainable, are only so at 
greatly increased cost without corresponding medicinal advantage!' 

The Committee on Papers and Queries were so successful in arous- 
ing interest in this work that a special vote of thanks was given its 
Chairman, H. F. Ruhl, of Manheim, who had taken up the work at 
a late date. 

The following papers were presented : 

"Adulterated Asafetida." By Charles H. La Wall. (See this Jour- 
nal, p. 395). 

" How to Keep and Care for Leeches." By J. L. Lemberger. 
" Gasometric Analysis." By Frank X. Moerk. (See this Journal, 
p. 389). 

44 Hydrogen Dioxid." By Robert C. Pursel. 

44 Synthetic Remedies." By M. I. Wilbert. This paper will be 
printed in a later issue of this Journal. In the discussion on the 
evils arising from the introduction and sale of the numerous syn- 
thetics and proprietary articles, a resolution was adopted referring 
the matter to the delegates for presentation at the next meeting of 
the State Medical Association, if the delegates shall deem it wise. 

41 Should Pharmacists Always Obey the Rules Laid Down in the 
Pharmacopoeia." By Joseph P. Remington. (See this Journal, p. 384). 

44 Tincture of Arnica Flowers." H. F. Ruhl suggested a modifica- 
tion of the U.S.P. process. 



408 Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association. { A ^u!u S r tJ?(V2 rm 

"The Preparation of Tincture of Iodine." By P. Henry Utech. The 
author suggests a method of circulatory displacement. The iodine 
(70 grammes) is placed' in a muslin bag and suspended in a flask, 
just below the surface of the liquid, using about 900 c.c. of alcohol. 
In 20 or 30 minutes the bag is removed, and washed with alcohol 
sufficient to make 1,000 c.c. 

" Triturations of Physostigmine Salts with Boric Acid." J. S. 
Beamensderfer considers the preparation as one which keeps the 
physostigmine in a condition for ready solution. 

" The Preparation of Oleates, Oleo-Palmitates and Oleo-Stearates 
in Powder Form." By Frederic E. Niece. 

" Laws Regulating the Sale of Poisons." By J. L. Lemberger. 

" Profession and Trade." By John F. Patton. The author said 
of the schemes that have for their object the betterment of the 
material condition of the pharmacist, by merely increasing his com- 
pensation, the authors forget that " that can only come through 
higher and better service." 

" The Treatment of Wounds by the Apothecary " was the subject 
of an interesting lecture by Prof. C. B. Lowe. (See page 386). 

The closing of drug stores on Sunday, with the exception of an 
hour or two at noon and evening, for prescriptions only, was con- 
sidered by W. O. Skelton. The writer has found, with ten years of 
experience, that it is feasible and desirable*. 

" The Consolidation of Drug Stores." W. H. Reed, in discussing 
this question, said : 

" The association of drug stores could be brought about in this 
way : The stores of a populous county or several counties should 
form into a union and select one of the most central stores for its 
base of supplies. This central store would do all of the purchasing, 
manufacturing of products and attend to all executive work. With 
telegraph, telephone, postal and railway service — these modern 
improvements and conveniences — the work between the stores of 
the consolidation or union would be materially facilitated. 

" By such a union, I believe, the profession and business of phar- 
macy would be improved and elevated. Better service would be 
given the public, and the average store would be improved in 
appearance and efficiency. The standard of service of the store 
would be better, as none but competent help would be placed in 
charge, and the routine duties of the manager lightened. With a 
central store of supplies, much less stock of certain kinds would 



A ^ugu u st\?902. rm 'l Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 409 

have to be carried by the individual stores. Good and living 
salaries out of the profits could be paid all managers, and large 
dividends to stockholders of the union would be forthcoming." 

" The Prevention of Cutting." J. H. Redsecker suggested that 
either the manufacturer must sell direct to the retailer, or that 
some one jobber in a given territory be made " the distributing 
agent who shall sell only to such as have signed the contract to 
maintain prices, and hold him to a strict account for the distribu- 
tion of the goods. Then the cutter, unable to get the goods, would 
be compelled to sign the proprietor's contract, and having done so, 
he would cease to be a cutter." 

" Methods of Advertising for Pharmacists." L. S. Vowell con- 
sidered the different forms of advertising and which were the most 
advantageous. 

The Entertainment Committee provided an excellent program. 
One of the most pleasant features connected with the meeting was 
the presentation to the secretary, Dr. J. A. Miller, and to the 
treasurer, Jos. L. Lemberger, each a handsome solid silver service 
as a token of the appreciation of the members of their continuous 
services for twenty-five years in these respective offices. It was a 
splendid and well-deserved tribute to these officers and the com- 
mittee carried out their part of the work well. 

This being a conjoint meeting with the Maryland Pharmaceutical 
Association, several receptions were arranged. A severe storm, 
however, prevented the members of the Maryland Association from 
meeting with the members of the Pennsylvania Association on the 
evening arranged. 

The next meeting will be held at Eaglesmere the fourth week in 
June, 1903. 

PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 

The quarterly meeting of the members of the Philadelphia College of Phar- 
macy was held June 30, 1901, at 4 p.m. The President, Howard B. French, in 
the chair. 

Twenty members were present. The minutes of the annual meeting, held 
March 30th, were read and approved. The minutes of the Board of Trustees 
for the meetings, held March 4th, April 1st, April nth and May 6th, were'read 
by the Registrar, W. Nelson Stem, and approved. 

The Committee on Necrology, by its chairman, George M. Beringer, presented 
a report containing memoirs of Charles W. Warrington and Henry C. C. Maisch. 
Mention was also made of the decease of the following honorary members : 
William Martindale, of London, Eng. ; Charles Mohr, of Mobile, Ala. ; and 



4io Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am AuS, mS™" 

Dr. Nils Peter Hamberg, of Stockholm, Sweden. Appropriate memoirs are 
being prepared and will be published in the American Journal oe Pharmacy. 
The editor of this Journal had secured and published memoirs of Emil 
Scheffer, Dr. Charles Rice and other prominent pharmacists. 

The delegates to the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association to the meet- 
ing held at Buena Vista Springs Hotel, Pa., reported that the meeting was well 
attended. Valuable reports were read by the Committees on Adulteration, 
Trade Interests and County Associations. At one of the sessions a number of 
the unanswered queries were taken up for discussion. Many valuable points 
were presented by a number of participants. 

The work of the National Association of Retail Druggists was endorsed by 
the Association. 

The Maryland Pharmaceutical Association being in session at the Blue 
Mountain House, a few miles distant, gave an opportunity for exchange of 
courtesies which were much enjoyed. 

Among a number of pleasant incidents of the meeting was the presentation 
of a silver tea-service to Dr. J. A. Miller, secretary, and J. L. Lemberger, treas- 
urer. They had served the Association twenty-five years in their respective 
offices. 

For other details, some of which were included in the report of the delegates, 
see p. 405 of this Journal, where will be found a full account of the meeting. 
The following letter was read : 

Junk 23, 1902. 

To the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 

Gentlemen : I take pleasure in presenting you with a photo of Mr. Charles 
Bullock, which I beg you to accept with the compliments of one who is an old 
graduate of the College. Very truly yours, F. GutekunsT, 

Per A.N.S. 

The photo alluded to is a most excellent likeness of the late president. The 
portrait was heartily accepted and the secretary directed to convey to Mr. 
Gutekunst the thanks of the College. 

A communication was received from the National College of Pharmacy, of 
Washington, D. C, referring to the " possibility of securing the establishment 
of a department in the newly formed ' Carnegie Institute,' devoted to the 
subject of pharmacy," which was referred to the Committee on Instruction. 

An invitation was received from Charles Caspari, Jr., General Secretary of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association, for the College to be represented by 
delegates to the Golden Jubilee Session to be held in commemoration of the 
fiftieth anniversary of the organization. 

Mr. Wilbert moved that an invitation be extended to the members of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association to visit the College during the sessions. 
So ordered. 

The president announced the following appointments : Delegates to the 
American Pharmaceutical Association — Prof. Henry Kraemer, Chairman ; 
Mahlon N. Kline, Jacob H. Redsecker, Prof. C. B. Lowe and Prof. F. X. 
Moerk. 

Committee on Nominations : Jacob M. Baer, Chairman ; Prof. Samuel P. 
Sadtler, Edwin M. Boring, Theodore Campbell and Henry C. Blair 3d. 

Committee on Necrology : Prof. Henry Kraemer, Chairman ; Gustavus Pile 
and Joseph W. England. C. A. Weidemann, Secretary. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



SEPTEMBER, 1902. 



THE METRIC SYSTEM OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 
IN ENGLISH-SPEAKING COUNTRIES. 

By M. I. WlI^BERT, 
Apothecary at the German Hospital, Philadelphia. 

That the metric system of weights and measures is finally making 
headway among English-speaking people is evident from the stand 
that representatives of mechanical and manufacturing industries are 
taking in regard to it. 

With scientific investigators, metric weights and measures have 
been popular for some time; this is especially true of chemists who 
have occasion to compare the results of their work with that done 
in the chemical laboratories of Germany or other portions of conti- 
nental Europe. 

The up-to-date pharmacist has also familiarized himself with, and 
acknowledges the advantages of, the metric system ; so far, however, 
he has been the exception rather than the rule, and many apothe- 
caries, even in our own country, are content to have their working 
formulas recalculated for them into grains, drachms, ounces, pints 
and pounds in preference to using the simpler decimal process made 
possible by the use of metric quantities. 

While the more conservative pharmacist has persistently refused 
to give the metric system a fair trial, the manufacturers of English 
countries have been getting practical lessons in the necessity of 
adapting their products to the needs and wants of the foreign con. 
sumers, if they wish to compete successfully for their trade. 

British as well as American manufacturers are beginning to heed 
the lesson, and in England steps are being taken to popularize and 

(4n) 



412 Metric System of Weights and Measures, {^"ptembeffigo? 

ultimately introduce, not alone the metric system of weights and 
measures, but also a decimal system of coinage. 

That this will be a difficult problem, is readily appreciated when 
we consider the ultra-conservative spirit of the English people and 
how they have always clung to old ways and traditions, and per- 
sistently objected to any innovations. 

To illustrate this we need but recall the fact that England retained 
the Roman system of notation for centuries after other countries 
had adopted the now universally used Arabic numerals. A still 
more recent example is the adoption of the Gregorian calendar, in 
which England was nearly two hundred years behind the south 
European States. 

From the established precedents we would be justified in assert- 
ing that it will be difficult indeed to induce the rank and file of 
Englishmen to dispense with their pounds, shillings and pence, and 
to count in decimals. 

The British Decimal Association, however, in one of their recent 
publications report that there is a very decided growth of public 
opinion in favor of a decimal system of coinage in Great Britain, 
and the compulsory introduction of the metric system of weights 
and measures throughout the British Empire. 

One factor that has been instrumental in bringing about this 
change of ideas in England, may be found in the reports of British 
consular agents, who several years ago were asked to secure infor- 
mation on several vital points connected with the introduction and 
use of the metric system in the different European countries. All 
these reports, with the single exception of those from Turkey, were 
very favorable, both as to the ease and rapidity with which trade 
conditions had adapted themselves to the new system, and the 
advantages that the new system had in facilitating computation, 
thereby saving time. These reports also favored the proposed 
change from the present confused and complicated English system, 
to metric units, as being in the line of progress, and a decided step 
in the proper direction for regaining much of England's former 
influence, prestige and trade. 

In Canada the government has been carefully preparing the way, 
and is ready to introduce the metric system as soon as the United 
States and England make the change. The course that has been 
pursued by the Canadian Government is to make the system widely 



A s^pSe?fi902. u } Metric System of Weights and Measures. 413 

understood by teaching it in the schools, and otherwise giving the 
details of the system wide publicity, especially among such of its 
citizens as are actively engaged in manufactures or commerce. 

It is hoped that by this means the system will have become so 
well known by the time a necessity for change arises, that the latter 
will cause little or no disturbance in the ordinary channels of trade. 

The feeling that exists among representative manufacturers in our 
own country is well summed up in the report of the House Com- 
mittee on Coinage, Weights and Measures, and also in the reports 
of numerous special committees of industrial as well as scientific 
societies that have been appointed to inquire into the feasibility of 
introducing the metric system of weights and measures into the 
United States. 

Among the reports that are of special interest in this connection 
the writer would like to call particular attention to one recently 
made to the Franklin Institute, Philadelphia. 

This Institute began its career in 1826, and has always taken an 
active part in the development and advancement of anything per- 
taining to manufactures and the mechanic arts. The members of 
the Institute have contributed materially toward advancing manu- 
factures along rational and scientific lines by contributing at the 
meetings of the Institute or through the columns of its journal such 
information, gathered from practical experience, as would be of use 
to others in overcoming problems and difficulties that might arise. 
In this respect, the Franklin Institute has practically revolutionized 
the long-cherished belief, that the experiences of a manufacturer are 
to be used only for his individual benefit and not for the common 
good. 

The nature of the report, and the action that was taken on it, 
acquire added interest from the fact that twenty-seven years ago the 
same Institute adopted the majority report of a special committee, 
appointed for the same purpose, that was unfavorable to the pro- 
posed introduction of the metric system in this country. 

The report, accepted at that time, after reviewing the history of 
the metric system, and the peculiar conditions under which it was 
produced, concluded that the metric system was not based on scien- 
tific principles, and that its defects outnumbered its advantages. In 
addition to this it was thought that the adoption of the metric 
system would have a tendency to estrange us, commercially, from 



414 Metric System of Weights and Measures. {^pfember.wo? 1 ' 

England, with whom more than three-fifths of our trade was, at that 
time, conducted. Altogether the possible benefits were thought to 
be of less advantage than the probable immediate loss. The gen- 
eral lack of interest in, or appreciation of, the advantages of the 
metric system, at that time, is apparent from the fact that the 
memorial that was subsequently forwarded to Congress by the Bos- 
ton Society of Civil Engineers was endorsed by but seventeen othtr 
scientific or industrial organizations (Am. Jour. Phar., Vol. 49, p. 
612). It should be stated, however, that in the following years 
several industrial organizations, among them the Philadelphia Engi- 
neers' Club, adopted resolutions favoring the introduction of the 
metric system, especially its compulsory introduction into the cur- 
riculum of the public schools. 

The agitation at that time was not without some practical results ; 
we find, for instance, that in 1878 the metric system was officially 
introduced into the United States Marine Hospital Service ; subse- 
quently the same system of weights and measures was also adopted 
by the medical departments of both the United States Army and 
Navy. 

In 1880 the metric system was officially recognized in the U. S 
Pharmacopoeia, and in the next decennial revision it was used ex- 
clusively. 

Despite this official recognition, however, the metric system has 
made comparatively little progress with the rank and file of the 
medical or pharmaceutical professions, and its general introduction 
will probably be brought about by the changes that have been 
imade in our commercial and industrial relations with the countries 
where it has been adopted. 

Philadelphia manufacturers having trade relations all over the 
civilized world, necessarily feel the disadvantages that result from 
being compelled to use different systems of weights and measures. 
It was to inquire into this condition of affairs, and the possibility of 
avoiding them, that the Franklin Institute appointed the special 
committee " on the feasibility and advisability of adopting the metric 
system of weights and measures in the United States." 

Briefly, the conclusions of this committee, as subsequently en- 
dorsed by the Institute, were as follows : 

That it is desirable to obtain an international standard of weights 
and measures. 



%™pt J embe?iS'} Metric System of Weights and Measures. 415 

That the metric system is commendable not alone as a suitable 
international standard, but also for facility of computation, conve- 
nience of memorizing and simplicity of enumeration. 

That we cannot expect nations using the metric system to aban- 
don that and use our systems instead. 

That the only valid objection that has been made to the metric 
system is that it cannot continuously be subdivided by two. 

That in the case of our decimal currency this objection has proven 
to be more than overcome by its other advantages. 

That as a minimum unit of lineal measurement the millimeter is 
fully as convenient as the sixteenth or thirty-second of an inch. 

That it is not considered practicable to inaugurate the adoption 
of the metric standards for weights Oi liquid measures, in advance 
of the lineal measure, even if the former would not involve as much 
inconvenience or expense as the latter. 

The reading of these conclusions, and the resolutions that were 
proposed to accompany them, was followed by an interesting dis- 
cussion that is being published in the current numbers of the Jour- 
nal of the Franklin Institute. 

A few additional points that were brought out in the course of 
this discussion may be of interest to pharmacists. 

The meter, or unit of length was, of course, most violently 
assailed, largely from the standpoint that compulsory adoption of 
the same would cause confusion, delay and serious loss in machine- 
shop practice. 

Mr. Vauclain, the superintendent of the Baldwin Locomotive 
Works, Philadelphia, in speaking of the futility of this line of argu- 
ment, said that no up-to date machine shop could afford to allow its 
employees to use foot-rules or measuring sticks, but that all modern 
shop-practice was based on the use ot steel gauges, and the work- 
ing to scale Irom drawings, instead of using any system of lineal 
measures. In illustration of this point he said that the works he 
was connected with employed upward of 11,500 men. The daily 
output was five complete modern locomotives a day, each one of 
which required upward of 1 3,000 separate pieces, accurately made 
and adjusted before it could be turned out on the track as a finished 
product. 

If we stop to consider that many of these various parts are inter- 
changeable, or that parts are often supplied to replace broken or 



4i6 Metric System of Weights and Measures. {^'SSerSi 

damaged parts of a locomotive that has been in use for years, we 
will appreciate that it would not do in practice to depend on the 
measuring stick, or measuring ability of the different men that 
handle each one of these separate pieces. 

According to Mr. Vauclain, the only department of a modern 
machine shop where actual measures are used, is the draughting- 
room, and here the introduction of the metric system would be 
hailed as a distinct advance, facilitating as it would the making of 
drawings to scale, on account of the interchangeability and decimal 
character of the units or subdivisions of the lineal measure. The 
chief advantage of the metric system, and the one that is admitted 
by its most violent opponent, is the correlation that exists between 
the fundamental units. As was pointed out by another member of 
the Franklin Institute, this harmony of relation tends to facilitate 
computation, and also reduces the strain on the memory in arith- 
metical calculations. 

This is of great importance at the present time, where technical 
or commercial calculations play so important a part in the conduct 
of every-day business transactions. It will readily be admitted that 
if all factors could be reduced to decimals a considerable amount ot 
time could be saved in making the extended and many times com- 
plicated computations that are necessitated by modern commercial 
or industrial practices. 

Another advantage, and one that should not be lightly gone over, 
was dwelt on by Mr. Christie, of the American Bridge Company. 
This is the facility with which one can retain in memory the funda- 
mental elements of the metric system, and the ease with which a 
clear comprehension of these elements may be impressed even on 
the mind of a child. We will appreciate this the more if we com- 
pare it with the complicated tables that must be memorized, if we 
wish to retain even a most elementary off-hand knowledge of our 
complicated systems of weights and measures. 

One other objection that is usually made to the metric system is 
the complicated and to us foreign nomenclature. It is usually 
asserted that there are too many units, or too many names to be 
memorized. In answer to this it has been repeatedly pointed out 
that this is no valid objection, but that in actual practice many of 
these different names rapidly disappear. In the case of our decimal 
coinage, mills, dimes and eagles are seldom used or even referred 
to, the dollar and cent being the only units in practical use. 



Septembers 1 '} Metric System of Weights and Measures. 417 

In addition to this it may be well to state that British as well as 
American consular reports appear to indicate that the introduction 
of the metric system has met with least opposition in those coun- 
tries where it has been allowed to replace, or to be implanted on 
existing systems of weights and measures. Even in France there 
was considerable opposition to the metric system until the people 
were allowed to retain the old and familiar names for weights and 
measures that more or less closely corresponded to the new ones. 
The same is true of Holland, Germany, and other countries where 
the metric system has been introduced. 

For commercial purposes the essential feature is that our units for 
weights and measures, no matter what we choose to call them, 
should correspond to the meter, liter and kilogram of the metric 
system. Bearing this in mind and also the fact that there would be 
less objection to the introduction of a new standard, providing the 
old names were retained, it might be feasible for Congress to intro- 
duce a new or metric standard yard that would be the equal of 1 
meter ; a new or metric standard quart the equal of I liter, and a 
new or metric pound to equal 500 grammes, or 2 pounds to equal 1 
kilogram. These various units could for ordinary purposes be 
divided into halves, quarters and even eighths, very much as our 
dollar is used at the present time. 

This adaptation of familiar names need not extend beyond the 
units that are ordinarily used in the course of retail trade, for all 
other purposes either the French titles or a modification of them 
should be used. 

For physicians or pharmacists, it will be much simpler if they 
acquaint themselves with metric quantities in the terms of the 
metric system as used by scientific men all over the world; a reason- 
able and fair trial will convince any one that this is not even a diffi- 
cult task, to say nothing of its being impossible. 

Looking ahead, it is fair to assume that another decade will see 
the use of the metric system firmly established in every civilized 
country of the globe, and it is to be sincerely wished that the phar- 
macists of the country will contribute their share to bringing about 
a reform that is as simple as it is sensible. 

Officially, the pharmacist of the country has done good work in 
bringing the metric system to the attention of many that would not 
otherwise have paid much attention to it. Even in the immediate 



4iS 



Hyoscyamus Muticus. 



{ Am. Jour. Pharm 
I September, 1902. ' 



future there is little to fear of any backward step being taken, at 
least not in the coming edition of the United States Pharmacopoeia. 
The committee having the revision in charge has been definitely 
instructed to retain the metric system of weights and measures, as 
adopted in the last decennial revision, and unless the members of 
this committee are individually and collectively willing to betray 
the trust that has been placed in them by the Convention of 1900, 
they will not in any way abrogate or change from the advance that 
was made more than ten years ago. On the other hand, let us hope 
that the Revision Committee will jealously guard the established 
record, so that the professions of medicine and pharmacy may go 
down in history as being, at least officially, ahead of their contem- 
poraries in furthering a reform that should have been introduced 
long ago. 

HYOSCYAMUS MUTICUS. 
By J. B. Nag^voort. 
It seems feasible to grow this plant in a temperate zone, which 
would be a pleasing solution of our dependency on European Hyos- 
cyamus niger, arriving, as this often does, in a very poor condition 
for pharmaceutical purposes — mouldy, blackened, low in alkaloidal 
contents. 

Seed, personally obtained from Egypt, has grown to small plants, 
promising well, under different conditions ; in sand, in poor sandy 
soil, and in common garden soil, in the United States as well as in 
Holland. 

Of course there is still a wide stretch between this condition and 
mercantile requirements. 

It might not be superfluous to refer to Gadamer, Archiv d. Pharm. , 
1898, 236, 704 [leaves of Hyoscyamus muticus contained ± 14 per 
cent, (one and four-tenths per cent.) Hyoscyamine]. And to Dunstan 
and Brown, Transactions of the (English) Chemical Society, 1901, 
vol. 79, "The quantity obtained corresponded with 0-87 per cent, 
(eighty-seven hundredths) calculated on the dry material." 

The calculations of o-i per cent, (one-tenth) and less, of hyoscya- 
mine, in henbane, obtained in the European market, are usually 
made on the material, air-dried and in a condition to be pulverized 
and sifted. This condition will not differ, therefore, very much from 
the condition of Professor Dunstan's material. 



^VembeMloS 1 '} Drug and Medicinal-Plant Investigations. 419 

The above facts will happily obliterate the proposed titration of 
the mydriatic alkaloids in an assay of henbane preparations, using 
iodeosin as indicator, whereby Prof. E. Schmidt obtained 286 per 
cent, alkaloid. 1 Dunstan isolated his alkaloid, ready for the balance, 
in a crystalline condition, which I consider a far safer way of operat- 
ing. The use of iodeosin is attended by so many details, which have 
to be scrupulously carried out, or the results of its application are apt 
to be misinterpreted, if the method were to be generally applied. 

I cannot forego to quote Prof. E. Schaer " On the action of chloro- 
form and similar solvents on alkaloidal salts (Ph. jt., March 24, 
1900)," because Dunstan reports, " in fractionally crystallizing this 
alkaloid, by adding light petroleum to its solution in dry chloroform, 
it was nearly all obtained in white, silky needles, melting at JO5 ." 

N. B. — I have some of the original Egyptian material of Hyoscy- 
amus muticus left, and shall be pleased to let any one who is inter- 
ested in this investigation have some (care of editor Am. Jr. Ph.). 



DRUG AND MEDICINAL -PLANT INVESTIGATIONS IN 
THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

By Rodney H. True. 

Those familiar with the question of the supply of crude drugs for 
the American market are well aware that at the present time by far 
the larger part of our supply of crude drugs not derived from plants 
exclusively American in their location is obtained from foreign 
sources — chiefly from Germany, Austria, Belgium and England. 
Other drugs of great importance are derived from the Orient, con- 
spicuously cinchona and opium, and South America furnishes ipecac 
and coca leaves. Of these drugs, quantities valued at more than 
$6,000,000 are annually imported into the United States. Some of 
them are here worked up by manufacturing chemists into their 
characteristic active principles, and others are used directly for the 
preparation of medicines. 

It has long been a matter of earnest inquiry by thoughtful men 
whether of these articles some considerable proportion could not be 
grown in this country, offering, as the United States does, a great 
variety of climatic and soil conditions. Apart, nowever, from 



1 Apotheker Zeitung, 1900, No. 2. 



420 Drug and Medicinal-Plant Investigations. {^p/e^befffm 

sporadic experiments by individuals, which have not greatly 
affected the market as a whole, little has been accomplished, and 
the last census shows a very large importation of articles of this 
nature. This desire on the part of far-sighted men connected with 
the drug business in this country for a thoroughgoing attempt to 
develop drug cultivation as an American industry, has been indi- 
cated in resolutions before pharmaceutical conventions and other 
bodies of like nature. The drug-plant investigations of the Bureau 
of Plant Industry have been reorganized, and, in response to the 
demands of the times, are concerned with the problems of our crude 
drug supply. 

The work begun includes the cultivation of a considerable number 
ot the most important plants capable of growth under American 
conditions of climate and soil in widely separated parts of the coun- 
try. The kinds of plants are belladonna, hyoscyamus, stramonium, 
digitalis, aconite, arnica, the opium poppy and licorice. Trial plats 
of these plants have been started in Florida, North Carolina, at 
Washington, D. C. ; in Massachusetts, Vermont, Wisconsin and 
Washington (both east and west of the Cascades). The information 
to be derived from widely separated experiments will doubtless 
enable us to judge in what part or parts of the country the particu- 
lar plants in question will reach their best development. In order 
* to give larger amounts of material for laboratory study, half-acre 
plats of a number of these drugs are being provided at Washington, 
D. C, and at Dover, Mass. A careful assay of these drugs for the 
active principles will be made in the hope of gaining a rough idea 
of the quality of the drug produced under the different conditions 
here concerned. This will, of course, need to be repeated for a 
number of years in order to eliminate special influences of the 
seasons. The Bureau of Chemistry will co-operate with the Bureau 
of Plant Industry providing for a careful assaying of the samples 
sent in from the field. There is also contemplated in connection 
with this work a pharmacological study of drugs wherever physio- 
logical tests are desirable to support the other work. 

The questions first to be investigated concern very practical mat- 
ters. The time of collection of the drug will be carefully investi- 
gated. In the case of leaf drugs the plan provides for the collec- 
tion of samples at different stages of development and for their 
careful assay for the active principle. Thus we shall be able with 



^ptemberiS 1 "} Dru S and Medicinal-Plant Investigations. 421 

abundant reason to indicate that stage in the plant's growth at 
which the maximum amount of active principle can be obtained, 
and to put on a more solid basis a matter which at present rests on 
a more or less traditional foundation. 

The manner of curing the drug to preserve both appearance and 
active principle will be taken up among the earliest subjects for 
investigation. Custom at present dictates how drugs shall be cured, 
and the scientific evidence underlying this custom is weak. Curing 
by artificial heat at various degrees, curing by natural heat, curing 
in the sunlight and curing in the shade, will be studied with refer- 
ence to the effect on the appearance of the drug and on the assay 
qualities. The part played by the oxidizing ferments in bringing 
about deterioration in drugs will be made a matter of early investi- 
gation, and the results of studies made by this department on the 
curing of tea and tobacco give strong ground for hope that they 
may be carried over with great profit to the question of drugs. 

Field experiments to determine the value of special treatment in 
enhancing the quality of the drug are also, contemplated. The 
question of the effect of different methods of fertilization and con- 
ditions of cultivation, the question of shade and sunlight, and of 
special methods, such as removing flower-buds, will also be investi- 
gated. 

It is the hope of those in charge of this work to extend these 
studies to include the domestication and cultivation of various 
native drug-plants which at present furnish valuable drugs. Many 
of these plants, as has been pointed out by various drug-handlers 
from time to time, are becoming increasingly difficult to obtain in 
sufficient quantity, and the fear ha=> been expressed that extermina- 
tion at no very distant date was in store for these things, with the 
resulting disappearance of the drug from the market. Obviously, 
this would be a calamitv to the human race, and the cultivation of 
these things under agricultural conditions will be a matter of very 
careful study. Experiments have already begun on a very small 
scale with hydrastis, Seneca snakeroot and spigelia. Attempts 
to find methods of growing seed will be first made, and should this 
be successful, the cultivation on a commercial scale will be made 
the subject of investigation. 

In so far as opportunity allows, the hope is entertained that the 
investigation of plants promising to furnish valuable new drugs will 



422 The Leech Hirndo or Sanguisuga. { ^eVem^Tgoi"' 

be undertaken. There are at present in the West and other parts 
of the country a number of plants widely used for local difficulties 
which seem to promise great usefulness. The investigation of a 
limited number of such cases may be undertaken. 

The primary aim of this work will be to render the United States 
self-supporting in the matter of those crude drugs which can with 
profit be grown here. This is, of course, a very far-reaching prob- 
lem, and will require for its solution a long time, patience, and very 
careful study, both in the laboratory and in the field. Since this 
work is essentially pioneer work, it is hardly probable that immedi- 
ate results will be obtained. 

In addition to the work above planned, the establishment of a 
laboratory for the study of drug alteration in the Bureau of Chem- 
istry will contribute another source of valuable information on 
drugs. 

Bureau of Plant Industry, 

U. S. Department of Agriculture. 



THE LEECH HIRUDO OR SANGUISUGA— HOW TO CARE 
FOR AND KEEP IN GOOD CONDITION. 1 

By J. L. Lemberger. 

Some pharmacists sell leeches, and where there is a large demand 
there is no trouble to keep them without serious loss, as they are 
usually so well packed in native peat that they can be well kept and 
remain healthy for several months. But when the demand is only 
occasional, then a difficulty comes in the way — that of preserva- 
tion ; they become diseased and die, very soon affecting the entire 
stock. 

It will be interesting knowledge to some of us, that as far back 
'as 1837 an enterprising doctor, who went from New York City to 
Detroit, and who had been a leech doctor in New York (by leech 
doctor I mean one who had used them in his practice very freely 
and successlully), experienced great difficulty in procuring them in 
his new field of practice (the transportation then was not so rapid 
as it is now, and by the time he got his leeches from New York 



1 Read at the annual meeting of the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion, June, 1902. 



Am, Jour. Pharm. I 
September, 1902. j 



Leech Hirndo or Sanguisnga. 



423 



many were dead), so he contrived a plan to make a tank 8 feet long 
by 6 feet wide by 4 feet deep, placing this in moist or marshy 
ground near a stream of water, putting -about 9 inches of cobble 
into the tank and running water into it, so that it was kept fresh, 
receiving the water in the bottom of the tank with an outlet near 
the top. Both openings had to be protected by a wire cloth or 
screen to keep the leeches from escaping. He put some leeches 
into this receptacle and soon found, with a little attention, that he 
not only had a good stock, with very few casualties, but made quite 
a business of raising stock for sale. The cobblestones placed in 
the bottom of the tank afford refuge, and by continual contact with 
the stones rids them of the slimy deposit that seems to be the 
natural menace infecting them and causing disease. With this treat- 
ment and a few frogs occasionally thrown into the tank about once 
a week, feeds and sustains them. When thus cared lor they breed 
freely, produce eggs during the months of June and July and mature 
in two years, increasing the family very rapidly. When ordinary 
care is given they thrive and live fifteen years. 

I am indebted for some of these facts to a paper prepared by the 
Elder F. Stearns, of Detroit. 

Our plan has been to keep them in a small firkin or container of 
peat in which they are shipped, until they show signs of disease, 
when they are transferred to a porcelain leech-jar and water fre- 
quently renewed, say once or twice a week. In this way they can 
be kept for a considerably longer time, although they do not grow 
in size, and unless they are fed they seem to shrink in size. Age, 
however, does not depreciate their blood-sucking powers, as very 
frequently the smaller leech is as vigorous as the larger. Where 
there is a facility for so doing it is certainly better to have them 
kept in a box similar to the one described, only on a smaller scale. 
Where water facilities allow, a properly arranged aquarium, in which 
the same principle can be applied as in the water-tank referred to, 
will answer all purposes, and can be made a drug-store counter 
attraction as well. 

In conclusion, we affirm that leeches at 50 cents apiece are more 
profitable than paregoric at 5 cents per fluid ounce. 



424 



Hydrogen Peroxide. 



(Am. Jour. Puarm 
1 September, 1902. 



HYDROGEN PEROXIDE. 1 
By Robert C. Purser. 
Insufficient time has prevented me from experimenting with the 
making of hydrogen peroxide in a small way. Having been for 
several years connected with a firm who manufactured hydrogen 
peroxide extensively, and it being part of my duties to assay the 
finished product, I do not think that it can be prepared in a small 
way profitably. So many firms are making it to-day and competi- 
tion is so keen that the pharmacist is now enabled to buy hydrogen 
peroxide, conforming to the U.S. P. requirements, at a reasonable 
price. 

All the barium dioxide used in this country to-day has to be 
imported ; usually it is shipped in strong casks containing about 1200 
pounds. This quantity would last the average pharmacist for a 
considerable length of time, and I think before the last of it was 
used up it would begin to get hard and lumpy and difficulties would 
be experienced in working it. 

By using phosphoric acid, as the U.S. P. directs, it is almost impos- 
sible to get a product that assays 10 volumes of available oxygen. 
Some manufacturers use hydrofluoric- acid (this may be ascertained 
by applying the U.S. P. test for the acid), and this would necessitate 
suitable apparatus. The operation would also have to be performed 
away from shelf-bottles and all glassware, else they would in a short 
time become beautifully etched. The acidity of a large quantity of 
hydrogen peroxide can be adjusted as easily, and probably better 
than that of a small quantity. Altogether there is a great deal to 
know about the making of hydrogen peroxide that cannot be found 
in textbooks, and the average pharmacist would encounter great dif- 
ficulties if he attempted the making of hydrogen peroxide. 

Njarly all of the manufacturers of hydrogen peroxide bottle it 
from a half to one volume above what their label calls for. In this 
way it will keep under proper conditions for quite awhile and still 
conform with their label. 

Four different makes of hydrogen peroxide were obtained, assayed 
the day they were received, recorked and kept in the cellar for 
about six months ; they were then assayed with the following 
results : 



1 Read at the annual meeting of the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion, June, 1902. 



A ^pt J embe?, h i902?' } Dividing Powders in Prescription Work. 425 

Assayed (after keeping 
No. labelled. Assayed. 6 months.) 



I 
2 

3 
4 

No 



15 volumes available oxygen. 15*5 volumes. 13*5 volumes. 

10 " " " 10-5 " 875 " 



4, after standing the above-mentioned time, was still as strong 
as the maker claimed it to be. I believe that if the cork is removed 
from a package containing hydrogen peroxide as soon as obtained 
from the manufacturer, and a piece of absorbent cotton inserted, it 
will keep better. The loss from evaporation is small, and gases 
forming, which would cause deterioration, are allowed to escape. 
Possibly this would not be a practical way to treat small packages, 
but it may be employed where a large bottle is used to dispense 
from. 

Laboratory of W. L. Cliffe, Philadelphia. 



A METHOD OF DIVIDING POWDERS IN PRESCRIPTION 

WORK. 

By Isaac M. Wbii^s. 

Query No. 15. What is the best method for dividing powders in 
prescription work ? 

The last few years have seen many time-saving inventions for the 
pharmacist as well as the druggist, all of which should have been 
received and hailed as blessings. Many when once used and the 
old way laid aside for a time are never taken up again except as 
relics of the past inconveniences. We wonder how we ever were 
contented to do our work with them ; but necessity, it has been 
said, is " the mother of invention," and has brought out more useful 
time and labor-saving inventions than all else combined. 

The little device which I now describe is one of this kind. After 
dividing powders in prescription work for years by weighing each 
powder separately, as well as by simply dividing with the spatula 
the thoroughly triturated compounded ingredients into a number of 
powders called for, I thought of this method, which I think you will 
all agree with me is an up-to-date device for this work. 

It is composed of three pieces. No. 1 is the base and is jy^ 



1 Read at the annual meeting of the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion, June, 1902. 



426 Dividing Powders in Prescription Work. {^pimbeS"' 

inches long, I inch wide and T 7 ^ inch thick, and has a V-shaped 
groove plowed out of the top S/q of an inch wide at the upper end 
of the V and is -^L of an inch deep. At one end there is a gate 
swinging on a screw, which allows it to move up and down freely to 
close the end of the V. 

On one edge it is laid off in quarter inches and numbered by five, 





fTTMte^ '' 1,1511 

A Device for Dividing Powders in Prescription Work. 

ten, fifteen, twenty and twenty-five; thus every fifth mark is num- 
bered. 

The second piece is simply a strip of brass of an inch thick and 
as large as the end of the first piece. 



^pS'er, 11 !™" } Tincture of Arnica Flowers. 427 

The third piece is the same length and width as the first. It is 
of an inch thick, and on the underside there are twenty-seven 
knifeblades % of an inch apart, and a block ^ of an inch long made 
to fit in the groove in the top of the first piece, and marked on the 
edge the same as piece No. I. 

When parts one and three are placed together the knifeblades fit 
in the groove and the marks on the edge of each piece come 
together and form one line. To operate the machine turn the gate 
so that the end of the groove is closed by it, then reverse the top- 
piece so that the block will fill the groove. Now, if you wish, say 
fifteen powders, simply place the block-end at fifteen, dump your 
powder in the groove. Now lift part three and reverse it to proper 
position. Place part three on part one and bring them together, 
having previously distributed your powder papers. Take up the 
divider and turn back the gate on part one, place the end of the 
divider over the powder paper and slide part three along, when the 
powder will be shoved out of the end of part one by the blade on 
part three. Now simply continue to move the divider from paper 
to paper and shoving the parts as for the first powder until all have 
been shoved out, thus making an even distribution. 

I have the device here, and any person who desires can have the 
opportunity of seeing how it does its work. 

In conclusion would say that it is not patented and any pharma- 
cist is at liberty to make or have one made for his or her own use. 

There is a cut of the device connected with and made a part of 
this paper. 



TINCTURE OF ARNICA FLOWERS. 
By H. F. Ruhx. 

The U.S.P. directions read as follows : " Pack the powder firmly 
in a cylindrical percolator, and gradually pour diluted alcohol upon 
it until 1,000 cubic centimetres of tincture are obtained." Macera- 
tion is not mentioned. 

Following these directions, even with careful percolation, always 
yielded a light-colored tincture (at the hands of the writer), leaving 
the drug far from being exhausted. The powder, when packed in a 
percolator, occupies perhaps 50 per cent, more space than the volume 
of the finished product. Because the drug is so bulky is no doubt 



428 



Sale of Poisons. 



[Am. Jour. Pharm, 
I September, 1902. 



one of the reasons why it is not easily exhausted by the U.S.P. 
process. Another reason is because maceration is not recommended. 

Mr. W. S. Spickler (at one time in the employ of the writer) 
suggested a process which might be termed " percolation by install- 
ments," as follows: The powder is packed as directed in the Phar- 
macopoeia and menstruum poured on to saturate the drug and leave 
a stratum above it. When the liquid begins to drop from the per- 
colator the orifice is closed with a cork and left to macerate for 
forty-eight hours. Percolation is then allowed to proceed slowly 
until one-fourth of the percolate is obtained. The orifice of the 
percolator is again closed and the contents allowed to macerate for 
twelve hours. Percolation then is allowed to proceed until another 
fourth of percolate is obtained. This last operation is twice repeated 
until the whole of the percolate is obtained. 

The finished percolate is then removed and more menstruum 
poured on, and percolation is continued until the drug is practically 
exhausted. This weak percolate is put aside and used to start the 
operation the next time the tincture is to be prepared. 



LAWS REGULATING THE SALE OF POISONS. 
By Joseph L,. L,emberger. 

The query to which I have consented to give attention appeals to 
me from the viewpoint of duty to the Commonwealth. We know 
that from peer to peasant, from the most cultured to the most igno- 
rant, danger threatens their existence by voluntary resort to the 
use or abuse of poisons, the sale of which may not be sufficiently 
safeguarded by law. All of us who have been in the active drug 
business have met with the habitual user of opium or morphia or 
cocaine, and would gladly have taken refuge from responsibility in 
a rigid law, and have helped our fellow mortals as they gratified an 
abnormal desire which must hasten physical wreck. It may be con- 
sidered a deprivation of personal liberty to offer this suggestion, but 
in the writer's judgment, after years of observation and the knowl- 
edge of misery entailed by the abusive use of poisonous drugs, he 
feels persuaded that a more stringent law making the indiscriminate 
purchase less easy, would, in a large measure, serve as a protection 
against their too free use. We have taken pains to examine our 
relation to the laws in the sisterhood of States to discover whether 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
September, 1902. / 



Sale of Poisons. 



429 



our law is more or less stringent than theirs, and make such infor- 
mation the basis of any judgment on the subject herewith ex- 
pressed. 

Our own State law, in Section 10, prescribes that " A poison in 
the meaning of this Act shall be any drug, chemical or preparation 
which, according to standard works on medicine or materia medica, 
is liable to be destructive to adult human life in quantities of sixty 
grains or less." 

" No person shall sell at retail any poisons, except as herein pro- 
vided, without affixing to the bottle, box, vessel or package con- 
taining the same, a label printed or plainly written, containing the 
name of the article, the word « poison ' and the name and place of 
business of the seller ; nor shall he deliver poison to any person 
without satisfying himself that such poison is to be used for legit- 
imate purposes." 

" It shall be the further duty of any one selling or dispensing 
poisons which are known to be destructive to adult human life in 
quantities of five grains or less, before delivering them, to enter in a 
book kept for this purpose the name of the seller, the name and 
residence of the buyer, the name of the article, quantity sold or dis- 
posed of and the purpose for which it is said to be intended, which 
book of registry shall be preserved for at least two years, and shall 
at all times be open to the inspection of the coroner or courts of 
the county in which the same be kept." 

There is also a law, approved the 12th day of May, 1897, control- 
ling the sale of emmenagogue preparations, as follows : 

" Section 2. A person who sells, lends, gives away or in any man- 
ner exhibits or offers to sell, lend or give away, or has in his pos- 
session with intent to sell, lend or give away, or advertises or offers 
for sale, loan or distribution, any instrument or article, or any recipe, 
drug or medicine for the prevention of conception, or for causing 
unlawful abortion, or advertises or holds out representations that it 
can be so used or applied, or any such description as will be calcu- 
lated to lead another to so use or apply any such article, recipe, 
drug, medicine or instrument, or who writes or prints, or causes to 
be written or printed, a card, circular, pamphlet, advertisement or 
notice of any kind, or gives information orally, stating when, where, 
how, of whom or by what means such an instrument, article, recipe, 
drug or medicine can be purchased or obtained, or who manufac- 



430 



Sale of Poisons. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 September, 1902. 



tures any such instrument, article, recipe, drug or medicine, is guilty 
of a misdemeanor, and shall be liable to the same penalties as pro- 
vided in Section I of this Act." 

In correspondence with secretaries of the Boards of Pharmacy ot 
all the States in the Union where such a board exists, we have the 
answers from thirty-eight (38), most of whom give some attention to 
this very important subject. Some States, however, have no poison 
law. The following have, and in order to make the paper as com- 
plete as possible for comparison, and to determine where we fail to 
be as careful, or more so, than other States, we note as follows : 
We have briefly summarized, except in a few instances, where we 
quote largely. We find many States have adopted the two schedules 
A and B, as follows : 

SCHEDULE A. 

Arsenic and its preparations; corrosive sublimate; white and red 
precipitate; bin-iodide of mercury; cyanide ot potassium; hydro- 
cyanic acid ; strychnia and all other poisons ; vegetable alkaloids 
and their salts; essential oil of bitter almonds; opium and its prep- 
arations, except paregoric and other preparations of opium with less 
.than two grains to the ounce. 

SCHEDULE B. 

Aconite ; belladonna ; colchicum ; conium ; nux vomica ; hen- 
bane ; savin ; ergot ; cotton root ; cantharides ; creosote ; digitalis 
and their pharmaceutical preparations ; croton oil ; chloroform ; 
chloral hydrate ; sulphate of zinc ; mineral acids, carbolic acid and 
oxalic acid. 

Alabama. — Alabama merges Schedules A and B into one and in- 
cludes emmenagogue drugs. The minimum penalty is $10 and the 
maximum is $25 for violation. 

Arkansas. — Arkansas has a special poison law to regulate the 
^sale of cocaine, which can be sold only on the prescription of a phy- 
sician. A section of this Act regulates also the sale of arsenic and 
its compounds, strychnia and its salts, corrosive sublimate, hydro- 
cyanic acid, phosphorus, opium, morphine, laudanum. The seller 
must label plainly in English. No registry required. Minimum 
penalty is $25, and the maximum, #100. 

California. — California has Schedules A and B, and has the penalty 



Am. Jour. Pharrn. \ 
September, 1902. J 



Sale of Poisons. 



431 



of $100 or fifty days imprisoment, either or both at the discretion 
of the court. 

Colorado. — Colorado has Schedules A and B, including savin oil 
and ergot, and prescribes the penalty of a sum not exceeding $500 
and imprisonment in the county jail for six months. Both penalties 
can be enforced if false name is given by the purchaser. 

Connecticut. — Connecticut has a separate special Schedule A, in- 
cluding rat-dynamite and rough-on-rats and a general summary ot 
arsenic, strychnia, corrosive sublimate, prussic acid and cyanide of 
potassium, and keeps a register which, when filled, must be deposited: 
with the town clerk. Penalty for violating, $1. 

Delaware. — Delaware has Section 4 of an Act as follows : " Every- 
dispenser of drugs shall keep a record of all sales of arsenic, strych- 
nia and corrosive sublimate, said record to be open to inspection. 
Penalty for non-compliance, $5 for each and every offense." 

Dakota, North. — North Dakota has Schedules A and B. The 
meaning of poison as in Pennsylvania ; must register as in Pennsyl- 
vania, with penalty of $5 for non-compliance. 

Dakota, South. — South Dakota has part .of Schedule A, conclude 
ing with " other medicines fatal to human life in doses of from fifteen 
to sixty grains." Schedule B, the concluding clause of which is " fif- 
teen grains or less. No poisons in Schedule B shall be sold to any 
person unknown to the seller unless introduced by some person 
known to the seller. Minimum penalty, $25 ; maximum, $100 for 
every commission." 

District of Columbia. — District of Columbia has Schedules A and , 
B, requiring labeling of box or vessel containing the poison, as well 
as the outside wrapper. Must register in a book kept for the pur- 
pose. The customer must be acquainted with the poisonous char- 
acter of the article he purchases. Minimum penalty $25, maximum 
$100. 

Florida. — Florida merges Schedules A and B. Unregistered 
pharmacists cannot sell. Registered pharmacists keep no record,, 
but must label name of poison, name and place of business of seller,, 
purchaser must be aware of poisonous character of the drug and 
must want it for legitimate purposes. Minimum penalty is $50 ; 
maximum, $100. 

Georgia. — Georgia has enlarged Schedules A and B, including some 
of the mineral acids and a special Act regulating the sale of opium 



432 



Sale of Poisons. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm 
I September, 1902. 



and its preparations to habitual users. We give Sections I and 2 
of their law : 

Section I. That it shall not be lawful for any druggist or other 
dealer in drugs and medicines to sell or offer for sale any sulphate 
or other preparations of morphine in any bottle, vial, envelope, or 
other package, unless the same be wrapped in a scarlet paper or 
envelope, and all bottles or vials used for the above purpose shall 
have, in addition to said scarlet wrapper, a scarlet label lettered in 
white letters, plainly naming the contents of said bottle. 

Sec. 2 covers the penalty, which is not less than $\o nor more 
than $50, at the discretion of the court, for each and every violation 
of the preceding section. 

Illinois. — Illinois names a few poisons and then generalizes articles 
usually denominated poisonous. The seller must mark poison, and 
if he fails to keep a record of sale, kind, quantity, or the purchaser 
gives false name, unless prescribed by a physician, he pays a mini- 
mum penalty of $25 or maximum of $50. 

Indiana. — Indiana allows merchants to sell paris green, white 
hellebore, London purple, and any chemicals used as insecticides, 
and has a special Act forbidding sale, gift or barter of opium, mor- 
phine or cocaine to any person addicted to the habitual use of the 
same. Penalties for violation: minimum $10 and maximum £50 for 
each offense. 

Iowa. — Schedules A and B require proper poison labels, must 
register sale and sell only to persons familiar with the character of 
poison and who represent it to be used for proper purposes. 

Kansas. — Kansas has Schedules A and B and in addition Sched- 
ule C on emmenagogues, in which a provision is made that they shall 
not be sold except on a physician's prescriptions. Prescriptions 
shall be retained by the dispenser. Penalty: minimum $2$, maxi- 
mum 3100. 

Kentucky. — Kentucky requires the registry of the sale of poisons, 
making special mention that emmenagogues, such as preparations of 
tansy, savin, ergot, cotton root (proprietary or otherwise), shall not 
be sold only upon the original prescription of a legally qualified 
physician, and makes a violation a misdemeanor and penalty of not 
less than $10, and has a special section providing tor the sale of 
cocaine only upon the original prescription of a legally qualified 
physician or dentist, forbidding the refilling of a prescription except 



Am Jour. Pharm.l 
September, 1902. J 



Sale of Poisons. 



433 



it be renewed by the physician. Penalty ot $50 attached for viola- 
tion. It further provides that cocaine and its salts shall be sold at 
wholesale only to pharmacists registered under this Act to legally 
qualified physicians and dentists. 

Lotrisicma. — Louisiana has a special Act prohibiting the sale ot 
cocaine except on written prescription of a physician and cannot 
repeat prescriptions under penalty. We quote two sections of this 
law on account of its peculiarity : 

" That all pharmacists, druggists or apothecaries shall label all 
bottles, vials, jars, boxes, parcels, packages, or other receptacles or 
coverings or wrappings of drugs, medicines or chemicals sold or 
dispensed by them, with a label in legible writing or printed letters, 
giving the name of the proprietor of the store, the name of the 
physician prescribing, shop and the place of sale of said drug, medi- 
cine or chemical ; and in case the medicine, drug or chemical be of 
a nature poisonous to the human system or to animals, said label 
shall have printed thereon a skull and cross-bones, with the word 
'Poison ' in large heavy lettering. All prescriptions shall have in 
addition thereto a number, the name of the person actually and 
personally compounding the same, the directions for its use inter- 
nally or externally, and the date of its compounding. 

" Section 8. That any person offending against the provisions 
of this Act shall be deemed guilty ot a misdemeanor against the 
State of Louisiana, and shall be prosecuted before any court of 
criminal jurisdiction, and if adjudged guilty, shall pay a fine of not 
less than fifty dollars ($50) nor more than one hundred dollars 
{$100), and in default of payment thereof shall be imprisoned in the 
parish jail for not more than thirty (30) days." 

Massachusetts. — Massachusetts includes with most of the articles 
found in Schedules A and B, M'Munn's Elixir, Parson's Vermin 
Exterminator, paris green, rough-on-rats, oils of pennyroyal, savin 
and tansy, phosphorus, ergot and its fluid extract, forbids the sale 
of cocaine, except on physicians' prescriptions. The name of poison 
and name of antidote must go on the package. Penalty $50 and 
same for giving fictitious name. 

Maine. — Maine merges Schedules A and B and says, whoever 
sells without a written prescription of a physician shall register. 
No sale of cocaine or its salts shall be made except by dentists or 
on physician's written prescription. Must label all sales not made 



434 



Sale of Poisons. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm„ 
I September, 1902. 



on prescription on a label of red paper with the word " Poison " and 
antidote shall be named on label. Every failure to label shall be 
punished by penalty not exceeding $50. 

Maryland. — Maryland has just come into possession of a poison 
law, approved April 11, 1902, and combines Schedules A and B, 
which require registration of the sale of any of the enumerated 
articles in their schedules. The offender is liable to a fine of not 
less than $5 nor more than $100.